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Women's Work in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Women's Work in Ancient Egypt

Women in ancient Egypt had greater rights than in any other civilization of the time. They could own land, initiate divorce, own and operate their own business, become scribes, priests, seers, dentists, and doctors. Although men were dominant...
Grave Goods in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Grave Goods in Ancient Egypt

The concept of the afterlife changed in different eras of Egypt's very long history, but for the most part, it was imagined as a paradise where one lived eternally. To the Egyptians, their country was the most perfect place which had been...
Police in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Police in Ancient Egypt

In any society, members of the community recognize they are required to restrain certain impulses in order to participate in the community. Every civilization has had some form of law which makes clear that the benefits of peaceful coexistence...
Spiritual Defense - Execration Rituals in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Spiritual Defense - Execration Rituals in Ancient Egypt

Magic was an integral aspect of life in ancient Egypt. The world was created through the power of heka (magic) as Atum stood on the primordial mound of the ben-ben in the middle of the endless waters of chaos with the god Heka, who personified...
Ancient Egyptian Taxes & the Cattle Count
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Taxes & the Cattle Count

The gods of ancient Egypt freely gave their bounty to the people who worked the land, but this did not exempt those farmers from paying taxes on that bounty to the government. Egypt was a cashless society until the Persian Period (c. 525...
The Coffin Texts
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Coffin Texts

The Coffin Texts (c. 2134-2040 BCE) are 1,185 spells, incantations, and other forms of religious writing inscribed on coffins to help the deceased navigate the afterlife. They include the text known as the Book of Two Ways which is the first...
Ancient Egyptian Medicine: Study & Practice
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Medicine: Study & Practice

In Europe, in the 19th century CE, an interesting device began appearing in graveyards and cemeteries: the mortsafe. This was an iron cage erected over a grave to keep the body of the deceased safe from 'resurrectionists' - better known as...
A Ghost Story of Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

A Ghost Story of Ancient Egypt

The best-known ghost story from ancient Egypt is known, simply, as A Ghost Story but sometimes referenced as Khonsemhab and the Ghost. The story dates from the late New Kingdom of Egypt (c. 1570 - c.1069 BCE) and specifically the Ramesside...
Immortality of Writers in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Immortality of Writers in Ancient Egypt

For the ancient Egyptians, life on earth was only one part of an eternal journey which continued after death. One's purpose in life was to live in balance with one's self, family, community, and the gods. Any occupation in Egypt was considered...
Prayer to Thoth for Skill in Writing
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Prayer to Thoth for Skill in Writing

The Prayer to Thoth for Skill in Writing is a literary piece dated to c. 1150 BCE from the latter period of the New Kingdom of Egypt (c. 1570-1069 BCE) in which a young scribe prays for inspiration to Thoth, god of wisdom and writing. The...