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Jurchen Jin Dynasty
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Jurchen Jin Dynasty

The Jurchen Jin dynasty (meaning “Golden”) ruled parts of China, Mongolia, and northern Korea from 1115 to 1234 CE. The Jurchen originated from Manchuria, but in conquering the neighbouring Liao empire of the Khitan and parts...
Hayasa-Azzi
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Hayasa-Azzi

The Hayasa-Azzi were an indigenous Bronze Age tribal confederation which flourished on the plateau of ancient Armenia and Turkey between c. 1500 and c. 1200 BCE. Although the historical record is impoverished and disputed regarding the region...
Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians

Aethelflaed (r. 911-918 CE) was the daughter of King Alfred the Great of Wessex (r. 871-899 CE) and became queen of Mercia following the death of her husband Aethelred II, Lord of the Mercians (r. 883-911 CE). She is best known as the “Lady...
Frederick II
Definition by Syed Muhammad Khan

Frederick II

Frederick II (l. 1194-1250 CE) was the king of Sicily (r. 1198-1250 CE), Germany (r. 1215-1250 CE), Jerusalem (r. 1225-1228 CE), and also reigned supreme as the Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1220-1250 CE). He was born in Jesi in 1194 CE but...
Constantine X Doukas
Definition by Michael Goodyear

Constantine X Doukas

Constantine X Doukas was the ruler of the Byzantine Empire from 1059 to 1067 CE. During his reign, the Byzantine Empire was attacked by emerging enemies on all sides, including the Normans in Italy and the Seljuk Turks in Armenia and Anatolia...
Albigensian Crusade
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Albigensian Crusade

The Albigensian Crusade (aka Cathars' Crusade, 1209-1229 CE), was the first crusade to specifically target heretic Christians - the Cathars of southern France. Not successful in repressing the heresy, the on-off campaigns over two...
Scotichronicon
Definition by Jeffrey King

Scotichronicon

The Scotichronicon is a 15th Century CE legendary chronicle by Walter Bower (c. 1385 – 1449 CE) which recounts the history of Scotland and the Scottish people. The Scotichronicon begins with the Biblical Creation story and ends with...
Thomas Malory
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Thomas Malory

Sir Thomas Malory (c. 1415-1471 CE) was an English knight during the War of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) best known for his highly influential work of medieval literature, Le Morte D’Arthur regarded as the first novel in English, the first...
Amastris
Definition by Branko van Oppen

Amastris

Amastris (c. 340/39-285 BCE) was a niece of the Persian king Darius III (r. 336-330 BCE) through her father Oxyathres. She was married in succession to Alexander’s general Craterus, the tyrant Dionysius of Heraclea, and finally...
Edward III of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Edward III of England

Edward III of England reigned as king from 1327 to 1377 CE. Succeeding his father Edward II of England (r. 1307-1327 CE) following his enforced abdication and then murder, Edward III would take revenge on his father’s...