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Stela of Idi from the Old Kingdom of Egypt
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Stela of Idi from the Old Kingdom of Egypt

Only this part of a large limestone stela has survived. At the lower end, there is a head of a man with a beard (originally painted with red). The hieroglyphic inscriptions read "the head lector priest, sole companion, ... stolist of the...
Ancient Egyptian Literature
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Literature

Ancient Egyptian literature comprises a wide array of narrative and poetic forms including inscriptions on tombs, stele, obelisks, and temples; myths, stories, and legends; religious writings; philosophical works; autobiographies; biographies...
Interrelations of Kerma and Pharaonic Egypt
Article by Paul Joseph De Mola

Interrelations of Kerma and Pharaonic Egypt

The vacillating nature of Ancient Egypt's associations with the Kingdom of Kerma may be described as one of expansion and contraction; a virtual tug-of-war between rival cultures. Structural changes in Egypt's administration led to alternating...
Harper's Songs of Ancient Egypt
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Harper's Songs of Ancient Egypt

Harper's songs were lyrics composed in ancient Egypt to be sung at funeral feasts and inscribed on monuments. They derive their name from the image which accompanies the text on tomb or chapel walls, stelae, and papyri in which a blind harper...
A Brief History of Egyptian Art
Article by Joshua J. Mark

A Brief History of Egyptian Art

Art is an essential aspect of any civilization. Once the basic human needs have been taken care of such as food, shelter, some form of community law, and a religious belief, cultures begin producing artwork, and often all of these developments...
Women in the Middle Ages
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Women in the Middle Ages

The lives of women in the Middle Ages were determined by the Church and the aristocracy. The medieval Church provided people with the 'big picture' of the meaning of life and one's place in it; the aristocracy ensured that everyone stayed...
Weapons in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Weapons in Ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptian military is often imagined in modern films and other media as a heavily armed and disciplined fighting force equipped with powerful weapons. This depiction, however, is only true of the Egyptian army of the New Kingdom...
Karnak
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Karnak

Karnak is the modern-day name for the ancient site of the Temple of Amun at Thebes, Egypt. The Egyptians called the site Nesut-Towi, "Throne of the Two Lands", Ipet-Iset, "The Finest of Seats" as well as Ipt-Swt, "Selected...
The Hittites
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

The Hittites

The Hittites occupied the ancient region of Anatolia (also known as Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey) prior to 1700 BCE, developed a culture apparently from the indigenous Hatti (and possibly the Hurrian) people, and expanded their territories...
Ghosts in Ancient Egypt
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ghosts in Ancient Egypt

A text known as The Lay of the Harper, dating from the Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 BCE) encourages its audience to make the most of the time because death is a certainty: Make a holiday! And do not tire of playing! For no one is allowed...