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Pyramid
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Pyramid

A pyramid is a structure or monument, usually with a quadrilateral base, which rises to a triangular point. In the popular imagination, pyramids are the three lonely structures on the Giza plateau at the edge of the Sahara Desert but there...
Silver in Antiquity
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Silver in Antiquity

Silver had great value and aesthetic appeal in many ancient cultures where it was used to make jewellery, tableware, figurines, ritual objects and rough-cut pieces known as hacksilver which could be used in trade or to store wealth. The metal...
Xipe Totec
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Xipe Totec

Xipe Totec (pron. Xi-pe To-tec)  or ‘Flayed One’ in Nahuatl, was a major god in ancient Mesoamerican culture and particularly important for the Toltecs and Aztecs. He was considered the god of spring, the patron god of seeds...
Tezcatlipoca
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Tezcatlipoca

Tezcatlipoca (pron. Tez-ca-tli-po-ca) or ‘Smoking Mirror’ in Nahuatl was one of the most important gods in Postclassical Mesoamerican culture and a particularly important deity for the Toltecs (from the 10th century CE) and later...
Xiuhtecuhtli
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Xiuhtecuhtli

Xiuhtecuhtli or ‘Turquoise Lord’ was the Aztec god of fire and also closely associated with young warriors and rulers. To the Maya he was known as Chac Xiutei. Xiuhtecuhtli was the patron of the day Atl (water) and the trecena...
Aztec Sacrifice
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Aztec Sacrifice

The religion of the Aztec civilization which flourished in ancient Mesoamerica (1345-1521 CE) has gained an infamous reputation for bloodthirsty human sacrifice with lurid tales of the beating heart being ripped from the still-conscious victim...
Mictlantecuhtli
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Mictlantecuhtli

Mictlantecuhtli (pron. Mict-lan-te-cuht-li) or ‘Lord of the Land of the Dead’ was the Aztec god of death and worshipped across Mesoamerica. He ruled the underworld (Mictlán) with his wife Mictecacíhuatl. The god...
Mitla
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Mitla

Mitla, located in the eastern portion of the Valley of Oaxaca in southern Mexico, was an important site of the Zapotec civilization. Gaining prominence from the early Post-Classic period (c. 700-900 CE), Mitla became the most important Zapotec...
Tairona Civilization
Definition by Prapti Panda

Tairona Civilization

The Tairona civilization - one of the Chibcha family tribes - flourished in northern Colombia between 200 CE and 1600 CE. Like the Muisca of Cundinamarca, the Tairona were known for their expertise in crafting and metallurgy, especially goldsmithing...
Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli

Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, 'Dawn Lord,' was a Mesoamerican god who represented a menacing aspect of Venus, the morning star, and was one of the four gods which held up the sky. The people of the ancient Americas believed his rays could...