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Hadrian's Wall
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Hadrian's Wall

Hadrian's Wall (known in antiquity as the Vallum Hadriani or the Vallum Aelian) is a defensive frontier work in northern Britain which dates from 122 CE. The wall ran from coast to coast at a length of 73 statute miles (120 km). Though the...
Censor
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Censor

A censor was one of two senior magistrates in the city of ancient Rome who supervised public morals, maintained the list of citizens and their tax obligations known as the census, and gave out lucrative public contracts and tax collecting...
The Pentecontaetia
Definition by Christopher Planeaux

The Pentecontaetia

The Pentecontaetia (Pentekontætia, πεντηκονταετία) or “the account of the fifty years” is a term first used by Thucydides to describe, in Book 1, Sections...
Brundisium
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Brundisium

Brundisium (modern Brindisi), located on the Adriatic coast of southern Italy, was a Messapian and then Roman town of great strategic importance throughout antiquity. Although architectural remains are sparse, the city has several claims...
Chillon Castle
Definition by James Blake Wiener

Chillon Castle

Chillon Castle (French: Château de Chillon) is a medieval fortress celebrated for its beauty and is widely regarded as one of the best-preserved medieval castles in Europe. Situated in Canton Vaud, Switzerland and only 3 km (2 miles...
Roman Invective
Definition by Borgies Loïc

Roman Invective

Roman invective (uituperatio lat.) was the rhetorical and literary genre that aimed at systematically and publicly blaming a political foe to set him aside from the whole community and turn the audience against him during judicial, forensic...
Tintoretto
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Tintoretto

Tintoretto (c. 1518-1594 CE), real name Jacopo Robusti, was an Italian Renaissance artist who specialised in religious, mythological, and portrait paintings. A prolific artist over a long career, the Venetian’s masterpieces are famous...
Samos
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Samos

Samos is a Greek island in the east Aegean, just off the coast of modern-day Turkey. It particularly flourished in the 6th century BCE and was famous in antiquity for its navy, wine, and important sanctuary to Hera. Samos was an active member...
Enuma Elish - The Babylonian Epic of Creation - Full Text
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Enuma Elish - The Babylonian Epic of Creation - Full Text

The Enuma Elish (also known as The Seven Tablets of Creation) is the Mesopotamian creation myth whose title is derived from the opening lines of the piece, "When on High". All of the tablets containing the myth, found at Ashur...
The Literary Development of the Arthurian Legend
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Literary Development of the Arthurian Legend

The Arthurian legend begins with the Welsh cleric Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. 1100 - c. 1155 CE). Earlier history writers such as Gildas, Bede, and Nennius had already established the existence of a British war-chief who defeated the Saxons...