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Shang Dynasty
Definition by Emily Mark

Shang Dynasty

The Shang Dynasty (c.1600-1046 BCE) was the second dynasty of China which succeeded the Xia Dynasty (c. 2700-1600 BCE) after the overthrow of the Xia tyrant Jie by the Shang leader, Tang. Since many historians question whether the Xia Dynasty...
Courtly Love
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Courtly Love

Courtly Love (Amour Courtois) refers to an innovative literary genre of poetry of the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 CE) which elevated the position of women in society and established the motifs of the romance genre recognizable in the present...
Galatia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Galatia

Galatia was a region in north-central Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) settled by the Celtic Gauls c. 278-277 BCE. The name comes from the Greek for “Gaul” which was repeated by Latin writers as Galli. The Celts were offered the region...
Livia Drusilla
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Livia Drusilla

Livia Drusilla (58 BCE - 29 CE) was the third wife of emperor Augustus of Rome, mother of emperor Tiberius, and grandmother of emperor Claudius. She was one of the great women in history who achieved prominence living in the shadow...
Herod the Great
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Herod the Great

Herod I, or Herod the Great (c. 75 – 4 BCE), was the king of Judea who ruled as a client of Rome. He has gained lasting infamy as the 'slaughterer of the innocents' as recounted in the New Testament’s book of Mathew. Herod...
John Cabot
Definition by Mark Cartwright

John Cabot

John Cabot (aka Giovanni Caboto, c. 1450 - c. 1498 CE) was an Italian explorer who famously visited the eastern coast of Canada in 1497 CE and 1498 CE in his ship the Mathew (also spelt Matthew). Sponsored by Henry VII of England (r...
Donatello
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Donatello

Donatello (c. 1386-1466 CE), full name Donato di Niccolo di Betto Bardi, was an Italian Renaissance artist best known for his sculptures such as the striking bronze figure of David now in the Bargello museum of his native Florence. Donatello...
Commagene
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Commagene

The Kingdom of Commagene (163 BCE - 72 CE) was a Hellenistic political entity, heavily influenced by Armenian and ancient Persian culture and traditions, established in southwestern Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) by Ptolemaeus of Commagene...
Parthia: Rome's Ablest Competitor
Article by Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthia: Rome's Ablest Competitor

As a superpower in its own right and in competition with Rome, Parthia’s empire - ruling from 247 BCE to 224 CE - stretched between the Mediterranean in the west to India in the east. Not only did the Parthians win battles against Rome...
Pirates of the Mediterranean
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Pirates of the Mediterranean

The pirates of the ancient Mediterranean were not, for the most part, the outsiders who knew no country’s allegiance and were the enemies of civilization as they are frequently depicted in novels and other media. They were often employed...