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King John of England
by Mark Cartwright

King John of England

King John of England (aka John Lackland) ruled from 1199 to 1216 CE. The son of Henry II of England (r. 1154-1189 CE) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (c. 1122-1204 CE), John succeeded his elder brother Richard I of England (r. 1189-1199 CE) as king...
Magna Carta
by Mark Cartwright

Magna Carta

The Magna Carta or ‘Great Charter’ was an agreement imposed on King John of England (r. 1199-1216 CE) on 15 June 1215 CE by rebellious barons in order to limit his power and prevent arbitrary royal acts, especially those...
Henry II of England
by Mark Cartwright

Henry II of England

Henry II of England ruled from 1154 to 1189 CE. He gained the throne by negotiation with his predecessor King Stephen of England (r. 1135-1154 CE) following the civil war that had raged between that monarch and Henry’s mother Empress...
Richard I of England
by Mark Cartwright

Richard I of England

Richard I of England, also known as Richard the Lionheart (Cœur de Lion), reigned as king of England from 1189 to 1199 CE. The son of Henry II of England (r. 1154-1189 CE) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (c. 1122-1204 CE), Richard was known...
Henry III of England
by Mark Cartwright

Henry III of England

Henry III of England ruled from 1216 to 1272 CE. The son of the unpopular King John of England (r. 1199-1216 CE), Henry was immediately faced with the ongoing Barons' War which had been fuelled by discontent over John’s rule and...
Rochester Castle
by Mark Cartwright

Rochester Castle

Rochester Castle, located in Kent, England, was first constructed shortly after 1066 CE by the Normans, was converted into stone between 1087 and 1089 CE, and then added to over subsequent centuries, notably between 1127 and 1136 CE...
British Crown Jewels
by Mark Cartwright

British Crown Jewels

The Crown Jewels of the monarchy of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland are today kept in the Tower of London and date mostly to the 17th century CE, with a few later sparkling additions such as the Koh-i-Noor and Cullinan...
The Plantagenets
by Mark Cartwright

The Plantagenets

The Plantagenets, sometimes referred to as the Angevin-Plantagenets, were the ruling dynasty of England from 1154 to 1485 CE. The name Angevin derives from the family's ancestral lands in Anjou, France and the term Plantagenet (perhaps) from...
King John of England
by National Portrait Gallery

King John of England

A portrait of King John of England (r. 1199-1216 CE) from the National Portrait Gallery in London. The portrait was created by an unknown artist c. 1597 - 1618 CE. Oil on panel 578 mm x 451 mm (22 3/4 in x 17 3/4 in).
King John of England & Philip II of France
by British Library

King John of England & Philip II of France

An illumination from a 14th Century CE manuscript of the "Grandes Chroniques de France", depicting King John of England (r. 1199 - 1216 CE) paying homage to Philip II of France (r. 1180 - 1223 CE). Made in Paris, France c. 1332 - 1350...