Castes and tribes of southern India, Volume...


Book Details

Author  Edgar Thurston
Publication Date   March 26, 2012
Pages  566


The heads oftheGanjam villages are, Mr. S. P. Rice informs us, " called Korono, the doer, and Karji, the manager. The Korono, who is really only the accountant, but who, by reason of his higher education, is generally the ultimate authority in the village, appropriates to himself the title Potonaiko, as his caste distinction. The word signifies the Naik or head of the town." It has been noted that " in the Telugu districts, the Karnam is usually a Brahman. Being in some respects the most intelligent, and the most unpopular man in the village, he is both feared and hated. Murders of accountants, though infrequent, are not unknown." Of proverbs relating to Karnams, the following may be quoted:—

Even if a thousand pagodas are levied from a village, not even a cash will be levied from the Karnam (a pagoda is a gold, and a cash a copper coin).

The Karnam is the cause of the Kapu's (cultivator caste) death.

The hungry Karnam looks into his old accounts (to worry his creditors).

The co-operation of the Karnam is as necessary as the axles to the wheels of a cart.

One Karnam to one village.

A quiet Karnam is as little cared for as a tame elephant.

If a Karnam trusts another, his end is near.

If an enemy is his neighbour ; if another Karnam is his superior; if the Kapu bears complaints against him, a Karnam cannot live on.

The Koronoa are divided into various sections, e.g., Sishta or Srishti. Vaisya, Majjula, and Matihansa, some of which wear the sacred thread. The Vaisyas are not allowed to marry their girls after puberty, whereas the others may marry them before or after this event. A woman of the Bhondari caste is employed on the occasion of marriage and other ceremonies, to perform certain duties, for which her services are indispensable.

Korra (millet: Setaria italica). —An exogamous sept of Gudala.

Korti.— An occupational name, derived from korto, a saw, of woodsawyers in Ganjam.

Kosalya.— A sub-division of Mali, named after Kosala, the modern Oudh.

Koshti.-^Koshti or Koshta is the name of a weaving and cultivating caste of Chota Nagpur, a few members of which have settled in the Madras Presidency {see Risley, Tribes and Castes of Bengal). Koshta is also the name by which the Khatris of Conjeeveram call the Patnulkaran silk weavers.

Kota.— According to Dr. Oppert ^ " it seems probable that the Todas and Kotas lived near each other before the settlement of the latter on the Nilagiri. Their dialects betray a great resemblance. According to a tradition of theirs (the Kotas), they lived formerly on Kollimallai, a mountain in Mysore. It is wrong to connect the name of the Kotas with cow-slaying, and to derive it from the Sanskrit go-hatya (cow-killer). The derivation of the term Kota is, as clearly indicated, from the Gauda-dravidian word ko (ku) mountain, and the Kotas belong to the Gandian branch." There is a

• Original Inhabitants of Bharatavarsa, 1893. IV-1 B

tradition that the Kotas were formerly one with the Todas, with whom they tended the herds of buffaloes in common. But, on one occasion, they were found to be eating the flesh of a buffalo which had died, and the Todas drove them out as being eaters of carrion. A native report before me suggests that "it is probable that, after the migration of the Kotas to the hills, anthropology was at work, and they got into them an admixture of Toda blood." ...

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