The so-called tomb of St. Luke that is situated to the southeast of the State Agora of Ephesus was investigated for the first time in the 19th century. Because of a relief from the Roman Imperial period showing a zebu with a secondary engraved cross above its hump, the monument was initially called the tomb of the evangelist. Further examinations led to it being interpreted as a Roman heroon that in early Byzantine times was then rebuilt as a church. Due to the results of new investigations undertaken since 1997, this picture has had to be revised. In fact, the rotunda has turned out to be a fountain from the Roman Imperial period, which was erected in the centre of a marketplace surrounded by columned halls. In the 5th century, the fountain was adapted to accommodate a church. Several architectural clues point to it having been commemorative church, and it possibly played an important role in Ephesus as a pilgrimage site. This study summarizes the results of new investigations undertaken by the author from 1997 to 2004, with special attention being paid to the Imperial-period monument as well as its later use, including its various stages of remodelling and decorating. The sometimes complex findings are elucidated through a large number of photographs and drawings. The volume also includes contextual analyses of the findings, which were conducted by S. Ladstatter and H. Liko (ceramics), M. Pfisterer (numismatics), K. Groaschmidt and F. Kanz (anthropology), H. Taeuber (epigraphy) and G. Forstenpointner, A. Galik, G. E. Weissengruber and S. Zohmann (archaeozoology). German text.
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