Hitherto, the Byzantine fortifications of Pergamon have remained one of the unexplored areas of this ancient site. They have been dated to the 8th to 12th centuries AD, and linked with the Arab Wars and Emperor Manuel I's battles against the Seljuq Turks. Now, thanks to the excavations of the residential areas and the author's stone-by-stone reconstructions, it is possible to see the wide variations in construction techniques between the different sections of the wall and thus date them much more accurately. They were constructed over a much longer period of time and form a valuable document evidence for the history of the construction and defence of Pergamon with their evidence of deprivation and the resolute will to survive. The publication places Pergamon in the wider context of political events in Asia Minor and the Aegean from the late Roman period, with the wars against the Goths, through to the conquest of the region by the Ottoman Turks under Sultan Orhan.
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