Herod was Rome's most important and powerful ally at the end of the Republic and during the first years of Augustus' principate. He has entered posterity as a ruthless ruler against both his own family and, according to the gospel of Matthew, as the instigator of the slaughter of the innocents. He was also an able administrator, however, and succeeded in developing a powerful army. At its peak, Herod's army could field approximately 40,000 men. This book offers a fascinating look at this ancient army using the latest Israeli archaeological reports and finds, including weapons and armor fragments. Various campaigns are also discussed, such as the First and Second NAbatean War (32-32 BC, 9 BC), the siege of Jerusalem (40-37 BC), and Aelius Gallus' expedition to Arabia in 25 BC.