Kojiki or Furukotofumi also known in English as the Records of Ancient Matters, is the oldest surviving book in Japan. The body of the Kojiki is written in Chinese, but it includes numerous Japanese names and some phrases. The songs included in the Kojiki are in archaic Japanese written phonetically with Chinese characters. A document claiming to be an older work, the Kujiki (which the Kojiki dates to 620 AD), also exists, but its authenticity is questioned. Kojiki was presented by O-no-Yasumaro to Emperor Temmu in 680 AD, based upon the events which had been memorized from the previous book, the Kujiki, and by those who held the stories which had been passed down over generations, as well as stories which had been memorized by Hieda no Are in 712. The idea that the Kojiki mimics deities descending from China to Japan, is incorrect because the Kojiki is a story detailing the creation of deities, and throughout Chamberlain's translation in 1882, the area in which the events were said to have unfolded is not explained, and is thought to occur upon the "island" or land-mass created by Izanami and Izanagi.
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