|Publisher||Sarasvati Research Center|
|Publication Date||April 8, 2014|
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The thesis reports re-discovery of lexical repertoire of Meluhha language. Meluhha language was in vogue during the Bronze Age from ca. 5th millennium BCE. Meluhha hieroglyphs of symbolic forms relate to Meluhha life-experiences as sphota ‘burst forth’ expressions in Meluhha language. The function of Meluhha writing system deploying Meluhha cipher as mudra is to catalog wheelwright-lapidary artifacts of stone, shell, metal traded by maritime seafaring merchants and artisan-merchant caravans along the famed, extensively documented Tin Road. The cipher key here is artha translated as composite of entities and also ‘meaning’. In the Indian tradition, the word artha is a gloss which signifies both ‘meaning’ and also ‘wealth’ as seem in the compound: Arthashastra used as a title for Kautilya’s treatise on wealth-creation and polity. This meaning is consistent with the word used for a polity: Rastram (lit. ‘the firm, lighted path’) personified as divinity, vaak. Sphotavaada elaborates on philosophical foundations of symbolic forms as media for ‘meanings’. In Indian rhetoric tradition mudra refers to ‘the natural expression of things by words , calling things by their right names’ (Kuvalayaananda). It is an energetic seal of authenticity. The gloss mudra also signifies a seal, stamp, or impression made by a seal. Thus, by definition, the process of ‘sealing’ to create a ‘seal impression’ is an expression of words deploying symbolic forms. To call things by their right names, a rebus cipher with glosses of underlying glosses and related sounds of Meluhha language are used. The semantics get expanded to evolve mudra as a particular branch of education (e.g., reckoning by the fingers). In Tantra 108 mudra are used; in Yoga, mudra are used together with praanaayaama (breathing exercises) and aasana-s ("seated postures"). Natyashastra lists 24 asamyuta ("separated", meaning "one-hand and fingers") and 13 samyuta ("joined", meaning "two-hand and fingers") mudra-s. A commentary on Hevajra Tantra refers to symbolic bone ornaments as seals or mudra-s. (Sanskrit: asthiamudra) In the entire corpora of Meluhha hieroglyphs there are only two significant symbolic forms which may relate to ‘veneration’ or ‘worship’. Even these two symbolic forms are read rebus and are consistent with the archaeological context of working with ores, minerals, metals and alloys as life-activities. One form is of a person seated in a penance and is read rebus: kamadha ‘penance’ Rebus: kammata ‘coiner, mint’. The second form is of a pair of persons flanking a person seated in persons; the pair of persons are shown using a mudra ‘with folded hands – as salutation’; this is called in Indian tradition anci- ‘to reverence’ read rebus: anjana ’antimony’ (Chemical symbol: Sb) This is a sequel to Meluhha – tree of life which evaluated hieroglyphs as sacred carvings incised, to convey rebus substantive messages in Meluhha as we traverse, in a pilgrim’s progress, through mists of time into the Bronze Age. Language glosses tag to symbolic forms and get associated with divinities and tree of life are Meluhha sacred carvings; they connote -- rebus -- metal artifacts of a kole.l 'smithy/forge' which is, kole.l 'temple'. Archaeological evidences from Ancient Near East point to the practice of worship in temples of divinities associated with these hieroglyphs. Kabbalah of the Ancient Near East tradition is a synonym of aagama of Indian tradition with the roots found in Meluhha as a visible language. Both traditions venerate altars as models of temples. Many metal artifacts are shown as aayudha ‘weapons’ in the hands of pratima in Indian iconographic tradition with an intimation of memories of smithy traditions of ancestors. In Indian tradition. Pratima lakshana, bimba reflections in a tranquil pool of consciousness transform into stone or metal or wood hieroglyphs in a temple. Pratima or mudra-s are not mere abstractions but firmly premised on language sememes.