This Volume (volume 4) is in two parts (bound separately): Part 1 includes Book Seven of Gregorovius’ History, which treats the relations of the Emperor and Pope to Rome; the rise of civic offices; the career of John Crescentius and the Tusculans; the rule of Benedict VIII; the attempts at church reform; the rise of Hildebrand, his reign as Gregory VII, and the Investiture Conflict; the influences of Peter Damiani and the Countess Matilda; Robert Guiscard, the Normans, and the destruction of Rome; the reign of Emperor Henry IV; the popes and anti-popes from Sylvester II to Urban II; Rome and the Crusades; music, monasteries, letters, and libraries in the eleventh century.
Part 2 includes Book Eight, which covers the Twelfth Century. It treats the continuing conflict over investiture and the Concordat of Worms; the reign of Emperor Henry V; the rise of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily; the communal revolution of 1143 and the rebirth of the Senate; the history of the Capitoline; the life and death of Arnold of Brescia; the popes and anti-popes from Paschal II to Celestine III; Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and Pope Alexander III; the war between Rome and Tusculum and the Battle of Monte Porzio; the fall of the Tusculans; Henry VI; the development of the rioni and contrade; Roman families: the Frangipani, the Pierleoni and the Colonna; law, the Mirabilia and other literature, and architecture of the twelfth century.
Also includes an introduction to Gregorovius and his work by David S. Chambers of the Warburg Institute, London.
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