@prefix dcterms: . @prefix oac: . @prefix foaf: . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Europe (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Europe is the second smallest of the seven continents covering roughly 2% of the earth&rsquo;s surface. The name &#39;Europe&rsquo; has long been thought to have been derived from the ancient myth of Zeus and Europa. According to this tale, the great god Zeus, seeing the lovely Phoenician princess Europa bathing (or, according to other versions, playing with her handmaidens) by..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Beer in the Ancient World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The intoxicant known in English as `beer' takes its name from the Latin `bibere' (by way of the German `bier') meaning `to drink' and the Spanish word for beer, cerveza' comes from the Latin word `cerevisia' for `of beer', giving some indication of the long span human beings have been enjoying the drink. Even so, beer brewing did not originate with the Romans but began thousands..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cave Bear Skeleton (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Skeleton of a cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) on display at the American Museum of Natural History. The cave bear lived in Europe during the Pleistocene and shared the stage with early humans up to around 24,000 years ago, when it went extinct."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Eastern Hemisphere in 1300 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "It shows ancient Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania in 1300 BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Europe During the Last Glacial Maximum (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Europe during the most recent glacial, in which the ice sheets reached peak growth between c. 26.500 to c. 19,000 years ago. This is known as the Last Glacial Maximum. Sea levels were lower than today."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Gold Cone of Ezelsdorf-Buch (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Gold Cone of Ezelsdorf-Buch is a tall (88 cm), cone-shaped object made of thin sheet gold, it is seen as belonging to a group of artifacts referred to as Bronze Age Golden hats. It was presumably worn by special functionaries on ceremonial occasions. It is one of four such known items. Three of them were discovered in Southern Germany, and one in the west of France. It dates to circa 1,000..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Europe in 125 CE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the Roman Empire and Europe in 125 CE, at the time of Roman emperor Hadrian. "Barbarian" names and locations are given as found in the works of Tacitus (written c. 100 CE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Neolithic Mysteries of Britain (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Neolithic stone circles, chambered cairns, and rock art continue to fascinate us to this day. Although we don't know what they were originally made for, the pagan monuments were incorporated into later pagan mythologies of the Anglo-Saxons and Vikings. Modern pagans also invent new rituals and meanings for the Neolithic monuments, often based on their solar or lunar alignments. The following Neolithic..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Acculturation of Indigenous Customs in Western Europe (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "This paper explores the acculturation of customs native to the people of Western Europe by Roman soldiers and citizens living on the frontier. This paper examines who these indigenous people were and focuses on their development from the middle of the fifth century BCE until several centuries after Roman conquest. There is an emphasis on the unique challenges presented by indigenous Europeans and..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Thunor and the Axe-Hammer (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The hammer of Thor the thunder god was called Mjölnir. His cult and his hammer are derived from a much older axe-god cult. When the Romans saw the hammer/axe-wielding god worshipped by Germanic peoples such as the Suebi, they thought it was Hercules with his club. 3000 year old rock carvings from Sweden depict a prominent axe-wielding figure which is probably Thunaraz, the proto-Germanic Thor. Even..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "World in 2000 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This map shows the world in 2000 BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "World Map of Herodotus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Possibly what Herodotus believed the world looked like (5th century BC)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Uruk (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Uruk was one of the most important cities (at one time, the most important) in ancient Mesopotamia. According to the Sumerian King List, it was founded by King Enmerkar sometime around 4500 BCE.&nbsp; Located in the southern region of Sumer (modern day Warka, Iraq), Uruk was known in the Aramaic language as <em>Erech</em> which, it is believed, gave rise to the modern name..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Babylon at the time of Hammurabi (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A locator map of Hammurabi's Babylonia, showing the Babylonian territory upon his ascension in 1792 BC and upon his death in 1750 BC. The river courses and coastline are those of that time period -- in general, they are not the modern rivers or coastlines. This is a Mercator projection, with north in its usual position. There is some question to what degree the cities of Nineveh, Tuttul, and Assur..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Beer in the Ancient World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The intoxicant known in English as `beer' takes its name from the Latin `bibere' (by way of the German `bier') meaning `to drink' and the Spanish word for beer, cerveza' comes from the Latin word `cerevisia' for `of beer', giving some indication of the long span human beings have been enjoying the drink. Even so, beer brewing did not originate with the Romans but began thousands..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Culture Contact, Cultural Integration and Difference: A Case from Northern Mesopotamia (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Ancient northern Mesopotamia reveals the presence of southern Uruk-style material cultural elements along with indigenous styles in fourth millennium B.C.E. In this study, I argue that we need to focus on the ways northern Mesopotamian societies constructed ‘cultural difference’ through an analysis of the meanings of southern-style elements within northern contexts..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cuneiform Writing (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Writing is undeniably one of humanity's most important inventions. The earliest forms of storing information on objects were numerical inscriptions on clay tablets, used for administration, accounting and trade. The first writing system dates back to around 3000 BC, when the Sumerians developed the first type script: hundreds of abbreviated pictograms that could be pressed into clay. Individual..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cylinder Seal, Horned Animals (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Horned Animals with Stars Overhead; Cylinder seal impression; Basalt, serpentine; Khafajah, Sin Temple II (Iraq), Late Uruk-Jamdat Nasr period (3350-2900 BCE). Oriental Institute, University of Chicago"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Daily life in ancient Mesopotamia cannot be described in the same way one would describe life in ancient Rome or Greece. Mesopotamia was never a single, unified civilization, not even under the Akkadian Empire of Sargon the Great.  Generally speaking, though, from the rise of the cities in c. 4500 BCE to the downfall of Sumer in 1750 BCE, the people of the regions of Mesopotamia did live their..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Dedicatory Cone of Sin-Kashid king of Uruk (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This clay nail is inscribed with details of the wealth of Sin-Kashid, king of Uruk in Babylon. Excavated by Sir William Loftus at Uruk (Warka), Southern Mesopotamia, modern-say Iraq. Circa 1900 BCE. (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Facade of Inanna's Temple at Uruk (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is part of the facade of the temple of Inanna at Uruk. There are standing male and female deities in alternate niches. Each figure holds a vessel in his/her hands and pours life-giving water forth on to the earth. The cuneiform inscriptions on the bricks mention the name of the Kassite ruler Kara-indash as the person who ordered the building of this temple. Circa 1413 BCE. From Uruk, southern Mesopotamia..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Foundation figure of Ur-Nammu (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "From Uruk, southern Iraq Third Dynasty of Ur, about 2100-2000 BC. The king as a temple builder with a basket of earth to make bricks. This bronze figure represents Ur-Nammu, the ruler of Ur (about 2112-2095 BC). It was made for burial in the foundations of a temple of Uruk. It was one of the duties of a Mesopotamian king to care for the gods and restore or rebuild their temples. In the late third millennium..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Foundation Peg of Entemena (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a baked clay foundation peg, which was dedicated by Entemena, king of Lagash. It refers to a treaty with the king of Uruk. The political bond between Lagash and Uruk mentioned in this text is the earliest formal interstate relationship known within Babylonia. Early Dynastic Period, 2404-2375 BCE. From Bad Tibira (modern Tell al-Madineh), Southern Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq. (The British Museum..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Foundation Tablet of Ur-Nammu (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The cuneiform inscriptions on this tablet mention the name of Ur-Nammu, king of Ur and founder of the Sumerian 3rd dynasty of Ur. From the temple of Inanna at Uruk, southern Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq. Neo-Sumerian period, 2112-2095 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Head of Ewe Figurine (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Sheep played an important role in the ancient Sumerian economy. Images and figurines of sheep were especially common during the late prehistoric era in Uruk. This piece was probably decorating a shrine or a temple. From the late Uruk period, 3300-3000 BCE. Probably from Uruk, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Lugalzagesi's Domains (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the Kingdom of king Lugalzagesi of Umma, circa 2350 BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Sumer and Elam (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map with the locations of the main cities of Sumer and Elam."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mesopotamia - The Sumerians (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Gardens of Babel - The Sumerians La Cinquième 2001"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mesopotamia: The Rise of the Cities (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Once upon a time, in the land known as Sumer, the people built a temple to their god who had conquered the forces of chaos and brought order to the world. They built this temple at a place called Eridu, which was “one of the most southerly sites, at the very edge of the alluvial river plain and close to the marshes: the transitional zone between sea and land, with its shifting watercourses, islands..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mosaic Fragment from Uruk (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This piece of wall decoration (mosaic) was part of one of the walls of the white temple at Warka (Uruk) city. Stone cones are inlaid on a gypsum background. Uruk period, 3500-2800 BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Simulation Tour: Ziggurat of Ur (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a simulation (virtual reality) video of a reconstruction of the Ziggurat of Ur in its entirety. Ur was a city in Sumer that became dominant during the Early Dynastic Period (c. 2900-2350 B.C.E) alongside other cities such as; Uruk, Nippur, Eridu, Lagash and Kish. Creators: Hussain Yahya & ytnlrB"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sumerian Civilization: Inventing the Future (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Imagine something that has never been thought of before. If one holds a book in one’s hands, one can imagine an e-book, a large-print book, a picture book, all kinds of books. But how does one imagine a book in a world where even the concept of a `book’ does not exist? Imagine a day without time. People live in time and time directs the course of people’s days. We wake up at..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The City of Uruk Prototype (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The prototype illustrates the use 3D Virtual Worlds and Artificial Intelligence in the domain of Cultural Heritage.The aim of the project is to recreate the ancient city of Uruk from the period around 3000 B.C. in the Virtual World of Second Life letting history students experience how it looked like and how its citizens behaved in the past. The prototype currently features 4 autonomous agents re-enacting..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Epic of Gilgamesh (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Great video I use in my classroom. The only reason I'm putting it up is that I want this for the rest of my career. The kids love it."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Mesopotamian Pantheon (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The gods of the Mesopotamian region were by no means uniform in name, power, provenance or status in the hierarchy. Mesopotamian culture varied from region to region, from city-state to city-state and, because of this, Marduk should not be regarded as King of the Gods in the same way Zeus ruled in Greece. While Marduk was venerated highly in Babylon, Enlil held that place in Sumer. It should also..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Uruk 5000 B.C. Historical Simulation (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Historical simulation showing everyday life of Uruk in Ancient Mesopotamia through the use of virtual reality and Artificial Intelligence. The historical site was reconstructed based on the results of archaeological excavations, settlement maps, museum exhibits, history books and in consultation with subject matter experts."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Utu-Hegal's Stone Monument (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The cuneiform inscriptions on this fragment of a stone monument mention the name of Utu-Hegal, k King of Uruk. 2125 BCE, from Ur, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Babylon (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Babylon is the most famous city from ancient Mesopotamia whose ruins lie in modern-day Iraq 59 miles (94 kilometres) southwest of Baghdad. The name is thought to derive from <em>bav-il</em> or <em>bav-ilim</em> which, in the Akkadian language of the time, meant &lsquo;Gate of God&rsquo; or `Gate of the Gods&rsquo; and `Babylon&rsquo; coming from Greek..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "82nd & Fifth: Babylonian Lions (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "http://82nd-and-fifth.metmuseum.org/bricks Explore this object: http://82nd-and-fifth.metmuseum.org/two-panels-with-striding-lions-babylonian-31.13.1-.2 "It always had this possibility to come alive in a very real sense." 82nd & Fifth invites 100 curators from across the Museum to talk about 100 works of art that changed the way they see the world. iPad App available in English, Arabic, Chinese..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A new beginning for the Middle East: The Cyrus Cylinder and Ancient Persia (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The Cyrus Cylinder is one of the most famous objects to have survived from the ancient world. It was inscribed in Babylonian cuneiform on the orders of Persian King Cyrus the Great (559-530 BC) after he captured Babylon in 539 BC. The cylinder is often referred to as the first bill of human rights as it appears to encourage freedom of worship throughout the Persian Empire and to allow deported people..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A Stamped Brick of Nebuchadnezzar II (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A hollow brick with a stamped inscription of the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II. From Babylon (modern Babel Governorate), Mesopotamia, Iraq. 604-562 BCE. (The Pergamon Museum, Berlin)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The ancient Near East, and the Fertile Crescent in particular, is generally seen as the birthplace of agriculture. In the fourth millennium BCE this area was more temperate than it is today, and it was blessed with fertile soil, two great rivers (the Euphrates and the Tigris), as well as hills and mountains to the north. Geography The region was highly diverse in terms of agricultural production..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "An Ancient Board Game - Irving Finkel (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Irving Finkel has possibly the coolest job in the world – he’s curator of cuneiform at the British Museum! Since 1979 he’s been trawling the Museum’s 130,000 clay tablets for clues about life in ancient Mesopotamia. In this film, he tells us about a particular tablet he found that contains the rules of a board game – a board game that he’s been obsessed with since childhood! We’re getting..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "An Auroch from the processional street at Babylon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This auroch was made of glazed terracotta bricks and once decorated part of the processional street at Babylon. From Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq. Reign of King Nebuchadnezzar II, 604-562 BCE. (Istanbul Archeological Museums/Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ancient Syro-Mesopotamia ca. 1764 BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This map shows the political situation in Syro-Mesopotamia c. 1764 BCE. During this time, the Amorite Kings, Hammurabi of Babylon and Zimri-Lim of Mari were engaged in near-constant warfare with surrounding polities, many of whom were also predominantly Amorite. The two kings crushed powers like Eshnunna and fought back the Elamites. In 1761 BCE, Babylon is known to have taken control of Mari and its territories..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Aurochs from Ishtar gate (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Aurochs from Ishtar Gate at Babylon, constructed in about 575 BCE by order of King Nebuchadnezzar II. On display in Istanbul Archaeology Museum in Istanbul, Turkey."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Babylon (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Babylon reconstruction made for the Mesopotamia exhibition of the Royal Ontario Museum & British Museum at ROM, Toronto. More details at: http://www.kadingirra.com Copyright 2013 Byzantium 1200, can not be used without permission."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Babylon at the time of Hammurabi (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A locator map of Hammurabi's Babylonia, showing the Babylonian territory upon his ascension in 1792 BC and upon his death in 1750 BC. The river courses and coastline are those of that time period -- in general, they are not the modern rivers or coastlines. This is a Mercator projection, with north in its usual position. There is some question to what degree the cities of Nineveh, Tuttul, and Assur..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Babylon at the time of the Kassites (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the Babylonian Empire during the time of the Kassites, roughly the 13th century BC. This map shows the probable river courses and coastline at that time."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Babylonian Bricks (82nd & Fifth) (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "http://82nd-and-fifth.metmuseum.org/bricks Explore this object: http://82nd-and-fifth.metmuseum.org/two-panels-with-striding-lions-babylonian-31.13.1-.2 "It always had this possibility to come alive in a very real sense." 82nd & Fifth invites 100 curators from across the Museum to talk about 100 works of art that changed the way they see the world."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Babylonian Lion (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The panel shows a pacing, roaring lion and once was part of King Nebuchadnezzar II’s throne room in his palace in the ancient city of Babylon. These roaring lions emphasized the power and might of the Babylonian king. Neo-Babylonian era, reign of King Nebuchadnezzar II, 605-562 BCE, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Babylonian Map of the World (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Babylonian, about 700-500 BC Probably from Sippar, southern Iraq A unique ancient map of the Mesopotamian world This tablet contains both a cuneiform inscription and a unique map of the Mesopotamian world. Babylon is shown in the centre (the rectangle in the top half of the circle), and Assyria, Elam and other places are also named. The central area is ringed by a circular waterway labelled 'Salt-Sea'..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Babylonian Tablet Mentioning Coin Payments (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This tablet records the exact coins required for transaction in Babylon. Because coins could circulate for many years, freshly minted coins were less worn and had a better silver weight. The tablet specifies the "staters of Seleucus with the elephant", suggesting that these are the type of coins needed for the payment. Examples of these coins can be seen here: http://www.ancient.eu/image/5872/..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Beer in the Ancient World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The intoxicant known in English as `beer' takes its name from the Latin `bibere' (by way of the German `bier') meaning `to drink' and the Spanish word for beer, cerveza' comes from the Latin word `cerevisia' for `of beer', giving some indication of the long span human beings have been enjoying the drink. Even so, beer brewing did not originate with the Romans but began thousands..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cradles of Civilization - From Babylon to China (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Dr. Neiman describes the connection between Sumer, Babylon and the development of Chinese civilization."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cradles of Civilization - Babylonian Math (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "In the sixth segment of Dr. Neiman's second lecture, he reviews Babylonian advances in astronomy and mathematics. He also credits the Babylonians with devising some of civilization's most basic concepts: dividing the circle into 360 degrees, the day into 24 hours and the hour into 60 minutes."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cradles of Civilization - Benevolent Dictatorship of Hamurabi (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "In this fourth installment of Dr. David Neiman's second lecture on the "Cradles of Civilization", Dr. Neiman comments on the many policies of Hammurabi that were of benefit to his people and to those nations that he conquered throughout his many campaigns. Hammurabi is described as an absolute ruler, but a ruler who felt at one with his people and enacted polices to improve their lives."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cradles of Civilization - Cracking the code (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This is the part one of lecture two in the series "Cradles of Civilization" by Dr. David Neiman. He explains how the cuneiform texts of ancient languages were deciphered by scholars of the nineteenth-century CE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cradles of Civilization - Creating the Year 'One (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "In this concluding segment of Dr. David Neiman's "Cradles of Civilization" (lecture two), Dr. Neiman discusses the way the year 'one' was calculated before the advent of the modern calendar."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cradles of Civilization - Date Formula of Hammurabi (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "In this third installment of Dr. David Neiman's second lecture on the Cradles of Civilization, Dr. Neiman continues to read from the "Date Formula" or "Year List" of King Hammurabi. This listing was created before the great Law Code of Hammurabi and tracks his accomplishments from early public works projects to his conquests and the creation of the Babylonian Empire under his reign."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cradles of Civilization - King Hammurabi of Babylon (Part 1) (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "King Hammurabi of Babylon practices the art of diplomacy and war. In the second installment of lecture two, Dr. Neiman reads through the "Year List" which catalogs Hammurabi's accomplishments."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cradles of Civilization - The Lunar/Solar Calendar (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The Babylonians developed a calendar based on the moon and sun cycles. The Lunar calendar was designed to work in conjunction with the solar cycle by adding leap months known an "intercalary" months."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cradles of Civilization - Warriors (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "In part five of the second lecture in the series "Cradles of Civilization", Dr. Neiman compares the political approach of Hammurabi of Babylon to other great leaders including: Nebuchadnezzer, Cyrus The Great, Alexander The Great and Genghis Khan."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cuneiform Writing (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Writing is undeniably one of humanity's most important inventions. The earliest forms of storing information on objects were numerical inscriptions on clay tablets, used for administration, accounting and trade. The first writing system dates back to around 3000 BC, when the Sumerians developed the first type script: hundreds of abbreviated pictograms that could be pressed into clay. Individual..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cuneiform Writing (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A relief of cuneiform writing from Assyria. Exhibited in the British Museum London."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cylinder of Ashurbanipal (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Clay cylinder of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal. The cuneiform inscriptions on this cylinder talk about Nemitti-Ellil (or Nemet-Enlil), the inner wall of Babylon's double city walls."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cylinder of Warad-Sin of Larsa (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An inscribed clay cylinder of Warad-Sin, ruler of Larsa. From Babylon (modern Babel Governorate, Iraq). 1834-1823 BCE. (The Pergamon Museum, Berlin)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cylinder Seals in Ancient Mesopotamia - Their History and Significance (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Among the most interesting and revealing artifacts discovered from ancient Mesopotamia are the objects known as cylinder seals. These fairly small items may be seen today in museum exhibits around the world but, perhaps owing to their size, they are not given the kind of consideration by the general public which larger and more commanding artifacts, such as reliefs or statuary, enjoy. The cylinder seal..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cyrus Cylinder (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Cyrus Cylinder, dating from 539 BC. This document is a propaganda one of Cyrus II in order to show his legitimacy to rule in Babylonia."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Daily life in ancient Mesopotamia cannot be described in the same way one would describe life in ancient Rome or Greece. Mesopotamia was never a single, unified civilization, not even under the Akkadian Empire of Sargon the Great.  Generally speaking, though, from the rise of the cities in c. 4500 BCE to the downfall of Sumer in 1750 BCE, the people of the regions of Mesopotamia did live their..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Detail of the Ishtar Gate (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Detail of the Ishtar-Gate : a lion, symbol of the goddess Ishtar."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Dragon from the Ishtar Gate (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Detail from the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, built in 6th century BCE by king Nebuchadnezzar II; part of the Gate is now reconstructed in Pergamon Museum in Berlin."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Dragon of the Ishtar Gate (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Babylonian mušḫuššu dragon from the Ishtar gate, made of glazed tiles. The Ishtar Gate was constructed by Nebuchadnezzar II in about 575 BC. Displayed in the Istanbul Archaeological Museums, Turkey."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "E-sagil Tablet & Building the Tower of Babel (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This tablet states the dimensions of each of the seven levels of Etemenanki, the ziggurat of Marduk at Babylon. This building is the Tower of Babel in the Book of Genesis. From Babylon, Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Circa 600-400 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Enuma Elish - The Babylonian Epic of Creation (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Enuma Elish (also known as The Seven Tablets of Creation) is the Mesopotamian creation myth whose title is derived from the opening lines of the piece, `When on High'.  All of the tablets containing the myth, found at Ashur, Kish, Ashurbanipal's library at Nineveh, Sultantepe, and other excavated sites, date to c. 1100 BCE but their colophons indicate that these are all copies of..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Finding Babylon's Hanging Garden (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are shown to have been in Nineveh, the capital of Assyria. They were made by the Assyrian King Sennacherib."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Glazed Pottery Bottle from Babylon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The bottle is completely intact and has a rough glaze. From Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq. Neo-Babylonian period, 626-539 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hammurabi's Code: Babylonian Law Set in Stone (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Hammurabi was the first king of the Babylonian Empire, reigning from 1792 B.C. – 1750 B.C. During his time in power, he conquered Sumer and Akkad, amassing those cultures for his territory. He is probably best known for his enduring code of Babylonian laws, known as Hammurabi’s Code. Though not the only law code around in the Ancient Near East (the codes of Ur-Nammu..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hanging Gardens of Babylon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Hanging Gardens of Babylon - 16th century engraving by Dutch artist Martin Heemskerck."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Herodotus on Babylon (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "I:192. As to the resources of the Babylonians how great they are, I shall show by many other proofs and among them also by this: For the support of the great king and his army, apart from the regular tribute the whole land of which he is ruler has been distributed into portions. Now whereas twelve months go to make up the year, for four of these he has his support from the territory of Babylon, and..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ishtar Gate and Processional Way (reconstruction), Babylon, c. 575 B.C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=U2iZ83oIZH0 Reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate and Processional Way, Babylon, c. 575 B.C.E., glazed mud brick (Pergamon Museum, Berlin) View this work up close on the Google Art Project: http://www.googleartproject.com/collection/pergamonmuseum-berlin/artwork/ishtar-gate-from-babylon/484075/"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Jerry Cooper | Everything You've Always Wanted to Know about Sex in Babylonia . . . (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Everything You've Always Wanted to Know about Sex in Babylonia . . . Lecture by Jerry Cooper, W. W. Spence Professor of Semitic Languages Emeritus, The Johns Hopkins University This breezy look at 3000 years of sex in ancient Mesopotamia will cover such fascinating topics as virginity, adultery, rape, prostitution, literary sex, gay sex, ritual sex, marital sex and sexual dysfunction. Profusely illustrated..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "King Hammurabi of Babylon (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "According to his own testimony, Hammurabi (Hammurapi) was destined for kingship since time immemorial, when two powerful gods, Anu and Enlil, entrusted to a third god, Marduk, control over destiny, on Earth as in heaven. At that time, too, the gods set Babylon above all other lands, and its rule was made everlasting. Here is how Hammurabi describes himself on an inscribed black basalt stele we have..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Kudurru from Babylon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This kudurru (boundary stone) is a document which records the purchase of land by Marduk-nasir, a royal officer. The name of the stone was "The Establisher of the Boundary for Ever". It was carved just to the right of the figure, which represents the Babylonian king. Middle Babylonian Period, reign of Marduk-nadin-ahhe, 1099-1082 BCE. From Babylon, Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq. (The British Museum, London..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lion of Babylon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Ancient glazed tiles from the gates of ancient Babylon (Iraq) depict a lion. The Lion is the symbol of Babylon, and represents Ishtar, the goddess of fertility, love and war. Meant not only to symbolise Babylon, but to instill fear in enemies, it seems fitting that a single stone lion, albeit poorly preserved, is the only true remainder of Babylon that stands in Iraq today. Some 120 lions were created..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lion of Babylon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Detail of a lion found along the processional way from Ishtar Gate into the city of Babylon. The Ishtar Gate was constructed around 575 BC by King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, made of fired bricks and decorated with animals made in glazed bricks."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lion of Babylon Statue, Babylonia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "In June/July 2013 CE, an archaeological team started a mission to reconstruct the lion of Babylon statue and its surrounding. The platform of the statue has been reconstructed with cement. The lion itself was untouched."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lion's Head from the Processional Street, Babylonia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A close-up view of a lion's head work relief which decorates the processional street (from Marduk temple to the Ishtar Gate and Akitu Temple). It was made of glazed terracotta bricks. Reign of Nebuchadnezzar II, 604-562 BCE, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq. Housed by the Istanbul Archeological Museum, Turkey."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Mesopotamia, c. 1400 BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a map of Mesopotamia showing the dominant kingdoms of Egypt, Mitanni, Hatti, and Kassite Babylonia."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Sumer (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The area which formed Sumer started at the Persian Gulf and reached north to the 'neck' of Mesopotamia where the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates meander much closer to each other. To the east loomed the Zagros Mountains, where scattered city states thrived on trade and learning from Sumer, and to the west was the vast expanse of the Arabian desert. The rivers have changed course considerably..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Sumer and Elam (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map with the locations of the main cities of Sumer and Elam."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna Period (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna Period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the World from Sippar, Mesopotamia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This tablet contains both a cuneiform inscription and a unique map of the Mesopotamian world. Babylon is shown in the center (the rectangle in the top half of the circle), and Assyria, Elam and other places are also named. The central area is ringed by a circular waterway labelled 'Salt-Sea'. The outer rim of the sea is surrounded by what were probably originally eight regions, each indicated by..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mesopotamian Tablet Describing the Walls of Babylon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This clay tablet fragment gives detailed measurements for the inner city wall called Imgur-Enlil at the start of Nebuchadnezzar II's reign. It names landmarks including Zababa and Urash gates. Modern surveys show that the figures are realistic. The record is probably a survey conducted for the royal building program. From Sippar or Babylon, Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Reign of Nebuchadnezzar, 605-562..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Model of the Ishtar Gate (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A model of the Ishtar Gate built in c. 575 BCE by Nebuchadnezzar II in Babylon, displayed at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 BC. Inset: Reference Map of the Nile Delta."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Nabonidus Chronicle (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The fall of a dynasty! Nabonidus' faults and absence were recorded alongside events of his reign. By the autumn of 539 BCE,, Babylon has surrendered to the army of king Cyrus to become part of the growing Achaemenid Empire. From Babylon, Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Circa 530-400 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Nebuchadnezzar King of Justice (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This clay tablet cuneiform inscriptions read "Nebuchadnezzar King of Justice". Once in power, Nebuchadnezzar was presented as a typical Babylonian monarch: wise, pious, just, and strong. Tests such as this clay tablet extol his greatness as a man and ruler. From Babylon, Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Neo-Babylonian Period, reign of king Nebuchadnezzar, 605-562 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Old Babylonian Period (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Old Babylonian Period describes south Mesopotamia in the period about 2000-1600 BC. The early years saw a number of important states dominating the region: Isin, Larsa, Eshnunna and, from 1894 BC, Babylon. Babylon was ruled by a dynasty of Amorite kings. The sixth ruler was Hammurapi. who defeated the other southern states and expanded his control into north Mesopotamia. On the death of Hammurapi..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Plan of Babylon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This finely made clay map of Babylon shows the Tuba area in Babylon, two gateways, a section of the city inner wall, and a gateway fed by the Rover Euphrates. The reverse side of the tablet gives accurate measurements for the city walls. Probably from Babylon, Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Circa 600-500 BCE. (The British Museum, Iraq)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Processional Street, Babylon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Reign of King Nebuchadnezzar II, neo-Babylonian era, 605–562 BCE. Ancient Babylon (modern Babel governorate), Iraq."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Queen of the Night (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Old Babylonian, 1800-1750 BC From southern Iraq A major acquisition for the British Museum's 250th anniversary This large plaque is made of baked straw-tempered clay, modelled in high relief. The figure of the curvaceous naked woman was originally painted red. She wears the horned headdress characteristic of a Mesopotamian deity and holds a rod and ring of justice, symbols of her divinity. Her..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ruins of the North Palace of Nebuchadnezzar II , Babylon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Reign of king Nebuchadnezzar II, neo-Babylonian era, 605–562 BCE. Ancient Babylon (modern Babel governorate), Iraq."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Secret Babylonian Numbers (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A compendium of ancient signs united the knowledge of generations of scholars. It includes pictographic symbols from around 3000 BCE and a secret number for each sign, for encoding texts. Circa 450 BCE. Clay tablet. From Babylon, Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq. (British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Secrets of the Dead: The Lost Gardens of Babylon (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Hanging Garden of Babylon is the most elusive of these constructions of classical antiquity. While traces have been found of the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, the Colossus of Rhodes and the Lighthouse of Alexandria, centuries of digging have turned up nothing about..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Semiramis and Nebuchadnezzar Build the Gardens of Babylon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Nebuchadnezzar Ordering the Construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon to Please his Consort Amyitis (Nebuchadnezzar and Sémiramis) by Rene-Antoine Houasse, 1676 CE, Palace of Versailles."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Semiramis Receiving Word of the Revolt of Babylon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Semiramis Receiving Word of the Revolt of Babylon by Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri), 1624 CE, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Some Observations on the Image of the Assyrian and Babylonian Kingdoms within the Greek Tradition (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Within the field of extant Greek historical writing on the subject of the Assyrian and Babylonian kingdoms the fragments of Berossus’ History of Babylonia, written by a so-called “Chaldean” priest, but addressed to a Greek-speaking audience, deserve our special attention. How could Berossus’ account correspond to the legendary and speculative tradition presented by the former..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Stamped Brick From Borsippa (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A stamped brick with cuneiform inscription, from Borsippa, Ziggurat of Nabu, Sumer, Mesopotamia (2500 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Stamped Mud Brick, Babylonia, Mesopotamia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a stamped mud brick with cuneiform inscriptions, which lies within a building's wall in ancient Babylonia (modern Babylon governorate), Mesopotamia, Iraq."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Stele of King Nabonidus, a close-up view (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "It narrates the various religious activities of king Nabonidus and contains the harassment of enemies to the city of Babylon and nearby cities and the renovation of these cities by him as well as homage paid to Gods welling in them. The stele was made of granite. Reign of Nabonidus, Neo-Babylonian era, 555-539 BCE, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (Istanbul Archeological Museum)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Stone Monument of Esarhaddon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Irregular rectangular-sided monument recording Esarhaddon's restoration of Babylon; possibly black basalt; carved symbols on the upper surface. Height 8.5 inches. The stone is not local to Mesopotamia. The irregular shape of the object suggests that it was cut from a naturally rounded piece of stone. The inscription is incomplete. Neo-Assyrian era, c. 670 BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Stone tablet of Nabu-apla-iddina (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This stone tablet records the restoration of certain lands by the Babylonian king Nabu-apla-iddina to a priest. On the top of the stone are 13 symbols of the gods designed to protect the legal statement. Both the king, wearing the typical Babylonian royal hat, and the priest, who has a hand raised in salute, are shown on the obverse with labels identifying them. The cuneiform text dates the deed to..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sumerian Civilization: Inventing the Future (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Imagine something that has never been thought of before. If one holds a book in one’s hands, one can imagine an e-book, a large-print book, a picture book, all kinds of books. But how does one imagine a book in a world where even the concept of a `book’ does not exist? Imagine a day without time. People live in time and time directs the course of people’s days. We wake up at..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Atrahasis Epic: The Great Flood & the Meaning of Suffering (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Atrahasis is the Akkadian/Babylonian epic of the Great Flood sent by the gods to destroy human life. Only the good man, Atrahasis (his name translates as `exceedingly wise') was warned of the impending deluge by the god Ea who instructed him to build an ark to save himself. Atrahasis heeded the words of the god, loaded two of every kind of animal into the ark, and so preserved human and animal..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Babylonian mind (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Trace the legacy of Babylonian discoveries and ideas, including their mathematical system based on 60 and their desire to predict the future. With British Museum curator Irving Finkel. http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_this_site/audio_and_video/exhibitions_-_archive/babylon_-_video_archive/babylonian_mind_video.aspx"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Babylonians: Unifiers of Mesopotamia (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Babylonians began their rise to power in the region of Mesopotamia around 1900 B.C. This was at a time when Mesopotamia was largely unstable, prone to conflict and invasion, and not at all unified. This early period, known as the Old Babylonian Period, is characterized by over 300 years of rule of the Amorites, who had come from west of the Euphrates River, and formed an empire based in the city-state..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Cyrus Cylinder (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Cyrus Cylinder is a document issued by Cyrus the Great, consisting of a cylinder of clay inscribed in Akkadian cuneiform script. The cylinder was created in 539 BCE, surely by order of Cyrus the Great, when he took Babylon from Nabonidus, ending the Neo-Babylonian empire. This document is clearly propaganda, praising the Achemenid ruler Cyrus and treating Nabonidus like an impious and bad king..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Epic of Gilgamesh (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Great video I use in my classroom. The only reason I'm putting it up is that I want this for the rest of my career. The kids love it."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Family in Ancient Mesopotamia (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "In ancient Mesopotamia the family was the basic unit of society that was governed by specific patriarchal rules. Monogamy was the rule, even though the nobility could have concubines. The purchase of wives from their fathers was common, but the practice became less common after 3000 BC. The woman was allowed to do anything and go anywhere, including conducting business, as long as her husband permitted..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Hanging Gardens of Babylon: The Mysterious Wonder of the Ancient World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Hanging Gardens of Babylon evoke a romantic picture of lush greenery and colorful flowers cascading from the sky. The grandeur of their sight must have been awe-inspiring, which is why Herodotus would have considered them one of his Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. However, not only are the Hanging Gardens of Babylon not standing today, but their entire existence is debated. Because of the lack..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Hymn to Ninkasi, Goddess of Beer (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Hymn to Ninkasi is at once a song of praise to Ninkasi, the Sumerian goddess of beer, and an ancient recipe for brewing. Written down around 1800 BCE, the hymn is no doubt much older. Evidence for brewing beer in the Mesopotamian region dates back to 3500-3100 BCE at the Sumerian settlement of Godin Tepe in modern-day Iran where, in 1992 CE, archaeologists discovered chemical traces..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Ishtar Gate of Babylon at the Pergamon Museum, Berlin (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This gate was built at the northern side of the city of Babylon by the king Nebuchadnezzar II in 575 BCE. It was the eighth gate into the city of Babylon, Mesopotamia (modern Babil Governorate, Iraq). The gate was built with glazed bricks and decorated with alternating rows of bas-reliefs of aurochs (representing the god Adad) and dragons (also known as Mušḫuššu or Sirrush which represent..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Ludlul-Bel-Nimeqi - Not Merely a Babylonian Job (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Ludlul-Bel-Nimeqi is a Babylonian poem which chronicles the lament of a good man suffering undeservedly. Also known as `The Poem of the Righteous Sufferer', the title translates as "I will praise the Lord of Wisdom".  In the poem, Tabu-utul-Bel, age 52, an official of the city of Nippur, cries out that he has been afflicted with various pains and injustices and, asserting..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Marduk Prophecy (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Marduk Prophecy is an Assyrian document dating to between 713-612 BCE found in a building known as The House of the Exorcist adjacent to a temple in the city of Ashur. It relates the travels of the statue of the Babylonian god Marduk from his home city to the lands of the Hittites, Assyrians, and Elamites and prophesies its return at the hands of a strong Babylonian king. The original work was almost..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Mesopotamian Pantheon (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The gods of the Mesopotamian region were by no means uniform in name, power, provenance or status in the hierarchy. Mesopotamian culture varied from region to region, from city-state to city-state and, because of this, Marduk should not be regarded as King of the Gods in the same way Zeus ruled in Greece. While Marduk was venerated highly in Babylon, Enlil held that place in Sumer. It should also..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Mutual Destruction of Sennacherib & Babylon (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The reign of Assyrian king Sennacherib (705-681 BCE) was chiefly characterized by his difficulties with Babylon. Throughout the history of the Assyrian Empire, Babylon had caused problems and had even been destroyed by the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I in c. 1225 BCE. Even so, there were direct cultural bonds between Babylon and Ashur, capital of the Assyrian Empire, and the city was always re-built..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Myth of Adapa (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Myth of Adapa (also known as Adapa and the Food of Life) is the Mesopotamian story of the Fall of Man in that it explains why human beings are mortal. The god of wisdom, Ea, creates the first man, Adapa, and endows him with great intelligence and wisdom but not with immortality, and when immortality is offered Adapa by the great god Anu, Ea tricks Adapa into refusing the gift. Though it..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Oriental Empires (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map showing the Median, Lydian, Chaldean, and Egyptian empires around 600 BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Royal Game of Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Royal Game of Ur, as exhibited in the British Museum, London. Early Dynastic III, about 2600 BC. Game boards of this type were found in at least six royal graves at Ur. They are made of wood, inlaid with carnelian, shell, and lapis lazuli (which was the most precious mineral at the time). This game was played all across the Ancient Near East for about 3000 years."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, as first recorded by Philo of Byzantium in 225 BCE in his work, `On The Seven Wonders’, were: The Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt; The Hanging Gardens of Babylon; The Statue of Zeus at Olympia, Greece; The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus; The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus; The Colossus of Rhodes and the Lighthouse at Alexandria, Egypt. Of these seven, only the Great..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Seven Wonders Of The World (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This BBC video is an informative production about the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. It goes into detail regarding the features and history of the making of the Seven Wonders."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Tower of Babel (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Construction of the Tower of Babel by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. The painting is on display in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Tower of Babel with British Museum curator Irving Finkel (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "See various depictions of the Tower of Babel through the ages. With British Museum curator Irving Finkel http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_this_site/audio_and_video/exhibitions_-_archive/babylon_-_video_archive/towers_of_babel_video.aspx"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Tom Scott vs Irving Finkel: The Royal Game of Ur | PLAYTHROUGH | International Tabletop Day 2017 (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "YouTuber Tom Scott has flown drones through lightning, he’s taken on the first human-powered theme park, he’s even visited Penistone. But he’s never taken on a British Museum curator in the world’s oldest playable board game… UNTIL NOW! For International Tabletop Day 2017, Tom Scott was challenged by British Museum Curator Irving Finkel to a round of the oldest playable board game in the..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ancient Rome (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>According to legend, Ancient Rome was founded by the two brothers, and demi-gods, Romulus and Remus, on 21 April 753 BCE. The legend claims that, in an argument over who would rule the city (or, in another version, where the city would be located) Romulus killed Remus and named the city after himself. This story of the founding of Rome is the best known but it is not the only one.</p>..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A glimpse of teenage life in ancient Rome - Ray Laurence (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/a-glimpse-of-teenage-life-in-ancient-rome-ray-laurence Welcome to the world of Lucius Popidius Secundus, a 17-year old living in Rome in 73 AD. His life is a typical one of arranged marriages, coming-of-age festivals, and communal baths. Take a look at this exquisitely detailed lesson on life of a typical Roman teenager two thousand years ago. Lesson..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A Tour through Ancient Rome in 320 C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=VAgA6G75XsI A project between Khan Academy and Rome Reborn - with Dr. Bernard Frischer"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Administrative & Government Buildings of the Roman Forum (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The roman Forum (Forum Romanum) was the main and central forum of the city of Rome. It became the economic, political, and religious center of the city in early Republican times, around the seventh century BCE. It continued to be an important functional and symbolic area of Rome through the city – and the Empire’s – evolution, and changed along with the times.  One highly important..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "An Ancient Ghost Story: Philinnion and Machates (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Ghost stories have existed for thousands of years, often in similar forms and frequently dealing with the same themes, in many of the most ancient cultures. The writer H.P. Lovecraft once wrote, "As may naturally be expected of a form so closely connected with primal emotion, the horror-tale is as old as human thought and speech themselves." The human desire to defeat death, to live forever..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ancient Roman Family Life (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Whether there was a king, a consul, or an emperor that stood supreme over Rome and its territories, the one constant throughout Roman history was the family. Like many earlier societies, the family was the fundamental social unit in the eternal city, and at its head was the father, or if there were no father, the eldest living male -  the Latin expression for this is paterfamilias. One historian..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Antoninus Pius (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Bust of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius from the Ancient Agora Museum in Athens, 138-161 CE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Aqua Claudia, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The surviving arches of the Aqua Claudia (Claudian Aqueduct) in Rome. Completed in the 1st century CE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ara Pacis Augustae (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Ara Pacis Augustae or Altar of the Augustan Peace in Rome was built to celebrate the return of Augustus in 13 BCE from his campaigns in Spain and Gaul. The marble structure, which once stood on the Campus Martius, is a masterpiece of Roman sculpture and, in particular, of portraiture. Senators, officials and the Imperial family are depicted on the wall reliefs of the monument in an animated procession..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ara Pacis Augustae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Ara Pacis Augustae or Altar of the Augustan Peace in Rome. Built to celebrate the return of Augustus to Rome in 13 BCE following campaigns in Spain and Gaul, it is a masterpiece of Roman sculpture and, in particular, portraiture. Officials and the Imperial family are depicted in an animated procession in the relief panels on the exterior of the altar. (Museo dell'Ara Pacis, Rome)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), 13-9 B.C.E. (Rome) (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=kiMNT18c4Ko Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), 13-9 B.C.E. Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris & Dr. Steven Zucker On Smarthistory: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/ara-pacis.html On Khan Academy:"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Arch of Constantine I (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The north side of the Arch of Constantine I in Rome. Dedicated in 315 CE, the triumphal arch celebrates the emperor's victory over the Roman tyrant Maxentius in 312 CE. It is the largest surviving triumphal arch and the last great Imperial Roman monument."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Arch of Constantine, 315 C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=mK9y-sPn_AY Arch of Constantine, 315 C.E., Rome Speakers: Valentina Follo, Dr. Beth Harris, Dr. Steven Zucker http://www.smarthistory.org/arch-of-constantine.html http://www.smarthistory.org/arch-of-constantine.html"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Arch of Janus (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Arch of Janus, erected in the 4th century CE, stands in the forum Boarium of Rome and was most probably set up as a boundary-marker rather than a commemorative triumphal arch. The four-way marble arch stands over the Cloaca Maxima or Great Drain which ran down to the river Tiber. The monument presents an imposing squat block of masonry and stands 16 m high and 12 m wide with an archway..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Arch of Janus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Arch of Janus in the forum Boarium of Rome, constructed in the 4th century CE. The four-way marble arch probably acted as a boundary marker and, perhaps not coincidentally, stands directly over the Great Drain or Cloaca Maxima which fed into the river Tiber."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The triumphal arch of Septimius Severus in Rome, erected in 203 CE to commemorate victory over the Parthians."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The triumphal arch of Septimius Severus in the Forum Romanum of Rome, erected in 203 CE to commemorate victory over the Parthians."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Arch of Titus, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Triumphal Arch of Titus, erected in c. 81 CE by Domitian to commemorate his brother Titus' campaigns in the Jewish War (70-71 CE). Forum Romanum, Rome."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Athletics, Leisure, and Entertainment in Ancient Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Although much of ancient Roman life revolved around negotium (work and business), there was also time available for otium (leisure). Ranging from swimming to playing board games to attending theatre performances, athletics and forms of entertainment enjoyed by Romans in ancient times were not much different from those that exist today. One of the most popular recreational areas in Rome was the Campus..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Augustus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Augustus of Prima Porta, statue of the emperor Augustus in Museo Chiaramonti, Vatican, Rome."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Augustus' Political, Social, & Moral Reforms (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Augustus is well known for being the first Emperor of Rome, but even more than that, for being a self-proclaimed “Restorer of the Republic.” He believed in ancestral values such as monogamy, chastity, and piety (virtue). Thus, he introduced a number of moral and political reforms in order to improve Roman society and formulate a new Roman government and lifestyle. The basis of each of these..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Basilica of Constantine, Rome, c. 306-312 (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "A conversation with Dr. Darius Arya and Dr. Beth Harris at the Basilica of Constantine, Rome, c. 306-312"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, 5th century A.D. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=S2P4I_hFnFI Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, 5th century A.D. A Smarthistory video with partner Context Travel. Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker and Richard Bowen."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Basilica of Santa Sabina, Rome, c. 432. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=VeZ3_VZytPw Basilica of Santa Sabina, Rome, c. 432."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Basilicas of the Roman Forum (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The basilica was a fundamental element of a Roman forum. It was used as a public building, much like the Greek stoa. It also served as a meeting place for administration, as a law court, and as a marketplace. It provided cover and shade for hot or stormy afternoons too After Christianity became the main religion of the Roman Empire, the basilica came to be a church where the masses worshipped, and remains..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Baths of Caracalla (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Roman baths complex in the south of Rome known as the Baths of Caracalla were probably commissioned by Septimius Severus but were opened by his son Caracalla in 216 CE and finished c. 235 CE. They are one of the best preserved bath complexes from antiquity and could accommodate as many as 8,000 bathers. The building was some 30 metres high and covered an area of 337 x 328 m."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Baths of Caracalla, Rome (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The reconstruction of ancient roman baths of Caracalla, one of the biggest in the whole ancient world. http://world3dhistory.com/?lang=en - Please visit the site with my reconstructions"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Bikini Mosaic (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "3rd Century mosaic of Bikini Girls at the Villa Romana at Piazza Armerina in Sicily."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Brennus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Modern depiction of Brennus, on display in the Musée national de la Marine."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Brennus Throws His Swords on the Scale (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Vae victis! Woe to the vanquished! Brennus throws his sword on the scale after the sack of Rome in 390 BCE. Print by Ludwig Gottlieb Portman, based on the drawing of Jacobus Buys, 1794"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Bronze As coin from the Roman Republic (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is one of the first Roman portrait coins. Roman Republican coins did not usually depict living people, although a statue of the politician Sulla appeared on a coin during his lifetime. The son of Pompey the Great adapted a traditional coin design by giving the god Janus the features of his deceased father. Bronze as coin, from the Roman Republic, circa 154 BCE. Rome, Italy. Moneyer C. Scribonius..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Caesar As Dictator: His Impact on the City of Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "During his reign as dictator from 49-44 BC, Julius Caesar had a number of notable impacts on the city of Rome. One of the initial crises with which Caesar had to deal was widespread debt in Rome, especially after the outbreak of civil war when lenders demanded repayment of loans and real estate values collapsed. The result was a serious shortage of coinage in circulation as people hoarded whatever..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Caesar's Campaign against the Belgae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of Caesar's campaign against the Belgae tribe in Gaul, 57 BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Caesar's Campaign against the Helvetii (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of Caesar's campaign against the Helvetii in Gaul, 58 BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthage during the Punic Wars (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the Carthaginian Empire and its losses during the Punic Wars."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Circus Maximus, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An illustration of what the Circus Maximus chariot track of Rome might have looked like. The Circus Maximus dates back to the 6th century BCE but was at its most splendid in the 1st century CE when it had a capacity for 250,000 spectators who watched chariot races, games, gladiatorial contests and public executions."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Circus Maximus, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The view of Rome's Circus Maximus in the present day. The original circus lies 9 m below ground level and was first laid out in the 6th century BCE. The present site was remodelled in the 1930s CE to resemble the original."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Colosseum (Amphitheatrum Flavium), c. 70-80 C.E., Rome (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=9wguQaBYKec Colosseum (Amphitheatrum Flavium), c. 70-80 C.E., Rome Speakers: Valentina Follo (courtesy of Context Travel), Dr. Beth Harris, Dr. Steven Zucker Cover photo by Julia Avra Ugoretz Views of the Colosseum were taken from the Rome Reborn model of ancient Rome with the permission of The Rome Reborn Project (www.romereborn.virginia.edu..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Colosseum Floor (Hypogea) (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "View of the underground rooms of the Colosseum. The Flavian amphitheater, built between 72 and 80 AD, has two floors built below the cavea, using what was perhaps the pond of Nero."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Columbarium 1 at Vigna Codini: Loculi & Central Pillar (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Columbarium, excavated in 1840 CE, on strip of land between Via Latina and Via Appia."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Columbarium 3 at Vigna Codini: View of Double Staircase (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This largely first-century CE columbarium in Rome, discovered in 1852 CE, was once lined with marble. It is very 'up-market' in that the epitaphs are all preoccupied with status, even though the deceased are slaves and freed slaves. It was operating into the second century CE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Column of Phocas, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The column of Phocas in the Roman Forum, Rome. The column is 13 metres high and stands on a brick base surrounded by marble steps. The inscription on the base reveals that the column was dedicated to Phocas, a centurion who became emperor of Byzantium in 602 CE. A statue of the emperor would have once stood on top of the column. It is the last Roman monument constructed in the forum."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Column of Trajan, completed 113 C.E (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=MFt3tHNevJg Column of Trajan, Carrara marble, completed 113 C.E., Rome Dedicated to Emperor Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus b. 53 , d. 117 C.E.) in honor of his victory over Dacia (now Romania) 101-02 and 105-06 C.E."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Commemorative Monuments & Sacred Places in the Roman Forum (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Rome fancied celebrating its military conquests and victories. Victorious generals and legions would parade through the streets of Rome after an important battle, often to grand hoopla and celebration. Along with these processions, many commemorative monuments would be built to forever immortalize the grandeur that was Rome. Triumphal Arches Triumphal Arches were one type of monument that were..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cremated Ivory Cupids from a Funeral Couch, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "After cremation, the incinerated bones were picked out and sorted from the charred wood of the fire and the couch on which the body had been laid. While the bones would be collected and placed into an urn, the remains of the wood and couch were gathered and placed in a special jar to be buried under the floor of the columbarium. These ivory cupids, from the Capitoline Museum, on display in 1997 at..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Crypta Balbi (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "View of one of the areas of Crypta Balbi , the site, which is one of the most complex among the sites of underground Rome, presents different phases ranging from Roman times until 1700."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Crypta Balbi (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "View of one of the areas of Crypta Balbi , the site, which is one of the most complex among the sites of underground Rome, presents different phases ranging from Roman times until 1700."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Death's Mansions: The Columbaria of Imperial Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "A columbarium is an underground chamber, which the Romans used for preserving the ashes of the dead. During the 1st and 2nd centuries CE, hundreds of columbaria lined the consular highways leading out of Rome, although now only some two dozen are extant. Carefully organised, with neatly stuccoed ceilings, frescoed walls, and mosaic floors, columbaria are not to be confused with catacombs—long..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Detail of the Arch of Titus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Detail shot of the Arch of Titus in the Forum Romanum."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Digging History 8: The Regal Period (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The regal period largely coincides with the Archaic period, for Rome's development. Of course, a lot was going in what would develop into Rome before the famed foundation date of 753 BC (which was debated by ancient historians nevertheless). The 8th and 7th centuries are known as the Iron Age and Orientalizing period and were marked by shared and overlapping traditions and practices up and down Italy..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Disease and death in the ancient city of Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "This paper surveys textual and physical evidence of disease and mortality in the city of Rome in the late republican and imperial periods. It emphasizes the significance of seasonal mortality data and the weaknesses of age at death records and paleodemographic analysis, considers the complex role of environmental features and public infrastructure, and highlights the very considerable..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Early Temples of the Forum Romanum: Temples of the Roman Republic (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The temple was an important physical and ceremonial structure in any Roman city. Originally a gathering place (a templum), the temple evolved into a place for people to gather, to worship gods and deified emperors, and to perform ceremonial sacrifices and rites. The temples of the Forum Romanum, particularly from the period of the Roman Republic (509 – 27 BCE), are among some of the most important..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Fall of the Roman Empire (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "To many historians the fall of the Roman Empire has always been viewed as the end of the ancient world and the onset of the Middle Ages, often improperly called the Dark Ages, despite Petrarch’s assertion. Since much of the west had already fallen by the middle of the fifth century, when a writer speaks of the fall of the empire, he or she generally refers to the fall of the city of Rome. Although historians..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Financial Intermediation in the Early Roman Empire (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "In this paper I use a theoretical hierarchy of financial sources to evaluate the effectiveness of financial markets in the early Roman Empire. I first review the theory of financial intermediation to describe the hierarchy of financial sources and survey briefly the history of financial intermediation in pre-industrial Western Europe to provide a standard against which to evaluate the Roman evidence..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Food in the Roman World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The ancient Mediterranean diet revolved around four staples, which, even today, continue to dominate restaurant menus and kitchen tables: cereals, vegetables, olive oil and wine. Seafood, cheese, eggs, meat and many types of fruit were also available to those who could afford it. The Romans were also adept at processing and conserving their food using techniques from pickling to storage in honey. Flavouring..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Forum of Augustus, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A reconstruction of the Forum of Augustus in Rome with the temple of Mars Ultor, late 1st century BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Forum Romanum (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The ruins of the Forum Romanum in Rome."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Genocide in the Ancient World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Introduction Genocide is often viewed as a particular feature of our own current age. This perception largely stems from the terrible events which took place during World War Two in the 20th century CE in the parts of Europe occupied by the Nazis. However, there are certain occasions in the ancient world which could also be possibly considered as genocide. In considering genocide from an historical perspective..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "History in Five: The Death of Julius Caesar (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Historian Barry Strauss, author of 'The Death of Caesar,' explores the political, military, and social motivations behind history's most famous murder."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Imperial Fora, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A diagram of the Imperial Fora of Rome. In the centre is Trajan's Forum and above it the semicircular-fronted Trajan's Market. On the left is the Basilica Ulpia. To the right is the Forum of Augustus and below it Caesar's Forum. On the far right is Nerva's Forum."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Imperial Temples in the Roman Forum (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The temples built in the Forum Romanum during the Imperial era (27 B.C. – A.D. 476) were largely built to commemorate mortal men who had been deified after death. These were usually Emperors of Rome who had been particularly influential and popular. Temple of Caesar – Built in honor of Julius Caesar by Augustus in 29 B.C., this temple stood at the eastern boundary of the Forum Romanum..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Italian Penninsula (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Principal areas of the Italian penninsula and its vincinity up to the Second Punic War (218 BC)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Julius Caesar: The Faults Behind the Myth (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Last March marked the anniversary of Julius Caesar’s assassination over 2,000 years ago, and after two millennia, his legendary achievements still linger in today’s consciousness just as they have for centuries. He was so revered that in Dante’s Inferno, his conspirators shared the lowest circle of hell with Judas Iscariot, labeling them the worst sinners in history. Even Alexander..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of 2nd Century Roman Expansion (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map showing the early expansions of Rome, in the 2nd century BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Europe in 125 CE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the Roman Empire and Europe in 125 CE, at the time of Roman emperor Hadrian. "Barbarian" names and locations are given as found in the works of Tacitus (written c. 100 CE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Hannibals Route into Italy (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Hannibal's route into Italy in the Second Punic war."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Rome fragment (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Forma Urbis (marble plan of ancient Rome) from the Via Anicia, fragment depicting the late Republican Temple of Castor and Pollux in Circo Flaminio, 1st half of 2nd century CE (National Museum of Rome, Baths of Diocletian, Rome)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the Roman Conquest of Italy (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This map shows the Roman conquest of Italy from 500 BCE to 218 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mausoleum of Augustus (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Mausoleum of Augustus was actually one of the first of many large building projects undertaken in the reign of Rome's first emperor. When the Mausoleum was completed in 28 BCE, it was easily the biggest tomb in the Roman world, a record it held throughout the Roman period. Now a ruin situated in Piazza Augusto Imperatore near the river Tiber, this once magnificent circular edifice stood around..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mausoleum of Augustus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The ruins of the Mausoleum of Augustus, Rome. Completed in 28 BCE, it was the largest tomb ever constructed in the Roman world."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mithridates’ Poison Elixir: Fact or Fiction? (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "King Mithridates VI of Pontus, also known as Mithradates VI Eupator Dionysus and Mithridates the Great (135–63 BCE, r. 120-63 BCE) was a dogged Roman foe for much of his life. In 88 BCE, he orchestrated the mass killing of up to 150,000 Roman and Italian noncombatants in a single day, if the number of victims Plutarch gave is to be believed, and over the course of decades, he was embroiled in intermittent..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mythological Re-Enactments in Ancient Roman Spectacle (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "To this day the ancient Romans remain infamous for their dramatic use of spectacle and other forms of entertainment. A lesser known variation of Roman spectacle is the mythological re-enactments that took place during the ludi meridiani (midday spectacle). These performances were not only re-enactments for entertainment's sake, but were also a very real form of execution. The unfortunate..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Nero's Golden House (Domus Aurea) (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Nero's Golden House (the Domus Aurea) in Rome was a sumptuous palace complex which played host to the wild parties of one of Rome's most notorious emperors. Besides using the finest marble and decoration such as fine wall-painting and gilded colonnades, the building was also a technical marvel with soaring domes, revolving ceilings, ornamental fountains and even waterfalls running down the walls..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Odysseus & the Sirens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Roman mosaic from the 2nd century CE depicting Odysseus and the Sirens. Displayed in the Bardo Museum in Tunisia."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ostia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of Ostia Antica, the ancient port of Rome, at the mouth of the Tiber River."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Painted Garden, Villa of Livia (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=PPyqEsyVmIQ Painted Garden, Villa of Livia, fresco, 30-20 B.C.E. (Museo Nazionale Romano, Palazzo Massimo, Rome) Plant species include: umbrella pine, oak, red fir, quince, pomegranate, myrtle, oleander, date palm, strawberry, laurel, viburnum, holm oak, boxwood, cypress, ivy, acanthus, rose, poppy, chrysanthemum, chamomile, fern, violet, and..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Pantheon Front, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The front of the Pantheon in Rome, dated to the first part of emperor Hadrian’s reign, probably between 117-126-8 CE. Hadrian copied the inscription present on an earlier building that used to stand on the same spot, built around 25 BCE by Agrippa. It states the following: M(arcus) A(grippa) L(ucius) F(ilius) Co(n)s(ul) Tertium Fecit Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, three times consul, made this..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Pantheon, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Pantheon of Rome, completed in c. 125 CE under the reign of Hadrian. The exact function of the building in antiquity is not known, no other example is known in Rome of a temple to all the gods (as its name suggests) and it was, therefore, more likely built as a building or temple for a ruler cult."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Pharaonic Egypt and the Ara Pacis in Augustan Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "This paper explores processes of cultural appropriation, and specifically Augustan visual receptions of pharaonic Egypt. As a test case, I consider the possibility of Egyptianizing precedents for the Ara Pacis, including the architecture of Middle and New Kingdom jubilee chapels. This requires looking at the Augustan interventions into the traditional temple complexes of Egypt, the transmission..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Citizenship (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Citizenship is and always has been a valued possession of any individual. When one studies the majority of ancient empires one finds that the concept of citizenship, in any form, was non-existent. The people in these societies did not and could not participate in the affairs of their government. These governments were either theocratic or under the control of a non-elected sovereign, answerable to..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Daily Life (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "From the early days of the Roman Republic through the volatile reigns of such ignoble emperors as Caligula, Nero, and Commodus, the Roman Empire continued to expand, stretching its borders to encompass the entire Mediterranean Sea as well as expanding northward to Gaul and Britain. History records the exploits of the heroes as well as the tirades of the emperors. Despite the sometimes shameful deeds..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Games, Chariot Races & Spectacle (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "If there was one thing the Roman people loved it was spectacle and the opportunity of escapism offered by weird and wonderful public shows which assaulted the senses and ratcheted up the emotions. Roman rulers knew this well and so to increase their popularity and prestige with the people they put on lavish and spectacular shows in purpose-built venues across the empire. Such famous venues as the Colosseum..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Glass (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Roman glassware includes some of the finest pieces of art ever produced in antiquity and the very best were valued higher than wares made with precious metals. However, plain glass vessels such as cups, bowls, plates, and bottles were also used as everyday containers, in particular, for storing and serving food and drinks. Glass was also used by the Romans for its decorative qualities and could be incorporated..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Household Spirits: Manes, Panes and Lares (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Earth spirits in ancient Rome, as well as the spirits of those who had died, watched over the every day lives of the Romans cheerfully - unless one forgot to give thanks. Spiritual Life in a Roman Household In ancient Rome, although there was regular worship of the better known `state gods' such as Jupiter and Juno and Vesta, individual Roman lives were influenced to a greater degree by the spirits..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Mosaics (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Roman mosaics were a common feature of private homes and public buildings across the empire from Africa to Antioch. Not only are mosaics beautiful works of art in themselves but they are also an invaluable record of such everyday items as clothes, food, tools, weapons, flora and fauna. They also reveal much about Roman activities like gladiator contests, sports, agriculture, hunting and sometimes they..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Roads (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The long straight roads built by the Romans wherever they conquered have, in many cases, become just as famous names in history as their greatest emperors and generals. Building upon more ancient routes and creating a huge number of new ones, Roman engineers were audacious in their plans to join one point to another in as straight a line as possible whatever the difficulties in geography and the costs..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Toga (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Roman clad in toga, from 1891 Dictionary of Classical Antiquities."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Wall Painting (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The interiors of Roman buildings of all description were very frequently sumptuously decorated using bold colours and designs. Wall paintings, fresco and the use of stucco to create relief effects were all commonly used by the 1st century BCE in public buildings, private homes, temples, tombs and even military structures across the Roman world. Designs could range from intricate realistic detail to highly impressionistic..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Rome Reborn 2.2 (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This video presents a fly-through of the latest version of Rome Reborn (2.2). The new version incorporates some new content (including the Pantheon) and for the first time includes animations. Rome Reborn is an international initiative to create a 3D digital model of the ancient city as it might have appeared in A.D. 320. For more about the project, please see: www.romereborn.virginia.edu..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Rome, Italy: Roman Forum (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More info about travel to Rome: http://www.ricksteves.com/europe/italy/rome The Roman Forum was the political, religious, and commercial heart of the city. Rome's most important monuments, temples and halls of justice were built here. As Rome's empire expanded, these few acres of land near the Tiber became the navel of the civilized world. All roads did lead to Rome. At http://www.ricksteves.com..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Rome: Ancient Glory (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Part one of three on the Eternal City, this episode resurrects the rubble and brings back to life the capital of the ancient world. Focusing on the grandeur of classical Rome, we'll marvel at the Colosseum, the Pantheon, and the empire's exquisite art. Then we'll go offbeat by bicycle to see the Appian Way and marvels of Roman engineering. © 2012 Rick Steves' Europe"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Rome's Ancient Underground Neighbourhoods (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Investigating the secrets buried beneath the streets of modern-day Rome, including ancient underground neighbourhoods and sewerage systems, with a look at how this technology contributed to the growth of the ancient empire."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Rome's Commercial Forums (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "By definition, a forum in Ancient Rome was meant as a gathering place for the people. Commercial exploits were obviously highly successful in the merchant forums of Rome, where all matter of food products and the citizens of the city could buy other necessities from local and traveling merchants. Beginning early in Rome’s history, during the period of the Republic, the commercial forums became..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Romulus & Remus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Romulus & Remus being suckled by the she-wolf. In Roman mythology the two demi-god brothers were credited with the founding of Rome in 753 BCE. The sculpture is traditionally dated to the 5th century BCE Etruscans but it may be later. The figures were added in the 15th century CE. (Capitoline Museums, Rome)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Romulus and Remus: a History of a Nation in Coins (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This latest AHE video takes a look at how the Roman people represented the myth of Romulus and Remus on their coinage. Spanning in time from 269 BCE- 248 CE. Ancient History Encyclopedia www.ancient.eu"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sack of Rome by the Visigoths (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Sack of Rome by the Visigoths on 24 August 410, by J.N. Sylvestre, 1890 CE. Musée Paul Valéry"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Side View, Arch of Constantine (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Arch of Constantine in Rome, built in c. 315 CE to commemorate the Roman emperor's victory over Maxentius in 312 CE. It is the largest surviving example of a Roman Triumphal Arch."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Silver Furniture Ornaments from the Esquiline Treasure (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "These probably formed the terminals to the arm-rests of a chair. Each is in the form of a forearm , with a twisted band around the wrist, and hand gripping a sceptre. The elaborate gilding and the sceptre imagery implies that the owner was not only rich but also held a significant public office. Part of the Esquiline Treasure, which was discovered in the year 1793 CE, at the foot of the Esquiline Hill..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Site of the Cloaca Maxima (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The site of the main sewer, called the Cloaca Maxima located in the Forum Romanum. Believed to be drained around 600 BCE by Tarquinius Priscus, the draining of the area between the Palatine, Capitoline, Esquiline & the Viminal Hills led to the establishment of the Forum Romanum and helped to promote the growth of the city of Rome itself. One of the original public works projects of western civilization..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Slavery in the Roman World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Slavery was an ever-present feature of the Roman world. Slaves served in households, agriculture, mines, the military, manufacturing workshops, construction and a wide range of services within the city. As many as 1 in 3 of the population in Italy or 1 in 5 across the empire were slaves and upon this foundation of forced labour was built the entire edifice of the Roman state and society. Slavery..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Divus Antoninus Pius and Diva Faustina is an ancient Roman temple in Rome, adapted to the 17th century church of San Lorenzo in Miranda. It stands in the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra. The temple was begun in 141 CE by Antoninus Pius and was initially dedicated to his deceased and deified wife, Faustina the Elder. When Antoninus Pius was deified after his death in 161 CE, the temple..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Castor & Pollux (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Castor and Pollux in the Roman Forum of Rome was erected in the final decade of the 1st century BCE, replacing the earlier temple to the twin sons of Jupiter which had stood on the site since 484 BCE. Today only the inner concrete core of the podium and three columns survive of this once massive structure. Castor and Pollux, in Roman mythology, were the twin demi-god offspring..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Castor & Pollux (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The three remaining Corinthian columns of the Temple of Castor & Pollux in the Roman Forum, Rome. The present temple dates from the end of the 1st century BCE and early 1st century CE but replaced a temple also dedicated to the demi-god twins of Zeus built in 484 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Mars Ultor, Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Mars Ultor stands in the Forum of Augustus in Rome and was built to commemorate Augustus’ victory in 42 BCE at the Battle of Philippi over the assassins of Julius Caesar. The building became the place where important military decisions were taken and a site of several state ceremonies with a military connotation. The Forum of Augustus The Forum of Augustus originally covered..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Mars Ultor, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The temple of Mars Ultor ('The Avenger') in the Forum of Augustus, 1st century BCE, Rome. It was built by Augustus to commemorate the Battle of Philippi and the defeat of Julius Caesar's assassins in 42 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Portunus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The 2nd century BCE Temple of Portunus, Rome. At the sides can be seen engaged columns."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Portunus, Rome, c. 120-80 B.C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=5u1Nrmdyd-A Temple of Portunus (formerly known as, Fortuna Virilis), travertine, tufa, and stucco, c. 120-80 B.C.E., Rome A smarthistory.org video by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Saturn, Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The 4th century CE Temple of Saturn is situated in the north west corner of the Roman Forum of Rome and has eight majestic columns still standing. Built in honour of Saturn it was the focal point of this ancient cult and stood on the site of the original temple dedicated in c. 497 BCE by the dictator Titus Tatius, which itself had replaced the god's first shrine, the Ara Saturni. In addition, during..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Saturn, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Saturn in Rome which was the location of the Roman state treasury. This was supervised by the quaestors during the Roman Republic."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Saturn, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The 4th century Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum of Rome. Once housing a cult statue of Saturn it was the focal point of the annual Saturnalia celebrations every December and housed the city's treasury."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Venus and Roma, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Venus and Rome (Templum Veneris et Romae) is thought to have been the largest temple in Ancient Rome. The architect was the emperor Hadrian and construction began in 121 CE. It was officially inaugurated by Hadrian in 135 CE, and finished in 141 CE under Antoninus Pius. Damaged by fire in 307 CE, it was restored with alterations by the emperor Maxentius."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Vesta, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The 1st century BCE circular temple of Vesta (or Hercules), by the Tiber in Rome. The unusually tall Corinthian columns of Pentelic marble would once have been topped by an entablature. The present roof is a later addition. The building is now the church of S. Maria del Sole."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Vesta/Hercules, Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Vesta is the popular name given to the round temple near the Tiber River in Rome (now Piazza Bocca della Veritá). The association with Vesta is due to the shape of the building but in fact it is not known to which god the temple was dedicated. It may have been dedicated to Hercules Olivarius, patron of the Portus Tiberinus oil merchants, as three or four temples to the Greek hero..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Terme di Caracalla (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Ruins of the Baths of Caracalla, Rome. Completed 235 CE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Arch of Constantine, Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Arch of Constantine I, erected in c. 315 CE, stands in Rome and commemorates Roman Emperor Constantine’s victory over the Roman tyrant Maxentius on 28th October 312 CE at the battle of Milvian Bridge in Rome. It is the largest surviving Roman triumphal arch and the last great monument of Imperial Rome. The arch is also a tour de force of political propaganda, presenting Constantine as a living continuation..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Arch of Septimius Severus, erected in 203 CE, stands in Rome and commemorates the Roman victories over the Parthians in the final decade of the 2nd century CE. The triple triumphal arch was one of the most richly decorated of its type and even today, although badly damaged, it stands in the Forum Romanum as a lasting and imposing monument to Roman vanity.   The arch stands on the..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Arch of Titus, 81 C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=Huop6oiCgVg Arch of Titus, originally Pentelic marble, early 19h-century restoration is in travertine, c. 81 C.E. (Via Sacra, Rome) The surviving original inscription reads: SENATVS POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS DIVO TITO DIVI VESPASIANI F[ILIO] VESPASIANO AVGVSTO Senate People of Rome to the divine Titus Vespasian Augustus..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Arch of Titus, Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Arch of Titus is a Roman Triumphal Arch which was erected by Domitian in c. 81 CE at the foot of the Palatine hill on the Via Sacra in the Forum Romanum, Rome. It commemorates the victories of his father Vespasian and brother Titus in the Jewish War in Judaea (70-71 CE) when the great city of Jerusalem was sacked and the vast riches of its temple plundered. The arch is also a political and religious..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Battle of Actium: Birth of an Empire (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Though the Battle of Cynocephalae in 197 BCE is often cited as the birth of the Roman Empire, the equally famous Battle of Actium is a better candidate. With the overthrow of the last Roman king, the Roman Republic was ruled by a senate and assembly from 509 BCE until Julius Caesar's appointment as Dictator in 44 BCE. The battle of Cynocephalae in 197 BCE consolidated Rome's power in the Mediterranean..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Battle of Zama - The Beginning of Roman Conquest (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Second Punic War (218-202 BCE) began when the Carthaginian general Hannibal attacked the city of Saguntum, a Roman ally, reached its height with the Carthaginian victory at Cannae (216) and ended with the Battle of Zama. At Zama, in North Africa, fifty miles south of the city of Carthage, the Roman general Scipio Africanus met Hannibal’s forces and defeated them. Scipio’s success as..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Brothers Gracchi: The Tribunates of Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were a pair of tribunes of the plebs from the 2nd Century BCE, who sought to introduce land reform and other populist legislation in ancient Rome. They were both members of the Populares, a group of politicians who appealed to the average citizens and that opposed the conservative Optimates in the Roman Senate. They have been deemed the founding fathers of both socialism..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Colosseum of Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Photo of the Colosseum in Rome, completed 80 AD."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Colossus of Constantine (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Once located in the west apse of the Basilica of Maxentius, fragments of the Colossus of Constantine are now located in the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori of the Musei Capitolini on the Capitoline Hill, Rome. Marble, 312 CE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Columbarium at the Villa Wolkonsky, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Before entering this columbarium, which is in the garden of the residence of the British Amabassador to Italy, I had to sign a waiver to the effect that I would not hold HM Government responsible for any mishap. And from the state of the staircase, on which I inched downwards in a sitting position, I was able to see clearly the necessity for such a waiver. The columbarium itself is fascinating, because..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Column of Marcus Aurelius (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Column of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina which stands in Piazza Colonna in Rome is thought to have been erected by Commodus in memory of his father and mother sometime around 180 CE. The column was inspired by its more famous predecessor Trajan's Column which was set up, also in Rome, in 113 CE. The column carries representations carved in high relief of the emperor's successful military campaigns..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Extent of the Roman Empire (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Time has seen the rise and fall of a number of great empires - the Babylonian, the Assyrian, the Egyptian, and lastly, the Persian.  Regardless of the size or skill of their army or the capabilities of their leaders, all of these empires fell into ruin. History has demonstrated that one of the many reasons for this ultimate decline was the empire’s vast size - they simply grew too large..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Fullers of Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Romans were all about appearances, which was obvious by the array of clothing that they wore. Their garments were billboards that advertised their status and wealth to all other Romans and anyone they came into contact with. As such, the clothing industry was a highly important part of Roman commerce. Not only was the sale of clothing a profitable business in Rome, but the care and maintenance..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The House of Livia on the Palatine Hill, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Three relatively large adjoining rooms (a tablinum and two side rooms) in the House of Livia on the Palatine Hill, Rome. Each room was painted with a mythological subject and its floor decorated in black and white geometric mosaic."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Imperial Roman Forums (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Imperial Fora were very important public and ceremonial areas in Rome. These areas had practical use, especially when the population of Rome began to grow rapidly. They also provided more room for government, business, religious worship, and gave the Emperors both notoriety and immortality. Caesar's Forum The Forum Iulium (Forum of Julius Caesar) was the first of the Imperial Fora..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Lost Gods: The Romans (Planet Knowledge) (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "We trace the rise and fall of the great civilizations: the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Maya, the Inca and the Celts. In this episode its the turn of the Romans. Find out about this ancient civilisation the customs, buildings, gods of this once great and powerful Empire. Published by Ancient History Encyclopedia (http://www.ancient.eu) in collaboration with Planet Knowledge (http://planetknowledge.tv/..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Making of a Roman Silver Cup (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Ancient Roman silversmiths developed their craft to the highest levels of refinement and beauty. Applying fire and basic tools to the shaping of precious metals, many of their sophisticated techniques are still used today. This video illustrates the making of a stunning silver cup that has survived from the 1st century CE. This cup is on view at the Getty Villa from November 19, 2014 to August 17..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Price of Greed: Hannibal's Betrayal by Carthage (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Although Hannibal’s forces were defeated on the field at the Battle of Zama (202 BCE) the groundwork for this defeat was laid throughout the Second Punic War through the Carthaginian government’s refusal to support their general and his troops on campaign. As they had done with his father, Hamilcar Barca, in the First Punic War, the Carthaginian senate continually refused aid and reinforcements..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Role of Women in the Roman World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The exact role and status of women in the Roman world, and indeed in most ancient societies, has often been obscured by the biases of both ancient male writers and 19-20th century CE male scholars, a situation only relatively recently redressed by modern scholarship which has sought to more objectively assess women's status, rights, duties, representation in the arts, and daily lives; and all this..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Roman Domus (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Roman domus was much more than a place of dwelling for a Roman familia. It also served as a place of business and a religious center for worship. The size of a domus could range from a very small house to a luxurious mansion. In some cases, one domus took up an entire city-block, while more commonly, there were up to 8 domus per insula (city-block). All domus were free-standing structures..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Roman Empire. Or Republic. Or...Which Was It?: Crash Course World History #10 (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "In which John Green explores exactly when Rome went from being the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire. Here's a hint: it had something to do with Julius Caesar, but maybe less than you think. Find out how Caesar came to rule the empire, what led to him getting stabbed 23 times on the floor of the senate, and what happened in the scramble for power after his assassination. John covers Rome's transition..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Roman Forum (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "A Forum was the main center of a Roman city. Usually located near the physical center of a Roman town, it served as a public area in which commercial, religious, economic, political, legal, and social activities occurred. Fora were common in all Roman cities, but none were as grand as the fora of Rome itself. A forum is not unlike a Greek Agora in concept and even design somewhat. It is likely that..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Western Mediterranean 264 BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the western Mediterranean at the time of the First Punic War in 264 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Theatre of Marcellus (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The theatre of Marcellus was the largest and most important theatre in Rome and completed in the late 1st century BCE during the reign of Augustus. The architecture of the theatre would become a standard feature of theatres across the empire and influence the façades of such iconic buildings as the Colosseum.    The building project was actually begun by Julius Caesar but..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Theatre of Marcellus, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The theatre of Marcellus, near the Capitoline Hill, Rome. Begun under Julius Caesar, the project was completed under Augustus and the theatre was named after the son of Octavia who, before his death in 23 BCE, was Augustus' heir. Built in travertine stone it was the most important of Rome's three theatres at that time and had a capacity for around 20,000 spectators. The current building rising from..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Trade in the Roman World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Regional, inter-regional and international trade was a common feature of the Roman world. A mix of state control and a free market approach ensured goods produced in one location could be exported far and wide. Cereals, wine and olive oil, in particular, were exported in huge quantities whilst in the other direction came significant imports of precious metals, marble, and spices.  Overview..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Trajan's Column (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Trajan's Column in the Forum Romanum of Rome. Erected in 113 CE the column is covered in a spiral relief depicting scenes from the emperor's victorious Dacian campaigns."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Trajan's Market (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Trajan’s Market is the name given in the early 20th century CE to a complex of buildings in the imperial fora of Rome constructed in 107-110 CE during the reign of Trajan. The complex included a covered market, small shop fronts and a residential apartment block. The complex was built at one end of Trajan’s Forum and includes buildings that had a number of different functions, predominantly..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Trajans Market, Rome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Trajan's Market in Rome, 107-110 CE. The complex was originally on three street levels and only a part was devoted to commercial purposes. The upper level included a covered shopping arcade whilst the lowest level alcoves set in the semicircular front were also used as shops."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Underground Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Underground archaeology is a niche topic and is highly specialized. We’re talking about simple structures underground, such as those of Roman North Africa (able to withstand the heat), or we can get as extreme, in a mostly urban context, as where the underground archaeological palimpsests are complex and highly suggestive. Pointing the finger at any European capital, we immediately think..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Vestal Virgins of Rome: The Price of Civic Duty and Privilege (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Being a Vestal Virgin was a lifetime committment that required certain promises be made to the powerful position. Breaking a promise made in honor of the priesthood spelled certain disaster. For example, breaking the vow of celibacy usually meant execution for the former Virgin. Over the course of Roman history, the technique of execution that was employed varied. The final punishments inflicted upon..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Virtual Rome: an Interview with Dr. Matthew Nicholls (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Dr. Matthew Nicholls from the University of Reading sat down with James Lloyd, AHE's Video Editor, to discuss his Virtual Rome project. This project recreates the city of Rome c.317 CE, including vast public buildings such as the Colosseum, and shady backstreets full of tavernas. The techniques required to make such an architecturally diverse model vary, as does the amount of information available..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Visual Chronology of Roman Emperors: Augustus to Constantine (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Julio-Claudian Dynasty Augustus 16 Jan 27 BCE - 19 Aug 14 CE Tiberius 18 Sep 14 CE - 16 Mar 37 CE Caligula 18 Mar 37 CE - 24 Jan 41 CE Claudius 25 Jan 41 CE - 13 Oct 54 CE  Nero 13 Oct 54 CE - 11 Jun 68 CE Galba 8 Jun 68 CE - 15 Jan 69 CE Otho 15 Jan 69 CE - 16 Apr 69 CE Vitellius 17 Apr 69 CE - 20 Dec 69 CE The Flavian Dynasty..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Nile (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>The world&rsquo;s longest river, located in Egypt, the Nile flows&nbsp;4,132&nbsp;miles (6,650 kilometres)&nbsp;northward to the Mediterranean Sea (a very unusual direction for a river to take). It was considered the source of life by the ancient Egyptians and has played a vital role in the country&#39;s history. The Nile flows from two separate sources: the White Nile from equatorial..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ancient Egyptian Agriculture (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Agriculture was the foundation of the ancient Egyptian economy and vital to the lives of the people of the land. Agricultural practices began in the Delta Region of northern Egypt and the fertile basin known as the Faiyum in the Predynastic Period in Egypt (c. 6000 - c. 3150 BCE), but there is evidence of agricultural use and overuse of the land dating back to 8000 BCE. Egyptologist and historian..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Egypt - A Journey Down The Nile (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Egypt is famous for its ancient civilization and some of the world's most famous monuments, including the Giza pyramid complex and the Great Sphinx. This video charts a route down the Nile stopping off at the amazing temples and sights along the way."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Egypt - A Journey Down The Nile (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Egypt is famous for its ancient civilization and some of the world's most famous monuments, including the Giza pyramid complex and the Great Sphinx. This video charts a route down the Nile stopping off at the amazing temples and sights along the way. This video is a visual tour of famous temples and sites along the Nile River including the pyramids at Giza, the temples of Karnak and Luxor, and those..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Egyptian Hunting in the Marshes (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "These paintings from the tomb of Nebamun (c. 1350 BCE) show the New Kingdom period accountant Nebamun hunting birds in the marshes of Egypt. He is accompanied by his wife and daughter. Scenes like these of the deceased enjoying himself were common in New Kingdom tomb chambers. To the Egyptians, fertile marshes were a symbol of eroticism and rebirth, which gives additional meaning to this image..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Interrelations of Kerma and Pharaonic Egypt (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The vacillating nature of Ancient Egypt’s associations with the Kingdom of Kerma may be described as one of expansion and contraction; a virtual tug-of-war between rival cultures. Structural changes in Egypt’s administration led to alternating policies with Lower Nubia, whilst the increasing complexity of Kushite culture provided a serious counterweight to Egyptian dominance. These multigenerational..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Nebamun Hunting in the Marshes (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Thebes, Egypt Late 18th Dynasty, around 1350 BC Fowling in the marshes Nebamun is shown hunting birds, in a small boat with his wife Hatshepsut and their young daughter, in the marshes of the Nile. Such scenes had already been traditional parts of tomb-chapel decoration for hundreds of years and show the dead tomb-owner ‘enjoying himself and seeing beauty’, as the hieroglyphic caption here..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Nile Delta (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Nile Delta as seen from orbit."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The History of Egypt - The Nile (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "An introduction to Dr. Neiman's lecture on Egypt and the Amarna age. In this segment Dr. Neiman discusses how the physical geography of Egypt shaped its culture and development."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Pyramids of Meroe (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroe, Republic of Sudan, 2001."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Trade in Ancient Egypt (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Trade has always been a vital aspect of any civilization whether at the local or international level. However many goods one has, whether as an individual, a community, or a country, there will always be something one lacks and will need to purchase through trade with another. Ancient Egypt was a country rich in many natural resources but still was not self-sufficient and so had to rely on trade for necessary..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "World Map of Herodotus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Possibly what Herodotus believed the world looked like (5th century BC)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ancient Crete (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Crete is an island in the eastern Mediterranean which during the Bronze Age produced the influential Minoan civilization with its distinctive architecture and art. An important member of the Greek world in the Archaic period, Crete dipped a little in significance during the Classical period but was again a major cultural centre in Roman times when it was a province within the Roman empire..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ariadne & Theseus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A scene from a 7th century BCE Cretan jug depicting Ariadne and Theseus. (Archaeological Museum of Heraklion, Crete)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cretan Silver Tetradrachm (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver tetradrachm from Knossos, Crete, 2nd or 1st century BCE. O: Head of Zeus. R: Labyrinth."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Dictean Cave, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Dictean Cave, central Crete. Said to be the cave where Zeus was hidden as a baby."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Dolphin Fresco, Knossos, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A detail of the dolphin fresco, the Minoan palace of Knossos, Crete, (1700-1450 BCE)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Gortyn, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The bouleuterion or meeting place for the city’s council of the Roman town of Gortyn, Crete (1st Century BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Griffin Fresco, Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The griffin fresco in situ, Minoan palace of Knossos, Crete, (1700-1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Griffin Fresco, Knossos, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A detail of the griffin fresco from the throne room, palace of Knossos, Crete, (1700-1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hydria Decorated with Boukranion (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This hydria (water jar) was decorated with a central boukranion (bull's head) which is flanked by two swans. The vase is inscribed around the shoulder with the name of the deceased, DOROTHEOU, whose ashes it contained. The name DOROTHEOU means "gift of god". Made in Crete about 200 BCE. Attributed to the Dromeus painter. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Kamares Ware Pottery (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Two examples of the distinctive Kamares Style of pottery decoration used by the Minoans based on Crete in the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1700 BCE). The designs were rendered with bold strokes of red and white on a black background and the style is named after the place on Crete where most examples have been excavated."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Knossos is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete, probably the ceremonial and political center of the Minoan civilization and culture. It is a popular tourist destination today, as it is near the main city of Heraklion and has been substantially if imaginatively "rebuilt", making the site accessible to the casual visitor in a way that a field of unmarked ruins is not."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Knossos Crete - The palace of Knossos - ancient (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Knossos nearby Heraklion Crete. Shot by HD-video. The great ancient Minoan palace was built gradually between 1700 and 1400 BC, with periodic rebuildings after destruction. Go and vist Crete your self. Video-editing, background music etc.. Pinnacle Studie 12 Ultimate Plus. Video by John Stæhr"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Labyrinth of Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Inside the 'labyrinth' of the Minoan palace at Knossos, Crete, (c. 1500 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Malia, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Hypostyle Hall with six pillars, the Minoan settlement of Mallia archaeological site, Crete (1650-1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Minoan Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of Minoan Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mesara Plain, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A view from Phaistos over the Mesara plain in Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Bee Pendant (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A solid gold Minoan pendant depicting two bees clutching a honeycomb (1800-1700 BCE), found in the Old Palace cemetery at Chrysolakkos near Malia, Crete. (Herakleion Archaeological Museum, Crete)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Bull Leaping (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A fresco showing bull leaping, Minoan Knossos (Final Palatial period 1450-1400 BCE), Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Double Axes (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Gold votive double axes, New Palace period (1600-1450 BCE), Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete. The double axe, also known as 'labrys', may be the origin of the labyrinth myth of Knossos."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Frescoes (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Frescoes are the source of some of the most striking imagery handed down to us from the Minoan civilization of Bronze Age Crete (2000-1500 BCE). Further, without written records, they are often the only source, along with decorated pottery, of just how the world appeared to the Minoans and give us tantalizing glimpses of their beliefs, cultural practices and aesthetic tastes.  Techniques..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Horns of Consecration (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Bull horns were a common religious symbol in the Cretan Minoan culture (2000 BCE - 1450 BCE), represented in fresco, on pottery and as here from the palace of Knossos, in architectural stone decoration."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Jewellery (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The jewellery of the Minoan civilization based on Bronze Age Crete demonstrates, as with other Minoan visual art forms, not only a sophisticated technological knowledge (in this case of metalwork) and an ingenuity of design but also a joy in vibrantly representing nature and a love of flowing, expressive, shapes and forms. Materials & Technology Initially influenced technically and artistically..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Jug in Floral Style (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Late New-Palace period (1450 BCE) clay jug with distinctive leaf pattern, from Phaistos. (Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Pottery (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The ever evolving pottery from the Minoan civilization of Bronze Age Crete (2000-1500 BCE) demonstrates, perhaps better than any other medium, not only the Minoan joy in animal, sea and plant life but also their delight in flowing, naturalistic shapes and design. Kamares Style Following on from the pre-palatial styles of Vasiliki (with surfaces decorated in mottled red and black) and Barbotine..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Rhyton (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Stone rhyton (libation vase) in the form of a bull's head from the Minoan site of Knossos, New-Palace period (1600-1500 BCE), Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Rock-Crystal Vase (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Minoan vase carved from rock-crystal, from Zakros on Crete, c. 1450 BCE. The collar includes gilded ivory discs and the handle is made from rock-crystal beads strung on bronze wire. The vessel was probably used to pour liquids in religious rituals. (Archaeological Museum of Heraklion, Crete)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Snake Goddess, Knossos. (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Faience figurine of the Minoan Snake Goddess - her dominion was over nature and fertility. New-Palace period (1600 BCE). Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Stone Vases (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A range of stone vessels from Minoan Crete, 15th century BCE. (Archaeological Museum of Herakllion, Crete)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Stoneware (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Craftsmen of the Minoan civilization centred on the island of Crete produced stone vessels from the early Bronze Age (c. 2500 BCE) using a wide variety of stone types which were laboriously carved out to create vessels of all shapes, sizes and function. The craft continued for a millennium and vessels were of such quality that they found their way to the Greek mainland and islands across the Aegean..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Vase in Marine Style (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "New-Palace period (1500-1450 BCE) Cretan Clay askos with 'Marine Style' decoration, (Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minotaur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A marble sculpture of the Minotaur. A Roman copy of a Greek original by Myron. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Palace of Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The partially reconstructed wing of the palace of Knossos c. 1500 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Palace of Knossos, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Palace at Knossos, Crete, (c. 1500 BCE). A restored upper-level lightwell."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Palace of Malia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Model of the Minoan palace at Malia, Crete (1675 BC-1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phaistos Disk (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "One side (A) of the Phaistos disk, New-Palace period (1600-1450 BCE), Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete, Each side of the clay disk is impressed with hieroglyphic symbols as yet undeciphered."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phaistos Disk (Side B) (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "One side (B) of the Phaistos Disk, New-Palace period (1600-1450 BCE). Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete,"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phaistos, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Minoan settlement of Phaistos archaeological site, Crete (2000-1400 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phaistos, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The minoan settlement of Phaistos archaeological site, Crete (2000-1400 BCE). A silo for grain storage."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Pithoi (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Ancient Cretan Pithoi, used for storage of food products. Malia, Crete (1900-1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Stone for harvest offerings (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The stone Kernos for food offerings of the collected harvest, the Minoan settlement of Malia, Crete (1650-1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Talos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A scene from a Greek red-figure vase depicting the death of Talos, the iron automaton which protected Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Law Code of Gortyn, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The lawcode from Gortyn, Crete was written in the 5th century BCE and is said to be the largest epigraphic text in ancient Greek (8 m x 1.70 m)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Olive in the Ancient Mediterranean (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Olives and olive oil were not only an important component of the ancient Mediterranean diet but also one of the most successful industries in antiquity. Cultivation of the olive spread with Phoenician and Greek colonization from Asia Minor to Iberia and North Africa and fine olive oil became a great trading commodity right through to the Roman period and beyond. The olive also came to have a wider cultural significance..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Palace of Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Minoan palace at Knossos, Crete (c. 1500 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Palaikastro Hymn and the modern myth of the Cretan Zeus (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Palaikastro Hymn—better known as the Hymn of the Kouretes—does not celebrate a god of pre-Hellenic pedigree, who is Zeus in name only, as scholars have believed with virtual unanimity. Rather, an understanding of the conventions of Greek hymnic performance in its ritual context goes far to elucidating many of the ostensibly peculiar features of the Hymn. Moving out from Palaikastro..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The scientific origins of the Minotaur - Matt Kaplan (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-scientific-origins-of-the-minotaur-matt-kaplan The myth of the Minotaur tells the story of an enraged beast forever wandering the corridors of a damp labyrinth, filled with a rage so intense that its deafening roar shakes the earth. But is this story just fiction, or an attempt of our early ancestors to make sense of the natural world? Matt Kaplan examines..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Theseus & the Minotaur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This Attic black figure vase shows Theseus killing the Minotaur of the Cretan labyrinth. A feminine figure looks on from the right, possibly Ariadne. Late 6th, early 5th century BCE. (Archaeological Museum, Milan)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Theseus & the Minotaur: More than a Myth? (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Until Sir Arthur Evans unearthed the palace of Knossos, the half-man-half bull killed by Theseus was considered just a popular legend; archaeology changed that perception. King Minos, of Crete, fought hard with his brother to ascend the throne and, having won the kingship and exiled his brother, prayed to the god of the sea, Poseidon, for a snow white bull as a sign of the god's approval. Minos..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Zakros Minoan Site (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Archaeological site at Zakros, Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Civilization (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>The Minoan civilization flourished in the middle Bronze Age on the Mediterranean island of Crete from ca. 2000 BCE until ca. 1500 BCE and, with their unique art and architecture, the Minoans made a significant contribution to the development of Western European civilization as it is known today.</p> <p>The archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans was first alerted to the possible presence..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Akrotiri Frescoes (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Bronze Age frescoes from Akrotiri on the Aegean island of Thera (modern-day Santorini) provide some of the most famous images from the ancient Greek world. Sometime between 1650 and 1550 BCE Thera suffered a devastating earthquake which destroyed the town, and this catastrophe was soon followed by a volcanic eruption which covered the settlement of Akrotiri in metres-thick layers of pumice and volcanic..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Dolphin Fresco, Knossos, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A detail of the dolphin fresco, the Minoan palace of Knossos, Crete, (1700-1450 BCE)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Fresco from the House of the Ladies, Akrotiri (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A fresco from the House of the Ladies in Akrotiri on the Aegean island of Thera (Santorini), c. 17th century BCE. The several women depicted on the walls of the room wear typical Minoan dress. Above the women is a representation of a starry sky. (Museum of Prehistoric Thera, Santorini)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Fresco from the House of the Ladies, Akrotiri (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A fresco from the House of the Ladies in Akrotiri on the Aegean island of Thera (Santorini), c. 17th century BCE. The several women depicted on the walls of the room wear typical Minoan dress. Above the women is a representation of a starry sky. (Museum of Prehistoric Thera, Santorini)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Griffin Fresco, Knossos, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A detail of the griffin fresco from the throne room, palace of Knossos, Crete, (1700-1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Harvester Vase (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Minoan stone vessel known as the 'Harvester Vase', from Hagia Triada on Crete, 1500-1450 BCE. The vase is carved from serpentine and was originally covered in gold leaf. The scenes in relief depict a sowing festival and the vase was probably used to pour liquids during religious rituals. (Archaeological Museum of Heraklion, Crete)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Kamares Style Cup (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Minoan cup in the Kamares style, a polychrome decoration of bold lines in red/orange and white on a black background, prevalent from 2000 to 1700 BCE. (British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Kamares Ware Pottery (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Two examples of the distinctive Kamares Style of pottery decoration used by the Minoans based on Crete in the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1700 BCE). The designs were rendered with bold strokes of red and white on a black background and the style is named after the place on Crete where most examples have been excavated."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Knossos is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete, probably the ceremonial and political center of the Minoan civilization and culture. It is a popular tourist destination today, as it is near the main city of Heraklion and has been substantially if imaginatively "rebuilt", making the site accessible to the casual visitor in a way that a field of unmarked ruins is not."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Knossos Crete - The palace of Knossos - ancient (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Knossos nearby Heraklion Crete. Shot by HD-video. The great ancient Minoan palace was built gradually between 1700 and 1400 BC, with periodic rebuildings after destruction. Go and vist Crete your self. Video-editing, background music etc.. Pinnacle Studie 12 Ultimate Plus. Video by John Stæhr"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Labrys (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A stone carved labrys or double axe, a common motif in Minoan art and architecture, Malia (1700-1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Labyrinth of Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Inside the 'labyrinth' of the Minoan palace at Knossos, Crete, (c. 1500 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Linear A Script (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An example of a Minoan Linear A tablet."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Malia, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Hypostyle Hall with six pillars, the Minoan settlement of Mallia archaeological site, Crete (1650-1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Minoan Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of Minoan Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mesara Plain, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A view from Phaistos over the Mesara plain in Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan 'Master of the Animals' Pendant (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A solid gold pendant from the Minoan civilization depicting a deity holding two birds, possibly geese (18-17th century BC). Provenance: Aegina (British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Barbotine Jug (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Minoan jug in the Barbotine style where decorative excrescenses were added to the vessel, 1850-1800 BCE from Knossos. (British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Bee Pendant (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A solid gold Minoan pendant depicting two bees clutching a honeycomb (1800-1700 BCE), found in the Old Palace cemetery at Chrysolakkos near Malia, Crete. (Herakleion Archaeological Museum, Crete)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Bull Leaping (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A fresco showing bull leaping, Minoan Knossos (Final Palatial period 1450-1400 BCE), Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Bull-Leaper (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An ivory figurine representating a bull-leaper from a three dimensional composition (with two other figures and a bull) depicting this Minoan sporting or religious activity. Hair would have been added using bronze wire and clothes in gold leaf, 1600-1500 BCE. It is perhaps the earliest known attempt in sculpture to capture free movement in space. (Archaeological Museum Herakleion) Sakellarakis..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Double Axes (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Gold votive double axes, New Palace period (1600-1450 BCE), Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete. The double axe, also known as 'labrys', may be the origin of the labyrinth myth of Knossos."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Fresco (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A fresco detail from a banquet scene (known as 'La Parisienne') from Knossos, 1400-1350 BCE. The figure, in a robe and with a sacral knot at her neck, is perhaps a priestess. (Archaeological Museum, Heraklion)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Frescoes (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Frescoes are the source of some of the most striking imagery handed down to us from the Minoan civilization of Bronze Age Crete (2000-1500 BCE). Further, without written records, they are often the only source, along with decorated pottery, of just how the world appeared to the Minoans and give us tantalizing glimpses of their beliefs, cultural practices and aesthetic tastes.  Techniques..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Gold Ring (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An engraved gold ring from the Minoan civilization on Crete, 15-14th century BCE. The ring probably originates from Knossos and depicts the epiphany of a goddess: seated in a shrine, floating in the air and standing in a boat. The hoop is decorated with granulation. (Herakleion Archaeological Museum, Crete)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Horns of Consecration (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Bull horns were a common religious symbol in the Cretan Minoan culture (2000 BCE - 1450 BCE), represented in fresco, on pottery and as here from the palace of Knossos, in architectural stone decoration."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Jewellery (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The jewellery of the Minoan civilization based on Bronze Age Crete demonstrates, as with other Minoan visual art forms, not only a sophisticated technological knowledge (in this case of metalwork) and an ingenuity of design but also a joy in vibrantly representing nature and a love of flowing, expressive, shapes and forms. Materials & Technology Initially influenced technically and artistically..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Jug in Floral Style (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Late New-Palace period (1450 BCE) clay jug with distinctive leaf pattern, from Phaistos. (Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Pottery (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The ever evolving pottery from the Minoan civilization of Bronze Age Crete (2000-1500 BCE) demonstrates, perhaps better than any other medium, not only the Minoan joy in animal, sea and plant life but also their delight in flowing, naturalistic shapes and design. Kamares Style Following on from the pre-palatial styles of Vasiliki (with surfaces decorated in mottled red and black) and Barbotine..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Rhyton (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Stone rhyton (libation vase) in the form of a bull's head from the Minoan site of Knossos, New-Palace period (1600-1500 BCE), Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Rock-Crystal Bowl (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Minoan rock-crystal bowl in the form of a duck, 16th century BCE. The vessel was found at Mycenae but has been attributed to the earlier Minoan civilization based on Crete. The vessel was probably used to store cosmetic creams. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Rock-Crystal Vase (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Minoan vase carved from rock-crystal, from Zakros on Crete, c. 1450 BCE. The collar includes gilded ivory discs and the handle is made from rock-crystal beads strung on bronze wire. The vessel was probably used to pour liquids in religious rituals. (Archaeological Museum of Heraklion, Crete)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Snake Goddess, Knossos. (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Faience figurine of the Minoan Snake Goddess - her dominion was over nature and fertility. New-Palace period (1600 BCE). Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Stone Jug (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Minoan alabaster jug, Crete, 15th century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Stone Vases (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A range of stone vessels from Minoan Crete, 15th century BCE. (Archaeological Museum of Herakllion, Crete)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Stoneware (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Craftsmen of the Minoan civilization centred on the island of Crete produced stone vessels from the early Bronze Age (c. 2500 BCE) using a wide variety of stone types which were laboriously carved out to create vessels of all shapes, sizes and function. The craft continued for a millennium and vessels were of such quality that they found their way to the Greek mainland and islands across the Aegean..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Vase (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Late Minoan polychrome vase, mid-15th century BCE, from Isopata. (Archaeological Museum, Heraklion)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Vase in Marine Style (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "New-Palace period (1500-1450 BCE) Cretan Clay askos with 'Marine Style' decoration, (Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Palace of Knossos, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Palace at Knossos, Crete, (c. 1500 BCE). A restored upper-level lightwell."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Papyrus Fresco, Akrotiri (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Papyrus Fresco from the Room of the Ladies from the house of the same name, Akrotiri, Thera. Papyrus is not indigineous to Thera and therefore suggests that the Cycladic artists were borrowing iconography from elsewhere, perhaps Egypt or Minoan Crete. 17th century BCE. (Museum of Prehistoric Thera, Santorini)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phaistos Disk (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "One side (A) of the Phaistos disk, New-Palace period (1600-1450 BCE), Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete, Each side of the clay disk is impressed with hieroglyphic symbols as yet undeciphered."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phaistos Disk (Side B) (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "One side (B) of the Phaistos Disk, New-Palace period (1600-1450 BCE). Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete,"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phaistos, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Minoan settlement of Phaistos archaeological site, Crete (2000-1400 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phaistos, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The minoan settlement of Phaistos archaeological site, Crete (2000-1400 BCE). A silo for grain storage."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Pithoi (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Ancient Cretan Pithoi, used for storage of food products. Malia, Crete (1900-1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Shamanic elements in Minoan religion (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Ritual has always been a popular subject of study in archaeology and anthropology. Early ethnographers relished the details of its drama, and early archaeologists found it a convenient explanation for those finds they could not explain. More sophisticated modern scholars ponder the symbolic complexity of its action, and debate its social function. And yet, in all of this, there has been relatively..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Stone for harvest offerings (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The stone Kernos for food offerings of the collected harvest, the Minoan settlement of Malia, Crete (1650-1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Jericho River: An Interview with David Tollen (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "In his first work of fiction, the novel The Jericho River ($12.88 on Amazon/ $9.94 on Bookdepository) David Tollen tells a vivid story by beautifully bringing together most major civilizations in history. In this exclusive interview, Jan van der Crabben, CEO of Ancient History Encyclopedia speaks to author David Tollen, to find out more about his journey writing The Jericho River. ..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Palace of Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Minoan palace at Knossos, Crete (c. 1500 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The scientific origins of the Minotaur - Matt Kaplan (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-scientific-origins-of-the-minotaur-matt-kaplan The myth of the Minotaur tells the story of an enraged beast forever wandering the corridors of a damp labyrinth, filled with a rage so intense that its deafening roar shakes the earth. But is this story just fiction, or an attempt of our early ancestors to make sense of the natural world? Matt Kaplan examines..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Byzantium (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>The ancient city of Byzantium was founded by Greek colonists from Megara around 657 BCE. According to the historian Tacitus, it was built on the European side of the Strait of Bosporus on the order of the &ldquo;god of Delphi&rdquo; who said to build &ldquo;opposite the land of the blind&rdquo;.&nbsp; This was in reference to the inhabitants of Chalcedon who had built their..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Bronze Coin of Byzantium (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Bronze coin of Byzantium: Dolphin flanked by two tunny fish, 146-176 CE. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Chariot Race at the Hippodrome (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This is part of a sequence being prepared for the exhibition in Schallaburg, Austria which will begin on the 31st of March 2012. The original is in Full HD."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Forum of Constantine, Byzantium (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Forum of Constantine before Constantine's bronze statue fell down during the windstorm in 1106 CE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Byzantine Constantinople (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Topographical map of Constantinople during the Byzantine period. Main map source: R. Janin, Constantinople Byzantine. Developpement urbain et repertoire topographique. Road network and some other details based on Dumbarton Oaks Papers 54; data on many churches, especially unidentified ones, taken from the University of New York's The Byzantine Churches of Istanbul project. Other published maps and accounts..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Porta Aurea, Byzantium (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Porta Aurea - Golden Gate, Byzantium. Rendered with Lumion. Can not be used without permission."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Theodora: A True Heroine? (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Was Theodora I, the wife of Emperor Justinian of Byzantium (reigned  527 - 565 CE), a heroine?  The historian Treadgold calls her a protectress of women, as she used her influence to help them gain rights. She is also seen in popular legend as a protector and defender of the poor and weak. Because she was a close collaborator, some even say a co-ruler, with her husband, it is extremely likely..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Total War History: The Theodosian Walls (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Amongst the most formidable structures ever built by the Romans would be the massive triple layered walls of Constantinople. Today we dive into the details of this superstructure! Sources: Uniforms of the Roman World by Kevin Kiley The End of Empire: Attila the Hun and the Fall of Rome by Christopher Kelly Music: "Triumph" - Epic Music "Becoming a Legend" - John Dreamer "Eternal Flame"..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Scotland (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Scotland is a country which, today, comprises the northern part of Great Britain and includes the islands known as the Hebrides and the Orkneys. The name derives from the Roman word &quot;Scotti&quot; which designated an Irish tribe who invaded the region and established the kingdom of Dal Riata. A claim has also been made, however, that the land is named after Scota, daughter of..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A Roman Lioness Devouring a Man (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This sculpture depicts a large lioness devouring a naked bearded man; the overall scene represents the destructive power of death. The 2 snakes on the base symbolize the survival of the soul. The sculpture was built as part of a tomb memorial; it signaled the status of a high-ranking Roman officer. It was found in the year 1997 CE at the mouth of the River Almond, Cramond village, Midlothian, Scotland..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Aerial View of Clava Cairns (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "A view around Clava Cairns from the DJI Phantom."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Altar Fragment to Jupiter Dolichenus, Birrens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Roman soldiers, when they came to Scotland, brought their own gods and goddesses from their local areas. Exotic cults were easily adopted too, such as that developed to Jupiter Dolichenus (a mixture of Roman Jupiter and a Syrian sky god) who was very popular with soldiers. The inscriptions on this altar read "Sacred to Jupiter Dolichenus, best and greatest, Magunna, fulfilled her vow." From Birrens, Scotland..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Alter to Goddess Ricagambeda, Birrens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Roman soldiers, when they came to Scotland, brought their own gods and goddesses from their local areas. Exotic cults were easily adopted too. Ricagambeda was a Celtic goddess worshiped by troops in the Rhineland. The inscriptions on this altar read "To the goddess Ricagambeda, the men of the Vellavian district in the 2nd Cohort of Tungrians, willingly and deservedly fulfilled their vow." From Birrens, Scotland..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Balnuaran of Clava (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The late Neolithic Age site of The Balnuaran of Clava, popularly known as Clava Cairns, dating from 2500 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Barnhouse Settlement (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "House Three at the Neolithic village of Barnhouse Settlement, Orkney, Scotland. Constructed and occupied 3300-2600 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Bowl with Neptune, Inveresk (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Neptune was god of the oceans, freshwater, and seas (he was the counterpart of the Greek god Posiedon). The outer surface of this bowl was decorated with Neptune and a merman on his left and dolphin and Jupiter to his right. From Inveresk, Scotland, late 1st century to late 2nd century CE. (National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, UK)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Brignatia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Brignatia, goddess of war and engineers, was worshiped in Celtic religion. She was the chief goddess of a local tribe in northern England and southern Scotland. Here, she was depicted as a Roman goddess; she has 2 wings, wears a crown, and holds a spear and world globe. From Birrens, Scotland, 120-180 CE. (National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, UK)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Crannog, Loch Tay, Scotland (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Crannog centre on Loch Tay near Kenmore recreates an ancient Crannog, which was a wooden structure built out on a man-made island in a lake and connected to the shore by a narrow, and easily defensible, causeway."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Digging Into Scotland's Mysterious, Ancient Past (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Scotland's Orkney Islands are so dense with human artifacts that they've been called "the Egypt of the North." At the site of a colossal complex that predates Stonehenge, archaeologists have discovered Neolithic art, pottery, and several carved stones that are extremely rare. Read more about the finds online in National Geographic magazine: http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2014/08/neolithic-orkney/smith-text..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Head of a Local Deity, Birrens, Scotland (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "In the Roman empire deities which were not part of normal Roman beliefs were often readily adopted and worshiped. On the frontiers, such as Scotland, soldiers worshiped local gods and goddesses. This is a head of an unknown local deity. From Birrens, Scotland, 2nd century CE. (National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, UK)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Knap of Howar (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Knap of Howar on the island of Papa Westray in the Orkney Islands, believed to be the oldest stone house in northern Europe (3700-3500 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Knap of Howar, Scotland (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "At Knap of Howar on the island of Papa Westray in Orkney, Scotland, a Neolithic farmstead may be the oldest preserved stone house in northern Europe. Radiocarbon dating shows that it was occupied from 3700 BC to 2800 BC, earlier than the similar houses in the settlement at Skara Brae on the Orkney Mainland. Coordinates: 59°20′57.66″ N, 2°54′39.06″ W"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Leg from a Large Roman Statue from Milsington (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Under Roman occupation, Scotland was an unwilling part of a huge empire whose system and ways were entirely alien to its native people. The price of resistance was slavery or death, crushed beneath the imperial foot; this is a leg from a larger-than-life Roman statue. From Milsington, Scotland, 2nd century CE. (National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, UK)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lewis Chessmen (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This film uses replicas of the famous Lewis Chessmen to tell the stories of Norse Kings and kingdoms. Originally created as part of an installation for the Lews Castle Museum in Stornoway, Outer Hebrides, Scotland. http://isodesign.co.uk"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Luxury Glass Bowl (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Ancient cast glass features a wide range of decoration, produced by fusing together different layers of colored glass. Mosaic patterns were created by cutting colored glass canes in cross-section, and marble glass was mould-blown into shape. This bowl imitates the translucence of semi-precious stone. Hellenistic or Roman, 2nd to mid-1st century BCE. (National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, UK)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Maeshowe (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The chambered cairn and passage grave of Maeshowe, Orkney, Scotland, in use 3000-2800 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Maeshowe Chambered Cairn, Orkney | 3D Scanning (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The chambered tomb of Maeshowe is in The Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site. Along with the Standing Stones of Stenness, the Ring of Brodgar, the Barnhouse settlement and Skara Brae prehistoric village, it allows visitors to understand the landscape and monuments of our ancestors more than 5000 years ago. In 2011 laser scanners were used to record the site and create a three dimensional..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Maeshowe excavation 1861 (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This drawing, by a Mr. Gibb of Aberdeen, Scotland, depicts the state of Maeshowe shortly after the excavation through the roof of the structure in 1861 by the antiquarian James Farrer."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ness of Brodgar (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The Ness of Brodgar is a Neolithic Age site discovered in 2002 CE through a geophysical survey of the area of land in Stenness in Orkney, Scotland, which separates the salt water Stenness Loch from the fresh water Harray Loch. Excavation of the site, which covers 6.2 acres (2.5 hectares), began in 2003 CE, when a stone slab was ploughed up north of the site, and is ongoing with only 10% of the area excavated..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Pictish Stone, Invereen, Scotland (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Pictish stones are a form of monumental steles and are mainly found at the eastern part of Scotland and around the Clyde-Forth line. This stone was found in Invereen, Moy, Inverness-shire, Scotland. It is of class I category. The stone was carved with Pictish symbols, typical of the 7th and 8th century CE. There are double-disc, crescent, z- and v- symbols. History is silent on the meaning of these stones..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Altar to Jupiter, Newstead (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "In ancient Scotland, the Romans put up altars inscribed with the names of their gods. An alter was a public sign of a worshiper's beliefs. On each altar, the names of the god and the donor were recorded. Offerings were made on the hollow on the top and wine was often poured onto the altar. In ancient Roman mythology, Jupiter was the King of the Gods, God of the sky and lightening. From Newstead, Scotland..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Scottish Highlands (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Heather in the Scottish Highlands (between Perth and Aberdeen)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Scultpture of Jupiter Dolichenus & Juno Regina (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Roman soldiers, when they came to Scotland, brought their own gods and goddesses from their local areas. Exotic cults were easily adopted too, such as that developed to Jupiter Dolichenus (a mixture of Roman Jupiter and a Syrian sky god) who was very popular with the soldiers. The inscriptions on this sculpture read "To Jupiter Dolichenus, best and greatest." From Croy Hill, Scotland, late 1st to mid-2nd..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Skara Brae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An excavated structure at Skara Brae, the Neolithic Age village in Orkney, Scotland, inhabited 3100-2500 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Skara Brae, Orkney (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Skara Brae is a neolithic site situated in the Orkney islands of Scotland. The village of stone buildings was inhabited from c. 3100 to 2500 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Stone furnishings of a house (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The houses at Skara Brae all feature home furnishings made from stone. This photo shows a stone cupboard/dresser, stone beds and chairs, and grinding stones as well as other household tools of the time."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Tacitus' Account of The Battle of Mons Graupius (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Battle of Mons Graupius was fought in 83 CE between the invading forces of Rome, under the general Agricola, and the Picts, the indigenous people of modern-day Scotland, under their leader Calgacus. The only account of the battle is found in the Agricola by the Roman historian Tacitus (56-117 CE) who was Agricola's son-in-law. The location of the battle is not known, and as many as 29 sites..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Balnuaran of Clava (Clava Cairns) (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The late Neolithic Age site of The Balnuaran of Clava, popularly known as Clava Cairns, dating from 2500 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Balnuaran of Clava (Clava Cairns) (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The late Neolithic Age site of The Balnuaran of Clava, popularly known as Clava Cairns, dating from 2500 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Ness of Brodgar (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Ness of Brodgar excavation site in Stenness, Orkney, Scotland. The site is dated to 3500 BCE and so predates both Stonehenge and the Pyramids at Giza. It was discovered in 2002 and excavations are ongoing."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Weaving Combs from Ancient Scotland (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "These combs were made of whalebone. What makes whalebone particularly useful is not only is it strong, dense, and resilient, but it can also be used to produce objects of very large sizes. This collection of weaving combs is from Gurness, Howmae, and Midhowe, Scotland, 2nd century BCE to 4th century CE. (National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, UK)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Aegean (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>The Aegean Sea lies between the coast of Greece and Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). It contains over 2,000 islands which were settled by the ancient Greeks; the largest among them being Crete (Kriti) and the best known and most often photographed, Santorini (Thera or Thira). Both of these islands have strong associations with ancient Greek history and myth in that Crete features significantly..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Akrotiri Frescoes (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Bronze Age frescoes from Akrotiri on the Aegean island of Thera (modern-day Santorini) provide some of the most famous images from the ancient Greek world. Sometime between 1650 and 1550 BCE Thera suffered a devastating earthquake which destroyed the town, and this catastrophe was soon followed by a volcanic eruption which covered the settlement of Akrotiri in metres-thick layers of pumice and volcanic..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cycladic Figurine c. 2400 BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A marble figurine from the Cycladic islands, c. 2400 BCE. The posture and incised details are typical of Cycladic sculpture and the swollen belly may suggest pregnancy. The function of the statues is unknown but they may represent a fertility deity. (J.Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, USA)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cycladic Harp Player Figurine (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A 28cm high, marble harp player from the Cycladic islands, 2700-2300 BCE. It is one of the earliest representations of a musician from the Bronze Age Aegean. (J.Paul Getty museum, Malibu, USA)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cycladic Head Sculpture (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A marble head from a large Cycladic figure sculpture, 2600-2500 BCE. The head shows traces of pigment on the forehead - probably a diadem - and the nose and cheeks. (J.Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, USA)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cycladic Sculpture (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Cycladic islands of the Aegean were first inhabited by voyagers from Asia Minor around 3000 BCE and a certain prosperity was achieved thanks to the wealth of natural resources on the islands such as gold, silver, copper, obsidian and marble. This prosperity allowed for a flourishing of the arts and the uniqueness of Cycladic art is perhaps best illustrated by their clean-lined and minimalistic sculpture..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Dolphin Fresco, Knossos, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A detail of the dolphin fresco, the Minoan palace of Knossos, Crete, (1700-1450 BCE)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Early Cycladic Figurines (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Early Cycladic 'violin' figurines in marble, 3200-2800 BCE. The figurines represent a squatting female figure but their exact significance is not known. Most probably they represent a female fertility deity. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Fisherman Fresco, Akrotiri (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Fisherman Fresco from Akrotiri on the Aegean island of Thera (Santorini). The male may actually be a youth offering fish as part of a religious ceremony rather than a fisherman. From Room 5 of the West House, c. 17th century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Greco-Persian Wars (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map showing the Greek world during the Greco-Persian Wars (ca. 500–479 BC)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Griffin Fresco, Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The griffin fresco in situ, Minoan palace of Knossos, Crete, (1700-1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Knossos is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete, probably the ceremonial and political center of the Minoan civilization and culture. It is a popular tourist destination today, as it is near the main city of Heraklion and has been substantially if imaginatively "rebuilt", making the site accessible to the casual visitor in a way that a field of unmarked ruins is not."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Archaic Greece (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the political structure of Greece in the Archaic Age (ca. 750 - 490 BC)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Minoan Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of Minoan Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Bull Leaping (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A fresco showing bull leaping, Minoan Knossos (Final Palatial period 1450-1400 BCE), Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Frescoes (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Frescoes are the source of some of the most striking imagery handed down to us from the Minoan civilization of Bronze Age Crete (2000-1500 BCE). Further, without written records, they are often the only source, along with decorated pottery, of just how the world appeared to the Minoans and give us tantalizing glimpses of their beliefs, cultural practices and aesthetic tastes.  Techniques..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Jewellery (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The jewellery of the Minoan civilization based on Bronze Age Crete demonstrates, as with other Minoan visual art forms, not only a sophisticated technological knowledge (in this case of metalwork) and an ingenuity of design but also a joy in vibrantly representing nature and a love of flowing, expressive, shapes and forms. Materials & Technology Initially influenced technically and artistically..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Pottery (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The ever evolving pottery from the Minoan civilization of Bronze Age Crete (2000-1500 BCE) demonstrates, perhaps better than any other medium, not only the Minoan joy in animal, sea and plant life but also their delight in flowing, naturalistic shapes and design. Kamares Style Following on from the pre-palatial styles of Vasiliki (with surfaces decorated in mottled red and black) and Barbotine..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Pottery (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The pottery of the Mycenaean civilization (1550-1050 BCE), although heavily influenced by the earlier Minoans based on Crete, nevertheless, added new pottery shapes to the existing range and achieved its own distinctive decorative style which was strikingly homogenous across Mycenaean Greece. Mycenaean wares typically display stylized representations of marine and plant life and show a fondness for minimalistic..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Vase Decorated With An Octopus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Mycenaean vase or krater depicting a stylized octopus (1400-1300 BCE). Provenance: Ialysos, Rhodes. (British Museum)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Vase Decorated With Bulls & Birds (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Mycenaean vase (1300-1200 BCE) in the pictorial style depicting stylized bulls and birds. From a tomb in Enkomi, Cyprus. (British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ruins of Archaic Thera (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The ruins of Archaic Thera on Santorini, Greece."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ship Procession Fresco, Akrotiri (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Bronze Age fresco of a ship procession from Akrotiri on the Aegean island of Thera (modern-day Santorini). From Room 5 of the West House, c. 2000-1500 BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Beginnings of Historic Greece (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Beginnings of Historic Greece. 700 - 600 B.C."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Delian League, Part 6: The Decelean War and the Fall of Athens (413/2-404/3 BCE) (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The sixth and last phase of the Delian League begins with the Decelean War, also referred to as the Ionian War, and ends with the surrender of Athens (413/2 – 404/3 BCE). The final nine years of the Delian League became the most chaotic for the alliance as a whole. It suffered repeating reversals in fortune, while actual control of the Delian League at times shifted between the polis of Athens..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The End of the Bronze Age (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Around 1200 BC, the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean went into major cultural decline: The Late Bronze Age came to a sudden end. Kingdoms that had wielded immense power completely disappeared. For several centuries after this, agriculture was people’s only means of subsistence. These were pivotal changes in history. Explaining them remains one of the big challenges in Mediterranean archaeology..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Island Kingdom of Aegina: The Old Gods Still Whisper Their Truths (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Today, traveling an hour by ferry from Piraeus, the port of Athens, the first remnant of Aegina’s great past a visitor will see is the lonely pillar of Apollo rising from the trees on the hill of Kolona. Once a splendid complex of three buildings (the Temple of Apollo itself rose on eleven large pillars and six smaller ones) and a cemetery (in which a large collection of gold and jewelry was found..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Olive in the Ancient Mediterranean (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Olives and olive oil were not only an important component of the ancient Mediterranean diet but also one of the most successful industries in antiquity. Cultivation of the olive spread with Phoenician and Greek colonization from Asia Minor to Iberia and North Africa and fine olive oil became a great trading commodity right through to the Roman period and beyond. The olive also came to have a wider cultural significance..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Phoenicians - Master Mariners (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Driven by their desire for trade and the acquisition of such commodities as silver from Spain, gold from Africa, and tin from the Scilly Isles, the Phoenicians sailed far and wide, even beyond the Mediterranean’s traditional safe limits of the Pillars of Hercules and into the Atlantic. They were credited with many important nautical inventions and firmly established a reputation as the greatest mariners..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Theseus & the Minotaur: More than a Myth? (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Until Sir Arthur Evans unearthed the palace of Knossos, the half-man-half bull killed by Theseus was considered just a popular legend; archaeology changed that perception. King Minos, of Crete, fought hard with his brother to ascend the throne and, having won the kingship and exiled his brother, prayed to the god of the sea, Poseidon, for a snow white bull as a sign of the god's approval. Minos..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Trade in Ancient Greece (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Trade was a fundamental aspect of the ancient Greek world and following territorial expansion, an increase in population movements, and innovations in transport, goods could be bought, sold, and exchanged in one part of the Mediterranean which had their origin in a completely different and far distant region. Food, raw materials, and manufactured goods were not only made available to Greeks for the first..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Wine in the Ancient Mediterranean (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Wine was the most popular manufactured drink in the ancient Mediterranean. With a rich mythology, everyday consumption, and important role in rituals wine would spread via the colonization process to regions all around the Mediterranean coastal areas and beyond. The Greeks institutionalised wine-drinking in their famous symposia drinking parties, and the Romans turned viticulture into a hugely successful..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ur (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Ur was a city in the region of Sumer, southern Mesopotamia, in what is modern-day Iraq. According to biblical tradition, the city is named after the man who founded the first settlement there, Ur, though this has been disputed. The city&rsquo;s other biblical link is to the patriarch Abraham who left Ur to settle in the land of Canaan. This claim has also been contested by scholars who believe..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A Gift from King Shulgi: A Pair of Gold Earrings (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Gold is a treasure, and he who possesses it does all he wishes to in this world, and succeeds in helping souls into paradise. Christopher Columbus.   On June 22, 2005, the Sulaymaniyah Museum of Iraqi Kurdistan purchased a pair of gold earrings and on the same day these jewellery items received a registration number of “SM 2892“. They cost the bargain price of 7,000.00 USD..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A Kassite Style Jar (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This pottery jar has spindle-shaped Kassite-style contours and was found within the Kassite layers at the city of Ur. Kassite period, 1531-1155 BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A Stone Bowl with Two Inscriptions (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This stone bowl has two sets of cuneiform inscriptions. The first one says that the bowl was booty brought to Mesopotamia from Magan (modern Sultanate of Oman) by the Akkadian king Naram-Sin (2254-2218 BCE). The second inscription mentions that later, the daughter of King Shulgi of Ur III, dedicated the bowl to the moon god Sin at Ur (2094-2047 BCE). (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A Sumerian Wall Plaque Showing Libation Scenes (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The upper register shows a naked priest followed by three worshippers. The priest pours an unknown liquid offering from a spouted vessel into a stemmed dish or stand, in front of a horned god figure. In the lower register, there are three worshippers; one of them carries an animal offering and one of them is a woman who is shown "full-faced." She may be a priestess or she may represent the donor of..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A Tour of the Ziggurat of Ur (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This video acts as a virtual tour of the Ziggurat of Ur (located near modern day Nasiriyah, Iraq which was in the city-state of Sumeria in Mesopotamia). This site was originally excavated in 1922 by the tour guide's grandfather."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Babylon at the time of Hammurabi (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A locator map of Hammurabi's Babylonia, showing the Babylonian territory upon his ascension in 1792 BC and upon his death in 1750 BC. The river courses and coastline are those of that time period -- in general, they are not the modern rivers or coastlines. This is a Mercator projection, with north in its usual position. There is some question to what degree the cities of Nineveh, Tuttul, and Assur..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Babylon at the time of the Kassites (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the Babylonian Empire during the time of the Kassites, roughly the 13th century BC. This map shows the probable river courses and coastline at that time."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Chaplet from Tomb at Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "2900-2350 BCE. Chaplet that decorated the forehead of the one of the king's attendants, who would have been buried with the king. Found in cemetery at Ur by Sir Leonard Woolley, 1920-1930 CE. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Complaint about Delivery of the Wrong Grade of Copper (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This clay tablet was a letter from a person named Nanni to another one, Ea-nasir. The former complained that the wrong grade of copper ore has been delivered after a gulf (modern-day Arabic/Persian Gulf) voyage and that there was a misdirection and a delay of a further shipment. Old-Babylonian Period, circa 1750 BCE. From Ur, Southern Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cow's Head Detail, Silver Lyre, Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The silver cow's head decorating the front has inlaid eyes of shell and lapis lazuli. This lyre was found in the 'Great Death-Pit', one of the graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur. From Ur, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Early dynastic period, 2600-2400 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Crushed Skull and Headdress from Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This crushed skull and its surrounding elaborate headdress was excavated (en bloc) from one of the royal cemeteries at Ur, the Great Death-Pit. This is a head of one of queen/princess Pu'Abi's female attendants. Early dynastic period, circa 2600 BCE. From Ur, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cuneiform Inscribed Well Curb (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A stone ring of a well curb with cuneiform inscriptions which mention the name of the king Shu-Sin of Ur. Ur III, 2030 BCE. From southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The Pergamon Museum)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Daily life in ancient Mesopotamia cannot be described in the same way one would describe life in ancient Rome or Greece. Mesopotamia was never a single, unified civilization, not even under the Akkadian Empire of Sargon the Great.  Generally speaking, though, from the rise of the cities in c. 4500 BCE to the downfall of Sumer in 1750 BCE, the people of the regions of Mesopotamia did live their..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Dressing Queen Puabi (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "In this video, the Penn Museum exhibit team, Conservator Lynn Grant, and Near East Section Keeper Katy Blanchard assemble Queen Puabi as she may have appeared 5,000 years ago. Queen Puabi (Tomb 800) was uncovered at the Royal Cemetery at Ur by Sir Leonard Woolley in 1922."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Enheduanna - Poet, Priestess, Empire Builder (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Enheduanna (2285-2250 BCE) is the world’s first author and was the daughter (either literally or figuratively) of the great empire-builder Sargon of Akkad (2334-2279 BCE). Her name translates from the Akkadian as `high priestess of An’, the god of the sky or heaven, though the name `An’ could also refer to the moon god Nanna (also known as Su'en/Sin) as in the translation, `en-priestess..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Foundation Cone of Ur-Nammu (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This foundation cone records the building of one of Nanna's temples at Ur. Neo-Sumerian period, Ur III, reign of Ur-Nammu, 2047-2030 BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Foundation Figurine of Ur-Nammu (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a close-up image of the upper part of a copper figurine of Ur-Nammu, king of Ur. The lower half of this foundation figurine is not shown but it was inscribed with cuneiform inscriptions which mention that the figurine is dedicated to Inanna (Ishtar) and records the restoration of her temple at Uruk. Ur-Nammu depicts himself as a temple builder and carries a large basket of earth (on his head..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Foundation Tablet of Ur-Nammu (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The cuneiform inscriptions on this tablet mention the name of Ur-Nammu, king of Ur and founder of the Sumerian 3rd dynasty of Ur. From the temple of Inanna at Uruk, southern Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq. Neo-Sumerian period, 2112-2095 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Great Ziggurat of Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The ruins of the Great Ziggurat of Ur, taken in 2005 CE near Ali Air Base in Iraq. The ziggurat was built by the Sumerian King Ur-Nammu and his son Shulgi in approximately the 21st century BCE (short chronology) during the Third Dynasty of Ur. The massive step pyramid measured 210 feet (64m) in length, 150 feet (46m) in width and over 100 feet (30m) in height. The height is speculative, as only..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Headdress and Necklaces from the Royal Cemetery of Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An elaborate headdress and necklace made of gold, lapis lazuli, and carnelian which belonged to a high-level Sumerian woman. These were found in the "Great Death-Pit", one of the graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur. From Ur, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Early dynastic period, 2600-2400 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Inlaid Plaques from Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "These 2 plaques were inlaid with shell, lapiz lazuli, mother-of-pearl, and limestone red stone. Excavated by Sir Henry Layard for the Department of Antiquities in Iraq. These plaques were part of the objects allotted to the British Museum from the Ur excavations, season 1928-1929. Early Dynastic Period, 2600-2500 BCE. From Ur, Sumer, Southern Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq. (The British Museum, London..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Inlaid Shell Goats from Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is part of shell inlay depicting two standing goats, rearing up a tree. This piece possibly was part of a fitting box. Black bitumen paste was used to fill in the background. Excavated by Sir Henry Layard for the Department of Antiquities in Iraq. This object was part of the objects allotted to the British Museum from the Ur excavations, season 1927-1928. Early Dynastic Period, circa 2600 BCE..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "King Nabonidus Clay Cylinder from Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This clay document tells us how Nabonidus (the last king of Babylon) built and reconstructed the temple of Sin, the moon God, at Ur. It also mentions a prayer for the king and Beslshazzar, his son. From Ur, neo-Babylonian era, 555-539 BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq.(The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lama (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This clay plaque depicts the goddess Lama. Her hands are raised in meditation. People prayed to Lama for their personal protection. Lama always wears a long tiered-skirt. From Ur, southern Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq. Old-Babylonian period, 2000-1600 BCE. (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Man & Woman Plaque, Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "In this clay plaque, an affectionate couple is depicted (domestic scene?). The man and the woman are looking at and holding each other. From Ur, southern Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq. Old-Babylonian period, 2000-1600 BCE. (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Sumer (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The area which formed Sumer started at the Persian Gulf and reached north to the 'neck' of Mesopotamia where the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates meander much closer to each other. To the east loomed the Zagros Mountains, where scattered city states thrived on trade and learning from Sumer, and to the west was the vast expanse of the Arabian desert. The rivers have changed course considerably..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Sumer and Elam (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map with the locations of the main cities of Sumer and Elam."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mesopotamia - The Sumerians (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Gardens of Babel - The Sumerians La Cinquième 2001"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mesopotamian Cylinder Naming Nabonidus & Sacred Buildings (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Nabonidus' preoccupation with the moon god Sin led to building work outside Babylon. This clay cylinder (with very well preserved and beautifully written Babylonian characters) records the restoration of Sin's ziggurat at Ur and also asks him to protect Nabonidus and his son Belshazzar. From Ur, Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Neo-Babylonian Period, reign of Nabonidus, 556-539 BCE. (The British Museum, London..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mud Brick Stamped with the Name of King Amar-Sin (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This baked-mud brick was stamped with the name of the Neo-Sumerian king Amar-Sin (also spelled Amar-Suen; his name was previously misread as Bur-Sin). The cuneiform inscription mentions the king's making of a great vessel or laver, which he dedicated to the service of the god Ea. From Ur, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Ur III Dynasty, circa 2100-2000 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mud Brick Stamped with the Name of King Ishme-Dagan (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This baked-mud brick was stamped with the name of king Ishme-Dagan; he was the 4th king in the First Dynasty of Isin and son of Iddin-Dagan. From Ur, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Isin-Larsa period, circa 1889-1871 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mud Brick Stamped with the Name of King Warrad-Sin (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This baked-mud brick was stamped with the name of king Warrad-Sin, king of Larsa; reigned 1770-1758 BCE (short chronology) and possible co-regency with his father Kudur-Mabuk. The cuneiform inscriptions mention the building of the temple of "E-Nun-Makh" at Ur and its dedication to the moon god on behalf of himself and his son Rim-Sin. From Ur, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Isin-Larsa period. (The British..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Partial Headdress (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This headdress was made of silver and inlaid with gold, lapis lazuli, and other precious stones. It was found in one of the royal cemeteries at Ur and belonged to one of queen/princess Pu'Abi's female attendants. Early dynastic period, c. 2600 BCE. From Ur, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Protective Clay Plaque from Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a clay plaque depicting a naked woman, standing on a platform and holding her breasts. Such plaques were made to protect women and ensure their safety during labor. From Ur, Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Circa 700-500 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Protective Figure from Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a clay plaque of a woman and a child, moulded in a relief. The woman stands naked on a platform and holds her child with her left hand; the right hand appears to guide the child to her breast. Such plaques were made to protect women and ensure their safety during labor. From Ur, Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Circa 700-500 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Protective Figurine from Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "In this clay plaque, a woman is depicted nursing her child from her left breast. The mother sits cross-legged putting her infant on her lap. Such plaques were made to protect women and ensure their safety during labor. From the north-west side of the ziggurat at Ur, Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Circa 700-500 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ram in a Thicket (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "From Ur, southern Iraq, about 2600-2400 BC This is one of an almost identical pair discovered by Leonard Woolley in the 'Great Death Pit', one of the graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur. The other is now in the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia. It was named the 'Ram in a Thicket' by the excavator Leonard Woolley, who liked biblical allusions. In Genesis 22:13, God ordered Abraham..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Reconstruction of the Ziggurat of Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A 3D reconstruction of the Great Ziggurat of Ur, based on a 1939 drawing by Leonard Woolley, Ur Excavations, Volume V. The Ziggurat and its Surroundings, Figure 1.4"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ruins of Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Ruins in the Town of Ur, Southern Iraq."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Rules for playing the Royal Game of Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "There are Akkadian cuneiform inscriptions as well as explanatory diagram and rules for playing the so-called the game of 20-squares (the Royal Game of Ur).This is the front aspect of the clay tablet which shows how the central squares were also used for fortune-telling. The colophon of Itti-Marduk-balatu (a Babylonian astronomer) appears. Reign of Seleucus IV Philopator, circa 177 BCE. From Mesopotamia..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Silver Lyre, Ur, Mesopotamia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This lyre was found in the 'Great Death-Pit', one of the graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur. From Ur, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Early dynastic period, 2600-2400 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Simulation Tour: Ziggurat of Ur (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a simulation (virtual reality) video of a reconstruction of the Ziggurat of Ur in its entirety. Ur was a city in Sumer that became dominant during the Early Dynastic Period (c. 2900-2350 B.C.E) alongside other cities such as; Uruk, Nippur, Eridu, Lagash and Kish. Creators: Hussain Yahya & ytnlrB"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Standard of Ur, c. 2600-2400 B.C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=Nok4cBt0V6w Standard of Ur, c. 2600-2400 B.C.E., 21.59 x 49.5 x 12 cm (British Museum) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker & Dr. Beth Harris"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Stone Calf from Late Uruk Era (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "There is a hole on the back of this stone calf for vertical posts or other attachments. Late Uruk period, 3300-3000 BCE, from Ur, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Stone Foundation Tablet of Gudea (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This tablet mentions the name of Gudea, ruler of Lagash, to commemorate restoration of the Temple of Nindara. Found below the pavement of the Temple of Nindara at Ur, Southern Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq. Lagash II period. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sumerian Civilization: Inventing the Future (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Imagine something that has never been thought of before. If one holds a book in one’s hands, one can imagine an e-book, a large-print book, a picture book, all kinds of books. But how does one imagine a book in a world where even the concept of a `book’ does not exist? Imagine a day without time. People live in time and time directs the course of people’s days. We wake up at..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sumerian Man Offering a Libation (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Shell inlay depicting a standing and naked man (ordinary individual or priest) offering a libation. Excavated by Sir Henry Layard for the Department of Antiquities in Iraq. This object was part of the objects allotted to the British Museum from the Ur excavations, season 1926-1927. Early Dynastic Period, 2600-2500 BCE. From Ur, Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Code of Ur-Nammu (Full Text) (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest surviving code of laws. Written in Sumerian in cuneiform and dating from around 2100 BC, what remains of the code of laws gives us an insight into Mesopotamian life around fifty years after the fall of the Akkadian Empire. Ur-Nammu's code was written in what is now known as the "Sumerian Renaissance" or the Third Dynasty of Ur. Commentary on this recitation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NZcTZonjHKw..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Eternal Life of Gilgamesh (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Epic of Gilgamesh was originally a Sumerian poem, later translated into Akkadian, and first written down some 700 – 1000 years after the reign of the historical king in the cuneiform script. The poem was known originally as Sha-naqba-imru (He Who Saw The Deep) or, alternately, Shutur-eli-sham (Surpassing All Other Kings). The fullest surviving version, in the Akkadian language, was found..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Hymn to Ninkasi, Goddess of Beer (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Hymn to Ninkasi is at once a song of praise to Ninkasi, the Sumerian goddess of beer, and an ancient recipe for brewing. Written down around 1800 BCE, the hymn is no doubt much older. Evidence for brewing beer in the Mesopotamian region dates back to 3500-3100 BCE at the Sumerian settlement of Godin Tepe in modern-day Iran where, in 1992 CE, archaeologists discovered chemical traces..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Queen of the Night (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Queen of the Night (also known as the `Burney Relief’) is a high relief terracotta plaque of baked clay, measuring 19.4 inches (49.5 cm) high, 14.5 inches (37 cm) wide, with a thickness of 1.8 inches (4.8 cm) depicting a naked winged woman flanked by owls and standing on the backs of two lions. It originated in southern Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq) most probably in Babylonia, during the reign..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Royal Game of Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Royal Game of Ur, as exhibited in the British Museum, London. Early Dynastic III, about 2600 BC. Game boards of this type were found in at least six royal graves at Ur. They are made of wood, inlaid with carnelian, shell, and lapis lazuli (which was the most precious mineral at the time). This game was played all across the Ancient Near East for about 3000 years."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Silver and Golden Lyres from Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "These lyres were found in queen Pu-Abi's grave, inside the "Great Death-Pit", one of the graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur. From Ur, southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Early dynastic period, 2600-2400 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Standard of Ur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "From Ur, southern Iraq, about 2600-2400 BC This object was found in one of the largest graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur, lying in the corner of a chamber above the right shoulder of a man. Its original function is not yet understood. Leonard Woolley, the excavator at Ur, imagined that it was carried on a pole as a standard, hence its common name. Another theory suggests that it formed the soundbox..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Wonders of Ancient Mesopotamia (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Following on from the immensely successful "Day in Pompeii" exhibit, Melbourne Museum again contracted Zero One to create animation that captures the look and feel of the ancient city of Ur. Many weeks of research and consultation with expert archaeologists meant that accuracy based on the available knowledge of the area was the foundation of the project."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The World's Oldest Love Poem (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "In the 19th century CE, archaeologists descended on the region of Mesopotamia seeking physical evidence which would corroborate the biblical narratives of the Old Testament. While this may not have been initially their driving purpose, their need for funding (based on public interest to justify such funding) soon made it so. When the archaeologist Austen Henry Layard began excavations at Kalhu in 1845..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Third Dynasty of Ur (Ur III) (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Following the collapse of the Agade empire, the centre of power in southern Mesopotamia shifted to the cities of Uruk and Ur. The governor of Ur, Ur-Nammu, established a dynasty which came to dominate the other cities of the region, and whose territory stretched east into Iran. Under his successor, Shulgi, the empire was consolidated and centralised. Shulgi was named as a god in many ancient documents..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Tom Scott vs Irving Finkel: The Royal Game of Ur | PLAYTHROUGH | International Tabletop Day 2017 (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "YouTuber Tom Scott has flown drones through lightning, he’s taken on the first human-powered theme park, he’s even visited Penistone. But he’s never taken on a British Museum curator in the world’s oldest playable board game… UNTIL NOW! For International Tabletop Day 2017, Tom Scott was challenged by British Museum Curator Irving Finkel to a round of the oldest playable board game in the..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Beginning in 1922, archaeologist Charles Leonard Woolley, co-sponsored by the University of Pennsylvania and the British Museum, led a monumental excavation at Ur. This southern Mesopotamian city-state in Sumer possessed its own rich culture and architectural monuments, notably the ziggurat, a stepped structure topped by a temple. In extensive excavations undergone from 1927-1934, Woolley uncovered..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "UR Sumerian city 2300 BC (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The first city in the world " UR " ( Sumerian city ) In this city knew Agriculture then here invented writing & here invented the wheel And here the Prophet Abraham was born View form the city in 2300 BC"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ur-Nammu (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Ur-Nammu (seated) bestows governorship on Ḫašḫamer, patesi (high priest) of Iškun-Sin (cylinder seal impression, c. 2100 BCE). Greenstone seal(clay impression of the cylinder seal) of Hashhamer, Governor of Ishkun-Sin. Third Dynasty of Ur, about 2100 BCE, from Babylon, southern Iraq. Length: 5.28 cm Diameter: 2.87 cm Obtained at Babylon some time before 1820 CE by John Hine and presented..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Utu-Hegal's Stone Monument (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The cuneiform inscriptions on this fragment of a stone monument mention the name of Utu-Hegal, k King of Uruk. 2125 BCE, from Ur, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Eridu (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Eridu (present day Abu Shahrein, Iraq)&nbsp;was considered the&nbsp;first city in the world by the ancient Sumerians&nbsp;and, certainly, is among the most ancient of ruins. Founded in circa 5400 BCE, Eridu was thought to have been created by the gods and was home to the great god Enki (also known as Ea) who would develop from a local god of fresh water into the god of wisdom and..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Babylon at the time of Hammurabi (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A locator map of Hammurabi's Babylonia, showing the Babylonian territory upon his ascension in 1792 BC and upon his death in 1750 BC. The river courses and coastline are those of that time period -- in general, they are not the modern rivers or coastlines. This is a Mercator projection, with north in its usual position. There is some question to what degree the cities of Nineveh, Tuttul, and Assur..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Beer in the Ancient World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The intoxicant known in English as `beer' takes its name from the Latin `bibere' (by way of the German `bier') meaning `to drink' and the Spanish word for beer, cerveza' comes from the Latin word `cerevisia' for `of beer', giving some indication of the long span human beings have been enjoying the drink. Even so, beer brewing did not originate with the Romans but began thousands..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Daily life in ancient Mesopotamia cannot be described in the same way one would describe life in ancient Rome or Greece. Mesopotamia was never a single, unified civilization, not even under the Akkadian Empire of Sargon the Great.  Generally speaking, though, from the rise of the cities in c. 4500 BCE to the downfall of Sumer in 1750 BCE, the people of the regions of Mesopotamia did live their..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Enki in Ancient Literature (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Enki is a god of Sumerian mythology and, later in time, known as Ea in Babylonian mythology. He was the deity of sweet water, crafts, creation, intelligence, the god of wisdom and of all magic, and was the patron god of the city of Eridu before his cult spread throughout Mesopotamia. He is the son of Nammu and father of Inanna and is the third of the trinity (Anu-Enlil-Enki) heading..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Sumer (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The area which formed Sumer started at the Persian Gulf and reached north to the 'neck' of Mesopotamia where the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates meander much closer to each other. To the east loomed the Zagros Mountains, where scattered city states thrived on trade and learning from Sumer, and to the west was the vast expanse of the Arabian desert. The rivers have changed course considerably..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Sumer and Elam (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map with the locations of the main cities of Sumer and Elam."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mesopotamia - The Sumerians (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Gardens of Babel - The Sumerians La Cinquième 2001"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mesopotamia: The Rise of the Cities (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Once upon a time, in the land known as Sumer, the people built a temple to their god who had conquered the forces of chaos and brought order to the world. They built this temple at a place called Eridu, which was “one of the most southerly sites, at the very edge of the alluvial river plain and close to the marshes: the transitional zone between sea and land, with its shifting watercourses, islands..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Representation of the Port of Eridu (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An illustration representing the port of the Sumerian city of Eridu, founded c. 5000 BCE in modern-day Iraq."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Simulation Tour: Ziggurat of Ur (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a simulation (virtual reality) video of a reconstruction of the Ziggurat of Ur in its entirety. Ur was a city in Sumer that became dominant during the Early Dynastic Period (c. 2900-2350 B.C.E) alongside other cities such as; Uruk, Nippur, Eridu, Lagash and Kish. Creators: Hussain Yahya & ytnlrB"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sumerian Civilization: Inventing the Future (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Imagine something that has never been thought of before. If one holds a book in one’s hands, one can imagine an e-book, a large-print book, a picture book, all kinds of books. But how does one imagine a book in a world where even the concept of a `book’ does not exist? Imagine a day without time. People live in time and time directs the course of people’s days. We wake up at..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Mesopotamian Pantheon (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The gods of the Mesopotamian region were by no means uniform in name, power, provenance or status in the hierarchy. Mesopotamian culture varied from region to region, from city-state to city-state and, because of this, Marduk should not be regarded as King of the Gods in the same way Zeus ruled in Greece. While Marduk was venerated highly in Babylon, Enlil held that place in Sumer. It should also..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Myth of Adapa (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Myth of Adapa (also known as Adapa and the Food of Life) is the Mesopotamian story of the Fall of Man in that it explains why human beings are mortal. The god of wisdom, Ea, creates the first man, Adapa, and endows him with great intelligence and wisdom but not with immortality, and when immortality is offered Adapa by the great god Anu, Ea tricks Adapa into refusing the gift. Though it..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ancient Britain (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p> Britain (or more accurately, Great Britain) is the name of the largest of the British Isles, which lie off the northwest coast of continental Europe. The name is probably Celtic and derives from a word meaning &#39;white&#39;; this is usually assumed to be a reference to the famous white Cliffs of Dover, which any new arrival to the country by sea can hardly miss. The first mention..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Amphitheatres of Roman Britain: a study of their classes, architecture and uses (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "This thesis is a study of the classes, architecture and uses of Romano-British amphitheatres. Such a study is useful in providing an understanding of the architectural characteristics of Romano-British amphitheatres, the manner in which they differed from and resembled those in other parts of the Empire and of the types of activities for which they were used. Chapter One centres on the military..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "An Eye For Odin (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The Anglo-Saxon Sutton Hoo helmet is a religious artefact dedicated to Woden the one eyed god of war. Recent research indicates that numerous other archeaological artefacts also provide evidence that one eye on various figures has been deliberately removed as part of a Woden ritual. Read the original essay by Neil Price and Paul Mortimer here: http://www.academia.edu/7925222/"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Arched Gateway, Hadrian's Wall (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An arched gateway of Hadrian's Wall (c. 122 CE) near Milecastle, Northumbira, UK."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Beer in the Ancient World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The intoxicant known in English as `beer' takes its name from the Latin `bibere' (by way of the German `bier') meaning `to drink' and the Spanish word for beer, cerveza' comes from the Latin word `cerevisia' for `of beer', giving some indication of the long span human beings have been enjoying the drink. Even so, beer brewing did not originate with the Romans but began thousands..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Boudicca: Queen of the Iceni, Scourge of Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Boudicca (died 61 CE) was the Celtic Queen of the Iceni tribe who led a revolt against Roman occupation of what is now East Anglia, England. So charismatic was Boudicca that ancient sources record tribes joining her revolt which would not normally have supported an Iceni-led objective. Boudicca was the wife of the Iceni King Prasutagus who ruled his lands as an independent ally of Rome and who, therefore..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Britain 383-410 CE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Based on Jones & Mattingly's Atlas of Roman Britain; Mattingly's Imperial Possession; Higham's Rome, Britain, and the Anglo-Saxons; Frere's Britannia; and Snyder's An Age of Tyrants."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Britain's First Inscribed Coins (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This coin, naming the ruler Commius, is probably the earliest evidence of writing in Britain. His name appears in its Celtic form, "COMMIOS". Later coins, such as those of his son Tincomarus, have inscriptions written in Latin. Gold coin of Commius from Southern England, circa 40-25 BCE. Found in a tumulus in about 1840 CE. T. G. Barnett Bequest. (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Gold Coin Naming a New King from Britian (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This coin offers the first evidence for the existence of a local king called "Anarevito". He is not known either from other coin finds or Roman historical accounts. Coin inscriptions often provide the only reference to the kings and rulers of pre-Roman Britain. Gold coin of Anarevito from Kent, England, circa 10 BCE to 20 CE. Purchased with support from the Art Fund. (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hadrian's Wall (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A section of Hadrian's Wall near Carlisle."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hadrian's Wall Gate (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The North Gate of Housesteads Fort on Hadrian's Wall. Passport control, immigration control and customs check all in one place. The wall was a checkpoint for taxing cross-border trade as well as a defence."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Iceni Territory (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map showing the territory of the Iceni tribe overlayed in red in the context of the modern county boundaries of England and Wales."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Illness and medicine in Roman Britain (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Although medical science was still in its infancy during Roman times, knowledge of medicinal plants was widespread and sick people may have been treated with herbal remedies by relatives and friends. Environment, diet, exercise and hygiene all had a part to play in a positive approach to health. Most towns had latrines, a sewage disposal system and baths, all of which helped to maintain a healthy society..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Intaglio Finger-Ring from Anglo-Saxon England (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "In early Anglo-Saxon England, the highest status men were buried with unique and luxurious items, like this gold finger-ring set with an engraved Roman gem (intaglio). The gem itself dates back to around the 1st century CE while the ring dates to the 5th century CE. From the Snape Ship-burial at Suffolk, UK. (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "King Stone, Rollright Stones (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Part of the Rollright Stones complex, the King Stone is a solitary weathered monolith dated to 2nd millennium BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Latin and Celtic on British Coin (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Before the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 CE, rulers in the south-east struck coins with Latin inscriptions. Verica is described as REX (king) and COOMI F (son of Commius). Gradually, names usually in Celtic, appeared on coins beyond the south-east. Silver coin of Verica from Southern England, circa 10-40 CE. Found at Wanborough, Surrey. Treasure Trove. (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lead Sheet with Coin Impression (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This sheet is decorated with an impression of a coin of the Emperor Valens (Flavius Julius Valens Augustus), 364-378 CE. It may have been intended as a curse against the Emperor. From Fulstow, UK. Donated by Tom Redmayne. (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Legends of the Rollright Stones, Oxfordshire (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Rollright Stones is the collective name for a group of enigmatic prehistoric monuments located next to an ancient ridgeway known as the Jurassic Way, on the border between the English counties of Oxfordshire and Warwickshire. The name 'Rollright' derives from Hrolla-landriht, 'the land of Hrolla.' The complex of monuments at the site consists of three main elements, the 'King’s..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lunula (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Gold, 2400-2000 BCE. Mangerton, Kerry, Ireland. Though we assume this gold lunula (little moon in Latin) was a piece of jewellery, little is known about who would have worn it. Lunulae were made in Ireland and Britain during the Bronze age. This image was taken at the National Museum of Australia in the British Museum travelling exhibition A History of the World in 100 (and 1) Objects."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Roman Britain, 150 AD (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of Roman Britain ca. 150 AD, showing the main Roman roads, cities, and Brythonic tribes."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the British Isles in 54 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "When Julius Caesar landed on the Kent coast in 55 BC, he had a basic knowledge of what to expect of the south-eastern Britons from his dealings with their close relatives on the Continent. What he wasn't prepared for was the English Channel, and some bad weather almost cost him dear. His expedition doesn't seem to have made it out of Kent's borders on this occasion. However, when he returned..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the British Isles in AD 10 (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Rome maintained trading and political links of a sort with the Britons, and were able to observe the slow coalescence of the south-east towards the creation of a unified kingdom. The Catuvellauni, who had already proved themselves to be national leaders in times of external threat, were starting to make their presence felt far and wide. By about AD 1 they had already placed a Catuvellauni prince, Cunobelinus..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the British Isles in AD 43 (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "On the eve of the Roman Conquest, the south-east was dominated completely by the Catuvellauni. They, if any, could claim the legendary High Kingship of Britain. As well as having conquered the Cantiaci, the Trinovantes, and the Atrebates and their subsidiary branch, the Belgae (the Regninses may not have borne a separate identity until after the Conquest), the Dobunni tribe also seem to have developed..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the Saxon Shore, c. 380 CE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Late Roman fortifications of the "Saxon Shore" (litus Saxonicum) in Britain and France."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mosaic from Abbots Ann (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Roman villa at Abbots Ann, near Andover, was discovered in the early 1850s CE. The portions of mosaic floors uncovered were in a bold and simple style, using large tesserae in a limited range of colours, but following Roman geometric designs. From Abbots, Ann, Hampshire, UK. 4th century CE. (The British Museum. London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Neolithic Mysteries of Britain (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Neolithic stone circles, chambered cairns, and rock art continue to fascinate us to this day. Although we don't know what they were originally made for, the pagan monuments were incorporated into later pagan mythologies of the Anglo-Saxons and Vikings. Modern pagans also invent new rituals and meanings for the Neolithic monuments, often based on their solar or lunar alignments. The following Neolithic..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "On the Ocean: The Famous Voyage of Pytheas (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Sometime around 330 BCE, Pytheas, a little-known Greek merchant, embarked on an astonishing voyage. It was a voyage that would take him far beyond the known boundaries of the Mediterranean, into lands thought to exist only in myth and legend. When he returned, his voyage and the amazing things he had witnessed would be debated for centuries. Pytheas was a citizen of the western Greek city of Massilia (modern-day..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Pictish Burghead Bull (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Pictish Burghead Bull, 7th century CE, found in Burghead, Morayshire, Scotland; now in the British Museum."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Plan of Stonehenge (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The site of Stonehenge as of 2004. The plan omits the trilithon lintels for clarity. Holes that no longer, or never, contained stones are shown as open circles and stones visible today are shown coloured, grey for sarsen and blue for the imported stone, mainly bluestone. Key to plan: The Altar Stone, a six ton monolith of green micaceous sandstone from Wales barrow without a burial "barrows" (without..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Queen Boudicca (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A statue of Boudicca on her chariot (close to the Houses of Parliament, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Section of the Sweet Track (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Section of the "Sweet Track" walkway now in the British Museum. From England - 3807/3806 BCE"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Silver Ladle, Hoxne Hoard (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A gilded silver ladle from the Hoxne Hoard. Discovered in Suffolk, in the east of England in 1992 CE, the incredible collection contains 14,865 late-4th and early-5th century CE Roman gold, silver and bronze coins, and 200 items of silver tableware and gold jewellery. The hoard amounts to a total of 7.7lb of gold and 52.4 lb of silver. (British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Stonehenge (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "View of Stonehenge in Wiltshire, England."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Tacitus on Boudicca's Revolt (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Tacitus (full name, Publius Gaius Cornelius Tacitus, ca. 56 – ca. 117 CE) was a Roman Senator and an important historian of the Roman Empire. In the following passages Tacitus gives an account of the Iceni Queen Boudicca’s revolt against Rome, 60-61 CE. Causes of Boudicca’s Revolt Chapter 31 Prasutagus, the late king of the Icenians, in the course of a long reign had amassed considerable..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Capheaton Tresure (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This small circular relief shows Hercules wrestling Anteus. This fragment was part of a silver vessel. Some of these fragments of highly decorated silver vessels, perhaps from a temple treasure, were found in 1747 CE. All the decoration is purely Roman and depicts religious and mythological subjects. 2nd to 3rd centuries CE. From Capheaton, Northumberland, UK. (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Chiseldon Cauldron (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The excavation and conservation of an Iron Age cauldron. In November 2004 CE, a metal detector user discovered 12 cauldrons dating back to the Iron Age (around 800 BCE - around 43 CE), buried in a pit near the village of Chiseldon in Wiltshire, England. This chance find was carefully excavated by professional archaeologists and conservators from the British Museum."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The health of Iron Age Britons (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "It is likely that many people in Iron Age Britain would have died from diseases as babies or children. Many of those people who survived to be adults rarely lived beyond the ages of 35-45. Only about a third of all adults lived longer. Studies of the bones of Iron Age people suggest that at least a quarter suffered from arthritis in their backs from an early age. This was probably due to the hard..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The King's Men, Rollright Stones (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Part of the Rollright Stones complex, the King’s Men, a circle of about seventy stones, probably date to c. 2500 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The King's Men, Rollright Stones (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Part of the Rollright Stones complex, the King’s Men, a circle of about seventy stones, probably date to c. 2500 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Literary Development of the Arthurian Legend (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Arthurian legend begins with the Welsh cleric Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. 1100 - c. 1155 CE). Earlier history writers such as Gildas, Bede, and Nennius had already established the existence of a British war-chief who defeated the Saxons at Badon Hill long before Geoffrey wrote his own account but none of them would imagine the king so brilliantly or choose to develop history into legend. In the beginning..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The people of Iron Age Britain (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The people of Iron Age Britain were physically very similar to many modern Europeans and there is no reason to suppose that all Iron Age Britons had the same hair colour, eye colour or skin complexion. Iron Age Britons spoke one or more Celtic language, which probably spread to Britain through trade and contacts between people rather than by the invasion of large numbers of Celtic peoples into Britain..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Ribchester Helmet (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A two-piece helmet of embossed bronze consisting of a head piece and a face mask. The scene on the head piece is of a skirmish between infantry and cavalry. Fittings survive on the head piece for a crest-box and a pair of trailing streamers or "manes". This is one of the finest examples of the helmet worn by top cavalry troopers in the colorful cavalry sports events. From Ribchester, Lancashire, UK. Roman..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Roman Hoxne Hoard (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Hoxne Hoard is the largest cache of late Roman gold found anywhere in the Roman Empire. Discovered by a metal detectorist in Suffolk, in the east of England in 1992 CE, the incredible collection contains 14,865 late-4th  and early-5th century CE Roman gold, silver and bronze coins, and 200 items of silver tableware and gold jewelery. The hoard amounts to a total of 7.7lb of gold and 52.4..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Roman Theatre of Verulamium, St Albans (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Roman Theatre of Verulamium (modern-day St Albans in Great Britain), built in about 140 CE, is unique. Although several towns in Britain are known to have had theatres, this is the only one visible today. It was discovered in 1869, the Theatre could seat 2000 spectators."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Sutton Hoo Great Gold Buckle (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This buckle, known as the Great Gold Buckle, is a masterpiece of early medieval craftsmanship. Its form with curved sides and 3 domed bosses resembles Frankish buckles. The plate is a hollow box that opens at the back and locks using 3 movable sliders. Buckles with similar mechanisms are known from the Frankish realm and other parts of the Continent. They probably contained Christian relics, and perhaps..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The White Horse of Uffington (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The cutting of huge figures or geoglyphs into the turf of English hillsides has been going on for more than 3000 years. There are 56 hill figures scattered around England, with the vast majority on the chalk downlands of the southern part of the country. The figures include giants, horses, crosses and regimental badges. Though the majority of these glyphs date within the last three hundred years or..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Whispering Knights, Rollright Stones (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Part of the Rollright Stones complex, the Whispering Knights, the remains of the burial chamber of a Middle to Late Neolithic portal dolmen, are estimated to date to between 3800 and 3000 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "White Horse of Uffington (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The white horse of Uffington, a Bronze Age carving into the chalk hills in Oxfordshire, England."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Assyria (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Assyria was the region in the Near East which, under the Neo-Assyrian Empire, reached from Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) through Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and down through Egypt. The empire began modestly at the city of Ashur (known as Subartu to the Sumerians), located in Mesopotamia north-east of Babylon, where merchants who traded in Anatolia became increasingly wealthy, and that affluence..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "3D Digital Art Ancient Nineveh - Ashurbanipal, Assyria (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh shown in almost real-time (in modern day Iraq, Assyria Regional Governorate)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The ancient Near East, and the Fertile Crescent in particular, is generally seen as the birthplace of agriculture. In the fourth millennium BCE this area was more temperate than it is today, and it was blessed with fertile soil, two great rivers (the Euphrates and the Tigris), as well as hills and mountains to the north. Geography The region was highly diverse in terms of agricultural production..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ancient Syro-Mesopotamia ca. 1764 BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This map shows the political situation in Syro-Mesopotamia c. 1764 BCE. During this time, the Amorite Kings, Hammurabi of Babylon and Zimri-Lim of Mari were engaged in near-constant warfare with surrounding polities, many of whom were also predominantly Amorite. The two kings crushed powers like Eshnunna and fought back the Elamites. In 1761 BCE, Babylon is known to have taken control of Mari and its territories..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ancient Warriors - Episode 01: Assyrians Masters of War (History Documentary) (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Ancient Warriors - Episode 01: Assyrians Masters of War (History Documentary) This Ancient Warriors series from the Discovery Channel is an excellent look at the warrior groups and armies that shaped history. Each half-hour episode looks at a major fighting people or force and charts the reasons for their rise to dominance and subsequent fall. The warriors highlighted are: The Assyrians, Celts, Normans..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ashurbanipal as High Priest (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An Assyrian relief depicting King Ashurbanipal of Assyria as High Priest, with cuneiform script."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions (Assyrian) (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=J5iEY4hapMQ Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions, relief from the North Palace, Ninevah, Assyrian, c. 645-635 B.C.E. (British Museum) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker & Dr. Beth Harris"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Assyrian King List (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This terracotta clay tablet lists the names of Assyrian kings. From Assur (modern Qal'at Sharqat, Salah Al-Din Governorate, Iraq), Mesopotamia. Neo-Assyrian era, 7th century BCE. (Istanbul Archeological Museums/Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Assyrian Lion Hunt (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The King's role was to protect his people from enemies. In ancient Assyria, this was symbolized in the lion hunt, when the king went out to kill lions. Lions were not uncommon in the Ancient Near East. King Ashurbanipal of Assyria noted that the hills abounded with lions who were killing cattle and humans alike. It appears, though that the king had the lions caught for him, and brought to some..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Assyrian Palace Reliefs (82nd & Fifth) (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "http://82nd-and-fifth.metmuseum.org/hyperreality Explore this object: http://82nd-and-fifth.metmuseum.org/relief-panel-assyrian-32.143.4 "That infinite image creates an endless echoing, which is almost dizzying and supernatural." 82nd & Fifth invites 100 curators from across the Museum to talk about 100 works of art that changed the way they see the world."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Assyrian Protective Spirit (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This protective spirit (one of a pair)in the guise of a royal figure with cloak and mantle, guarded the doorway into the Temple of Ninurta (chief god of the city of Nimrud and Assyrian god of war and farming) in Nimrud. The temple itself was built by King Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BCE). British Museum, London."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Assyrian Relief from the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Monique Seefried, consulting curator of Near Eastern Art at the Michael C. Carlos Museum, describes this stone palace wall relief panel of an Assyrian winged deity from the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II (reigned 883-859 BCE) from the ancient city of Nimrud, capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, in present-day Iraq. It is north of Baghdad, 21 miles SE of Mosul."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Assyrian reliefs (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Mostly dating from the period 880-612 BCE, these carved scenes are found on free-standing stelae and as panels cut on cliffs and rocks at distant places reached by the Assyrian kings during their campaigns. The most spectacular use of stone reliefs, however, was as panels which decorated the mud-brick walls in palaces and temples up to a height of 2.6 metres. The scenes were originally picked out with..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Assyrian Warriors Relief (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "These 1-meter high basalt reliefs depict Assyrian warriors of different ranks in procession with a royal chariot led by the commander in chief of the Assyrian army. These reliefs were acquired and gathered during the years 1848, 1946, 1948, 1982, and 1995 to reassemble the entire walls. From the palace of the Assyrian king Tiglath-PIleser III (744-727 BCE), ancient Hadatu (modern Arslan Tash), Neo-Assyrian..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Babylon at the time of the Kassites (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the Babylonian Empire during the time of the Kassites, roughly the 13th century BC. This map shows the probable river courses and coastline at that time."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "BBC Masterpieces of the British Museum - The Assyrian Lion Hunt Reliefs (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "All credits to BBC Video is for educational purposes only"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Colossal statue of a winged lion from the North-West Palace of Ashurnasirpal II (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), northern Iraq Neo-Assyrian, about 883-859 BC Protection for the royal palace from the forces of chaos This is one of a pair of guardian figures that flanked one of the entrances into the throne room of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC). Stone mythological guardians, sculpted in relief or in the round, were often placed at gateways to ancient Mesopotamian palaces, to protect..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cradles of Civilization - Assyria (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "In the final part of his Near East lecture, Dr. David Neiman discusses the Assyrian civilization that eventually came to dominate the Near East in the late second millennium BCE. He details the archives found at Mari and Nuzi, and ends with how Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria established an empire over neighboring states."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cuneiform Lexical Lists (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Lexical lists are compilations of cuneiform signs and word readings written on clay tablets throughout Mesopotamia. From the late 4th millennium BCE up to the 1st century CE, scribal communities copied, modified, and passed on these cuneiform lexical lists and preserved them for as knowledge for a variety of purposes. Just as today people pass on and embrace the knowledge of scientific discoveries..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cuneiform Writing (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Writing is undeniably one of humanity's most important inventions. The earliest forms of storing information on objects were numerical inscriptions on clay tablets, used for administration, accounting and trade. The first writing system dates back to around 3000 BC, when the Sumerians developed the first type script: hundreds of abbreviated pictograms that could be pressed into clay. Individual..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cuneiform Writing (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A relief of cuneiform writing from Assyria. Exhibited in the British Museum London."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cylinder Seals in Ancient Mesopotamia - Their History and Significance (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Among the most interesting and revealing artifacts discovered from ancient Mesopotamia are the objects known as cylinder seals. These fairly small items may be seen today in museum exhibits around the world but, perhaps owing to their size, they are not given the kind of consideration by the general public which larger and more commanding artifacts, such as reliefs or statuary, enjoy. The cylinder seal..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Destruction of Susa (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Ashurbanipal's campaign against Susa is triumphantly recorded in this relief showing the sack of Susa in 647 BC. Here, flames rise from the city as Assyrian soldiers topple it with pickaxes and crowbars and carry off the spoils."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Digital Reconstruction of the Northwest Palace, Nimrud, Assyria (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This video reconstructs the Nortwest Palace of Ashurnasirpal II at Nimrud (near modern Mosul in northern Iraq) as it would have appeared during his reign in the ninth century B.C. The video moves from the outer courtyards of the palace into the throne room and beyond into more private spaces, perhaps used for rituals. The video also shows the original location and painted colors of the relief depicting..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Diodorus Siculus' Account of the Life of Semiramis (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Semiramis is the semi-divine Warrior-Queen of Assyria, whose reign is most clearly documented by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (90-30 BCE) in his great work Bibliotheca Historica ("Historical Library") written over thirty years, most probably between 60-30 BCE. Diodorus drew on the works of earlier authors, such as Ctesias of Cnidus (c. 400 BCE), which are no longer extant. Ctesias..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Eagle-Headed Protective Spirit (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Detail of the head of an Assyrian protective spirit with the head of an eagle. It was found in the temple of Ninurta at Kalhu (Nimrud). c. 865-860 BCE. British Museum, London, UK."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Head of Lamassu from Ashurnasirpal II palace (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A close-up view of a winged human-headed lion, Lamassu, that flanked one of the entrances into the throne room of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BCE). Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), north-west palace, room B, door a, panel 2. Neo-Assyrian era, 883-859 BC, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "History of Assyria (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The foundation of the Assyrian dynasty can be traced to Zulilu, who is said to have lived after Bel-kap-kapu (c. 1900 BCE), the ancestor of Shalmaneser I. The city-state of Ashur rose to prominence in northern Mesopotamia, founding trade colonies in Cappadocia. King Shamshi-Adad I (1813-1791 BCE) expanded the domains of Ashur by defeating the kingdom of Mari, thus creating the first Assyrian kingdom..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ivory plaque from Nimrud (ancient Kalhu) (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This ivory plaque depicts six Assyrian worshippers in procession in six vertical rectangles. Note the details of their dresses. The men are bare-chested and wear kilts while the women wear a full dress. Both wear an impressive belt. Four men and two women stand on what appears to be the Symbol of God Assure. The plaque was part of furniture inlay. A striking thing is the presence of "ND 7918", a non-Iraqi..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "King Ashurbanipal (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "King Ashurbanipal in a detail of a Neo-Assyrian relief depicting a lion hunt (British Museum)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "King Ashurnasirpal II (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "King Ashurnasipal II of Assyira (reigned 883 - 859 B.C.), flanked by eagle-headed protective spirits, of which only the left one is visible in this photo. From Nimrud, North-West Palace. Exhibited in the British Museum London."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lamassu from Ashurnasirpal II Palace (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a pair of guardian figures (winged human-headed lions) that flanked one of the entrances into the throne room of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BCE). Stone mythological guardians, sculpted in relief or in the round, were often placed at gateways to ancient Mesopotamian palaces, to protect them from demonic forces. They were known to the Assyrians as lamassu. This winged lion has five legs so that..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lion-hunting Scene, King Ashurbanipal (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "In ancient Assyria, lion-hunting was considered the sport of kings, symbolic of the ruling monarch’s duty to protect and fight for his people. The sculpted reliefs illustrate the sporting exploits of the last great Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal (668-631 BCE) and were created for his palace at Nineveh (in modern-day northern Iraq). The hunting scenes, full of tension and realism, rank among the finest achievements..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Jewish Deportations (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map showing the deportation of the Jews by the Assyrians."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Mesopotamia, 2000-1600 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A general map of Mesopotamia and its neighbouring territories which roughly covers the period from 2000-1600 BC reveals the concentration of city states in Sumer, in the south. This is where the first true city states arose, although the cities of northern Mesopotamia and Syria were roughly contemporaneous. However, the latter remained relatively minor states with a less intensive level of development..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna Period (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna Period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Neo-Assyrian Empire (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Palace of Khorsabad (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Artistic attempt at reconstruction of the inside of the palace of Khorsabad, constructed by the Assyrian king Sargon II. From the 1901 Brockhaus Enzyklopädie."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Royal Lion Hunt on Chariot (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Assyrian, c 645 - 635 BCE. The king (recognizable by his distinctive hat) rides around the arena on a chariot shooting lions with arrows. His attendants fend off a lion that is attacking from behind. Exhibited in the British Museum, London."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sam'al Stela of the Assyrian King Esarhaddon (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This commemorative basalt stela depicts the Assyrian king Esarhaddon worshiping gods and symbols of gods. The king's left hand holds a royal mace and two ropes. These ropes pass through the lips of two captives. The kneeling smaller figure appears to an Egyptian crown prince, while the larger standing man is a Syrian city-state governor. There are cuneiform inscriptions on the front side of the stela..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sammu-Ramat and Semiramis: The Inspiration and the Myth (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Sammu-Ramat (reigned 811-806 BCE) was the queen regent of the Assyrian Empire who held the throne for her young son Adad Nirari III until he reached maturity. She is also known as Shammuramat, Sammuramat, and, most notably, as Semiramis. This last designation, "Semiramis", has been the source of considerable controversy for over a century now, as scholars and historians argue over whether Sammu-Ramat..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sargon II (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Sargon II and dignitary on a low-relief from the left wall of the palace of Sargon II at Dur Sharrukin in Assyria (now Khorsabad in Iraq), c. 716–713 BCE. Sargon II reigned 722-705 BCE and was one of the most important kings of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and founder of the Sargonid Dynasty."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sargon II Basalt Stele (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This embossed human head stele is believed to be Sargon II (reigned 722-705 BCE) "who was one of the most important kings of the Neo-Assyrian Empire as founder of the Sargonid Dynasty." He is the father of Sennacherib (reigned 705-681 BCE), perhaps the most recognizable Assyrian King due to his role in the Old Testament narratives (II Kings, II Chronicles, and Isaiah). This embossed basalt stone carving..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Semiramis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Semiramis by William Wetmore Story, 1872-3, Dallas Museum of Art. Photo by Mark Carroll Photography, All Rights Reserved. (Used by permission of Mark Carroll Photography.)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sennacherib (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Sennacherib of Assyria (reigned 704 – 681 BC) during his Babylonian war, relief from his palace in Nineveh."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Shalmaneser III (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Detail from a statue of Shalmaneser III (859 BC – 824 BC) at Istanbul Archaeology Museums."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Some Observations on the Image of the Assyrian and Babylonian Kingdoms within the Greek Tradition (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Within the field of extant Greek historical writing on the subject of the Assyrian and Babylonian kingdoms the fragments of Berossus’ History of Babylonia, written by a so-called “Chaldean” priest, but addressed to a Greek-speaking audience, deserve our special attention. How could Berossus’ account correspond to the legendary and speculative tradition presented by the former..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Statue of Ashurnasirpal II (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Neo-Assyrian, 883-859 BC From Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), northern Iraq A rare example of an Assyrian statue in the round This statue of King Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC) was placed in the Temple of Ishtar Sharrat-niphi. It was designed to remind the goddess Ishtar of the king's piety. It is made of magnesite, and stands on a pedestal of a reddish stone. These unusual stones were probably brought..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Stela of King Shamshi-Adad V (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This stela was erected in the capital city of Kalhu (modern Nimrud) by the Assyrian king Shamshi-Adad V (reigned 824-811 BCE). It depicts the king, before the symbols of his principal gods. He extends his right hand, with the forefinger outstretched, as if he has just snapped his fingers. This is the typical Assyrian gesture of respect and supplication towards the gods. The gods could be worshipped..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Assyrian Empire and the Region about the Eastern Mediterranean, 750-625 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Assyrian Empire and the Region about the Eastern Mediterranean, 750-625 BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Black Obelisk of King Shalmaneser III (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This obelisk was erected as a public monument in 825 BCE at a time of civil war. The relief sculptures glorify the achievements of King Shalmaneser III and his commander-in-chief . It lists their military campaigns of 31 years and the tribute they exacted from their neighbors. It is the most complete Assyrian obelisk yet discovered, and it is historically significant because it is thought to display..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Family in Ancient Mesopotamia (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "In ancient Mesopotamia the family was the basic unit of society that was governed by specific patriarchal rules. Monogamy was the rule, even though the nobility could have concubines. The purchase of wives from their fathers was common, but the practice became less common after 3000 BC. The woman was allowed to do anything and go anywhere, including conducting business, as long as her husband permitted..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Greatest Party Ever Thrown: Ashurnasirpal II’s Kalhu Festival (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The kings of the Neo-Assyrian Empire have long been considered some of the most ruthless monarchs in ancient history. However, at the same time they were sacking cities and slaughtering those who rebelled against them or resisted conquest, they often pursued gentler interests. Sennacherib (reigned 705-681 BCE) enjoyed gardening and loved flowers. His son, Esarhaddon (reigned 681-669 BCE) was more interested..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Nimrud Ivories: Their Discovery & History (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "In 1845 CE, the archaeologist Austen Henry Layard began excavations at the ruins of the city of Nimrud in the region which is northern Iraq in the present day. Layard's expedition was part of a larger movement at the time to uncover ancient sites in Mesopotamia, which would corroborate stories found in the Bible, specifically in books in the Old Testament such as Genesis and Jonah. The archaeologists..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Tiglath Pileser I (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "From a rock relief found in 1862 CE at Birleyn, also called "The Tigris Tunnel", in modern-day Turkey. Tiglath Pileser I is identified in the cuneiform inscription. British Museum, London"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Wall Reliefs: Apkallus of the North-West Palace at Nimrud (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. (Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right). When it comes to religion, many people who seek it out, even the most powerful ones, do so to cope with difficult times or events. The innate fragility of the human mind forces the human..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Wall Reliefs: Ashurnasirpal II's War Scenes at the British Museum (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Mighty King 600 of their warriors I put to the sword and decapitated; 400 I took alive; 3,000 captives I brought forth; I took possession of the city for myself: the living soldiers, and heads to the city of Amidi the royal city, I sent. (Annals of Assur-Nasir-Pal II 3.107). This is how Ashurnasirpal II (r. 884-859 BCE) recorded the way he had dealt with his enemies during..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Winning Against the Odds: Sargon II & the Urartu Campaign (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "It is often when one is faced with the most difficult circumstances that one is given the greatest opportunity for clarity. History provides ample evidence of this experience in showing how, when faced with seemingly impossible situations, people found a way to see beyond their situation and prevail against it. These stories span centuries and civilizations but all have one thing in common: the heroic..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Knossos (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Knossos (pronounced Kuh-nuh-SOS) is the ancient Minoan palace and surrounding city on the island of Crete, sung of by Homer in his <em>Odyssey</em>: &ldquo;Among their cities is the great city of Cnosus, where Minos reigned when nine years old, he that held converse with great Zeus.&rdquo; King Minos, famous for his wisdom and, later, one of the three judges of the dead..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A Mini Introduction to Knossos (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Follow Theresa on a short tour of the ancient ruins of Knossos on the island of Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Dolphin Fresco, Knossos, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A detail of the dolphin fresco, the Minoan palace of Knossos, Crete, (1700-1450 BCE)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Griffin Fresco, Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The griffin fresco in situ, Minoan palace of Knossos, Crete, (1700-1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Griffin Fresco, Knossos, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A detail of the griffin fresco from the throne room, palace of Knossos, Crete, (1700-1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Knossos is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete, probably the ceremonial and political center of the Minoan civilization and culture. It is a popular tourist destination today, as it is near the main city of Heraklion and has been substantially if imaginatively "rebuilt", making the site accessible to the casual visitor in a way that a field of unmarked ruins is not."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Knossos Crete - The palace of Knossos - ancient (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Knossos nearby Heraklion Crete. Shot by HD-video. The great ancient Minoan palace was built gradually between 1700 and 1400 BC, with periodic rebuildings after destruction. Go and vist Crete your self. Video-editing, background music etc.. Pinnacle Studie 12 Ultimate Plus. Video by John Stæhr"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Labyrinth of Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Inside the 'labyrinth' of the Minoan palace at Knossos, Crete, (c. 1500 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Labyrinth, Knossos Silver Tetradrachm (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver tetradrachm, Knossos, Crete. 2nd-1st century BCE. O: Zeus, R: Labyrinth. (Alpha Bank Numismatics Collection, Kerkyra, Corfu)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Minoan Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of Minoan Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Barbotine Jug (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Minoan jug in the Barbotine style where decorative excrescenses were added to the vessel, 1850-1800 BCE from Knossos. (British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Bull Leaping (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A fresco showing bull leaping, Minoan Knossos (Final Palatial period 1450-1400 BCE), Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Fresco (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A fresco detail from a banquet scene (known as 'La Parisienne') from Knossos, 1400-1350 BCE. The figure, in a robe and with a sacral knot at her neck, is perhaps a priestess. (Archaeological Museum, Heraklion)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Frescoes (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Frescoes are the source of some of the most striking imagery handed down to us from the Minoan civilization of Bronze Age Crete (2000-1500 BCE). Further, without written records, they are often the only source, along with decorated pottery, of just how the world appeared to the Minoans and give us tantalizing glimpses of their beliefs, cultural practices and aesthetic tastes.  Techniques..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Horns of Consecration (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Bull horns were a common religious symbol in the Cretan Minoan culture (2000 BCE - 1450 BCE), represented in fresco, on pottery and as here from the palace of Knossos, in architectural stone decoration."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Jewellery (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The jewellery of the Minoan civilization based on Bronze Age Crete demonstrates, as with other Minoan visual art forms, not only a sophisticated technological knowledge (in this case of metalwork) and an ingenuity of design but also a joy in vibrantly representing nature and a love of flowing, expressive, shapes and forms. Materials & Technology Initially influenced technically and artistically..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Pottery (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The ever evolving pottery from the Minoan civilization of Bronze Age Crete (2000-1500 BCE) demonstrates, perhaps better than any other medium, not only the Minoan joy in animal, sea and plant life but also their delight in flowing, naturalistic shapes and design. Kamares Style Following on from the pre-palatial styles of Vasiliki (with surfaces decorated in mottled red and black) and Barbotine..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Rhyton (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Stone rhyton (libation vase) in the form of a bull's head from the Minoan site of Knossos, New-Palace period (1600-1500 BCE), Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Minoan Stoneware (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Craftsmen of the Minoan civilization centred on the island of Crete produced stone vessels from the early Bronze Age (c. 2500 BCE) using a wide variety of stone types which were laboriously carved out to create vessels of all shapes, sizes and function. The craft continued for a millennium and vessels were of such quality that they found their way to the Greek mainland and islands across the Aegean..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 BC. Inset: Reference Map of the Nile Delta."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Palace of Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The partially reconstructed wing of the palace of Knossos c. 1500 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Palace of Knossos, Crete (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Palace at Knossos, Crete, (c. 1500 BCE). A restored upper-level lightwell."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Shamanic elements in Minoan religion (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Ritual has always been a popular subject of study in archaeology and anthropology. Early ethnographers relished the details of its drama, and early archaeologists found it a convenient explanation for those finds they could not explain. More sophisticated modern scholars ponder the symbolic complexity of its action, and debate its social function. And yet, in all of this, there has been relatively..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Olive in the Ancient Mediterranean (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Olives and olive oil were not only an important component of the ancient Mediterranean diet but also one of the most successful industries in antiquity. Cultivation of the olive spread with Phoenician and Greek colonization from Asia Minor to Iberia and North Africa and fine olive oil became a great trading commodity right through to the Roman period and beyond. The olive also came to have a wider cultural significance..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Palace of Knossos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Minoan palace at Knossos, Crete (c. 1500 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Theseus & the Minotaur (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This Attic black figure vase shows Theseus killing the Minotaur of the Cretan labyrinth. A feminine figure looks on from the right, possibly Ariadne. Late 6th, early 5th century BCE. (Archaeological Museum, Milan)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Theseus & the Minotaur: More than a Myth? (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Until Sir Arthur Evans unearthed the palace of Knossos, the half-man-half bull killed by Theseus was considered just a popular legend; archaeology changed that perception. King Minos, of Crete, fought hard with his brother to ascend the throne and, having won the kingship and exiled his brother, prayed to the god of the sea, Poseidon, for a snow white bull as a sign of the god's approval. Minos..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenae (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Mycenae was a fortified late Bronze Age city located between two hills on the Argolid plain of the Peloponnese, Greece. The acropolis today dates from between the 14th and 13th century BCE when the Mycenaean civilization was at its peak of power, influence and artistic expression.&nbsp;</p> <h3>In Mythology</h3> <p>In Greek mythology the city was founded..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS : Mycenaeans and Phoenicians (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "A look at Ancient Civilizations of the Mycenaeans and Phoenicians. A visit to the heart of the first great civilizations between the Euphrates and the Agean Sea takes us to the pre-Hellenic cities of Mycenae, Tiryns, and the legendary Babylonian city of Troy where archeological findings have confirmed existence of the world of heroes that Homer depicted in his epic poems. We will even visit the site..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Argolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Plain of the Argolis, as seen from Mycenae in Greece."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Bronze Tripod, Mycenae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Mycenaean bronze tripod from Grave IV, Grave Circle A, Mycenae, 16th Century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Citadel of Mycenae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The view to the south from the upper citadel of Mycenae looking towards Argos (1350 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Death Mask of Agamemnon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The so-called death mask of Agamemnon - the king of Mycenae in Homer's Iliad. Gold funeral mask from Grave Circle A, Mycenae (mid-16th century BCE). The mask in fact predates Agamemnon by 400 years but nevertheless remains solid evidence of Homer's description of Mycenae as 'rich in gold'. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Fountain Entrance, Mycenae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The inner entrance to the stepped tunnel (1200 BCE) which descends 18 metres to a subterranean well. The well is supplied via a stone aqueduct from a spring east of the citadel."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Grave Circle A, Mycenae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The royal grave circle within the walls of Mycenae (1600 BCE). It was in the shaft graves here that Heinrich Schliemann discovered in 1876 CE the famous gold death mask attributed (incorrectly) to King Agamemnon."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Interior Ceiling, Tholos of Mycenae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The interior ceiling of the 'Treasury of Atreus', tholos tomb (1450 BCE), Mycenae."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lion Gate, Mycenae, c. 1300-1250 B.C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=tu5mKn3_h7Y Lion Gate, Mycenae, c. 1300-1250 B.C.E., limestone, relief panel 9' 6" high Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lion's Gate at Mycenae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The famous Lion's Gate in the ruins of Mycenae."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lions Gate Detail (Mycenae) (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Detail photo of the Lions Gate in Mycenae, Argolis, Greece."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna Period (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna Period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mask of Agamemnon, from shaft grave V, grave circle A, Mycenae, c.1550-1500 B.C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Mask of Agamemnon, from shaft grave V, grave circle A, c.1550-1500 B.C.E., gold, 12 inches / 35 cm (National Archaeological Museum, Athens) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker & Dr. Beth Harris"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mask of Agamemnon: Schliemann's Discovery (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "A short video describing Heinrich Schliemann's discovery of the so-called "Death Mask of Agamemnon"."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Citadel of Mycenae, occupied from late Neolithic times until the twelfth century BCE. The Mycenaean civilization was at its peak from 1350-1200 BCE and it is from this period that the fortifications acquired the form seen today."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenae, Greece: Ancient and Mysterious (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Mycenae, a hilltop fortress located on the Peloponnesian Peninsula SW of Athens was the hub of a mighty civilization that dominated the Greek world between 1600 and 1200 B.C., a thousand years before Athens' Golden Age. The Mycenaeans were as distant and mysterious to the Golden Age Greeks as Plato and Socrates are to us today. Mycenae lay unappreciated until the 19th century when a treasure trove..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Boar's Tusk Helmet (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Mycenaean boar's tusk helmet excavated from chamber tomb 515. A description of this type of helmet can be found in Homer's 'Iliad'. 14th - 13th cents. BCE. Currently housed at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Bronze Tripod (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Mycenaean bronze tripod cauldron (1180-1050 BCE), Mycenae. Archaeological Museum, Mycenae."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Death Mask (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A gold death mask from a Shaft Grave IV, Grave Circle A, Mycenae, 1600-1500 BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Fresco (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Mycenaean fresco from Mycenae (1250-1180 BCE). Archeaological Museum Mycenae."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Gold Cup (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A gold Mycenaean cup with handles ending in dog's heads. 15th century BCE from Grave circle A, Mycenae. (National Archaeoloigcal Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Gold Death Mask (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Beaten gold death mask from Grave Circle A, Mycenae, 16th century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Gold Death Mask (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Beaten gold death mask from Grave Circle A, Mycenae, 16th century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Gold Ring (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Mycenaean gold ring depicting a hunting scene. From Grave Circle A, Mycenae, 16th century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Gold Ring (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A gold ring from Mycenae, the largest such example. The engraved scene depicts lion-headed creatures in a religious procession carrying libation vases. On the left side is a seated goddess. 15th century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Grave Stele (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Mycenaean grave stele of poros stone depicting spirals and a charioteer. Grave Circle A, Mycenae, 16th century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Jewellery (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A string of gold beads (1500-1350 BCE) from Mycenae. Nafplio Archaeological Museum."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Jewellery (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Strings of gold beads in the form of rosettes, papyrus and lillies from Mycenae area (14th century BCE). Nafplio Archaeological Museum."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Jug (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Mycenaean bridge-spouted jug displaying a Minoan influence (1500-1450 BCE). Found in the Kalkani tomb, Mycenae. Archaeological Museum Mycenae."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Lion Rhyton (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A gold rhyton in the form of a lion's head. From Grave Circle A, Mycenae, 16th century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Octopus Brooch (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A gold Mycenaean brooch in the form of an octopus, Mycenae, mid 2nd millenium BCE. (Archaeological Museum, Mycenae)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Pottery (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The pottery of the Mycenaean civilization (1550-1050 BCE), although heavily influenced by the earlier Minoans based on Crete, nevertheless, added new pottery shapes to the existing range and achieved its own distinctive decorative style which was strikingly homogenous across Mycenaean Greece. Mycenaean wares typically display stylized representations of marine and plant life and show a fondness for minimalistic..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Rhyta (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Three conical shaped rhyta (1500-1450 BCE) Mycenae area, Nafplio Archaeological Museum."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Shield Fresco (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A fragment from a fresco from the acropolis of Mycenae depicting the typical figure-of-eight shield design. 15th century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Shield Fresco (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A fragment from a fresco from the acropolis of Mycenae depicting the typical figure-of-eight shield design. 15th century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Sword (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The gold revetment of a bronze Mycenaean sword. Grave Circle A, Mycenae, 16th century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Warriors (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Mycenaean warriors depicted on a krater from Mycenae known as the 'House of the Warrior Vase', 12th century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 BC. Inset: Reference Map of the Nile Delta."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "North Gate, Mycenae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Built in 1250 BCE and contemporary with the Lion Gate."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Plan of Mycenae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A plan of the acropolis of Mycenae, 1500-1200 BCE. Fortification walls are indicated in brown."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "South Gate, Mycenae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The south gate of the citadel (1200 BCE) with foundations of two houses (A & B) visible on the left."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The "Palace" and Grave Circle A at Mycenae, c. 1600-1100 B.C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=S7HJB0PtiW0 Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The collapse and regeneration of complex society in Greece, 1500-500 BC (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Greece between 1500 and 500 BC is one of the best known examples of the phenomenon of the regeneration of complex society after a collapse. I review 10 core dimensions of this process (urbanism, tax and rent, monuments, elite power, information- recording systems, trade, crafts, military power, scale, and standards of living), and suggest that punctuated equilibrium models accommodate the data better..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Treasury of Atreus, c. 1300-1250 B.C.E., Mycenae, Greece (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=Cc9cLmgXp_A The Treasury of Atreus, c. 1300-1250 B.C.E., Mycenae, Greece Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris & Dr. Steven Zucker"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Tiryns (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Tiryns was a major Mycenaean centre, the magnificent walled fortifications visible today date from the 13th century BCE. The large size of the stones of the walls led the ancient Greeks to believe they were the work of the Cyclopes."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Mycenaean tholos tomb at Mycenae (1450 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Peloponnese (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>The Peloponnese is a large peninsula linked to the northern territory of Greece by the Isthmus of Corinth. To the west of the Peloponnese is the Ionian sea while to the east is the Aegean Sea. The terrain is typified by high limestone mountains, narrow coastal plains, and natural rocky harbours. The area contained several cities important in antiquity such as Mycenae, Argos, Megalopolis, Sparta..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ancient Warriors - Episode 07: Spartans (History Documentary) (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Ancient Warriors - Episode 07: Spartans (History Documentary) This Ancient Warriors series from the Discovery Channel is an excellent look at the warrior groups and armies that shaped history. Each half-hour episode looks at a major fighting people or force and charts the reasons for their rise to dominance and subsequent fall. The warriors highlighted are: The Assyrians, Celts, Normans, Legions..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Greece under Theban Hegemony (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map showing ancient Greece at the time of Theban hegemony, 371 BCE to 362 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenaean Pottery (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The pottery of the Mycenaean civilization (1550-1050 BCE), although heavily influenced by the earlier Minoans based on Crete, nevertheless, added new pottery shapes to the existing range and achieved its own distinctive decorative style which was strikingly homogenous across Mycenaean Greece. Mycenaean wares typically display stylized representations of marine and plant life and show a fondness for minimalistic..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ruins of the Temple of Athena, Tegea (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A column drum and the stylobate of the 4th century BCE temple of Athena at Tegea in the Peloponnese. Originally the temple had 6 x 14 columns and was part of the sanctuary dedicated to Athena Alea."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Spartan Territory (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map indicating the location of Sparta and her territory in the Peloponnese."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Beginnings of Historic Greece (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Beginnings of Historic Greece. 700 - 600 B.C."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Delian League, Part 2: From Eurymedon to the Thirty Years Peace (465/4-445/4 BCE) (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The second phase of the Delian League’s operations begins with the Hellenic victory over Mede forces at Eurymedon and ends with the Thirty Years Peace between Athens and Sparta (roughly 465/4 – 445/4 BCE).The Greek triumph at Eurymedon resulted in a cessation of hostilities against the Persians, which lasted almost six years. Whether or not this peace or truce followed from some formal treaty..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Delian League, Part 3: From the Thirty Years Peace to the Start of the Ten Years War (445/4–431/0 BCE) (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The third phase of the Delian League begins with the Thirty Years Peace between Athens and Sparta and ends with the start of the Ten Years War (445/4 – 431/0 BCE). The First Peloponnesian War, which effectively ended after the Battle of Coronea, and the Second Sacred War forced both the Spartans and Athenians to realize a new dualism existed in Hellenic affairs; the Hellenes now had one hegemon..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Delian League, Part 6: The Decelean War and the Fall of Athens (413/2-404/3 BCE) (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The sixth and last phase of the Delian League begins with the Decelean War, also referred to as the Ionian War, and ends with the surrender of Athens (413/2 – 404/3 BCE). The final nine years of the Delian League became the most chaotic for the alliance as a whole. It suffered repeating reversals in fortune, while actual control of the Delian League at times shifted between the polis of Athens..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Theatre of Epidaurus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Theatre of Epidaurus, Greece."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phrygia (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Phrygia was an ancient nation in western Turkey with its capital at Gordium. Compared to several other nations in Anatolia, the Phrygians were newcomers. Although their language has to be reconstructed from names, quotes, and a mere 350 inscriptions, and is consequently not very well-known, it is certain that it is related to the languages of the southern Balkan Peninsula. This confirms..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Colonnaded Street at Laodicea on the Lycus, Turkey (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Colonnaded street at Laodicea on the Lycus in Phrygia (modern-day Turkey)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Curses & Fines On Epitaphs (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "In antiquity, apart from thieves, tombs were also damaged by people of low economic status. While thieves damaged tombs for burial gifts and the clothing of the dead, some people opened tombs of strangers to bury members of their own families or dismantled them in order to use pieces to make a new tomb. Grave monuments were also damaged to make milestones and to use in constructing walls, especially..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Frontinus Gate in Hierapolis, Phrygia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Frontinus Gate was the monumental entrance to the Roman city of Hierapolis (western Turkey). It is flanked by two round towers and dates to 84 or 86 CE on the basis of a dedication to Domitian on the gate's façade."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Gordium, capital city of ancient Phrygia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "In the ninth century BCE, Gordium became the capital of the Phrygians, a Thracian tribe that had invaded and settled in Asia."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phrygian Captive, Corinth (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Colossal statue of a Phrygian Captive used as a pier in the 'Captives Facade' of the north Basilica, Corinth (second half 2nd century to early 3rd century CE), Corinth Archaeological Museum."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Latrine, Hierapolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The latrine along Frontinus Street (colonnaded street) at Hierapolis in Phrygia (modern-day Turkey), built in the end of the 1st century CE. The room is divided longitudinally by a row of columns that supported a roof composed of travertine blocks."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Temple at Laodicea on the Lycus, Turkey (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple A at Laodicea on the Lycus in Phrygia (modern-day Turkey) with four spirally fluted columns in the front (prostyle temple). It was built in the Antonine period (2nd century CE) and was heavily renovated during the reign of Emperor Diocletian (284-305 CE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Temple at Laodicea on the Lycus, Turkey (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple A at Laodicea on the Lycus in Phrygia (modern-day Turkey) with four spirally fluted columns in the front (prostyle temple). It was built in the Antonine period (2nd century CE) and was heavily renovated during the reign of Emperor Diocletian (284-305 CE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Theatre of Hierapolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Roman theatre of Hierapolis in Phrygia (Turkey) was built in the 2nd century CE under Emperor Hadrian on the ruins of an earlier theatre following a devastating earthquake in 60 CE. It was later renovated under Septimius Severus (193-211 CE), the scaenae frons was modified and decorated with elaborate limestone and marble carvings. Recent reconstruction efforts have restored most of the cavea which..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Northern Necropolis of Hierapolis, Phrygia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The northern necropolis of Hierapolis in Phrygia (modern-day Pamukkale, Turkey) with many different types of tombs. This extensive necropolis of about 1,200 tombs extends for over two kilometres (1.2 miles) from the northern to the eastern and southern sections of the old city. Most tombs date from the late Hellenic period, but there are also a considerable number from the Roman and early Christian periods..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Northern Necropolis of Hierapolis, Phrygia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The northern necropolis of Hierapolis in Phrygia (modern-day Pamukkale, Turkey) with many different types of tombs. This extensive necropolis of about 1,200 tombs extends for over two kilometres (1.2 miles) from the northern to the eastern and southern sections of the old city. Most tombs date from the late Hellenic period, but there are also a considerable number from the Roman and early Christian periods..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Regions of Ancient Anatolia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the regions of ancient Anatolia, circa 500 BC. Greek settlement areas are noted in italics."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phoenicia (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Phoenicia was an ancient civilization composed of independent city-states which lay along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea stretching through what is now Syria, Lebannon and northern Israel. The Phoenicians were a great maritime people, known for their mighty ships adorned with horses&rsquo; heads in honor of their god of the sea, Yamm, the brother of Mot, the god of death. The island..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Alexander's Siege of Tyre, 332 BCE (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "After defeating Darius III at the battle of Issus in November 333 BCE, Alexander marched his army (about 35,000-40,000 strong) into Phoenicia, where he received the capitulation of Byblus and Sidon. Tyrian envoys met with Alexander whilst he was on the march, declaring their intent to honour his wishes. Causes of the Siege Alexander's request was simple: he wished to sacrifice..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS : Mycenaeans and Phoenicians (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "A look at Ancient Civilizations of the Mycenaeans and Phoenicians. A visit to the heart of the first great civilizations between the Euphrates and the Agean Sea takes us to the pre-Hellenic cities of Mycenae, Tiryns, and the legendary Babylonian city of Troy where archeological findings have confirmed existence of the world of heroes that Homer depicted in his epic poems. We will even visit the site..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Coffin of the Lycian (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A coffin found in Sidon by Hamdy Bey. It's today in the Istanbul museum"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cradles of Civilization: Part 1 (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Part one of Dr. David Neiman's nine-part lecture outlines the rise of the earliest civilizations in the Near East geographically and with reference to the development of writing."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Eshmunazar II (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The sarcophagus of Eshmunazar II, king of the Phoenician city of Sidon in the 5th century BCE. (Louvre, Paris)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Evolution of the Phoenician Alphabet (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Phoenician alphabet and its equivalents in four modern alphabets. From left to right: Latin, Greek, Phoenician, Hebrew, Arabic. Legend: In the middle column you'll find the original Phoenician letters, with their modern equivalents in other languages in the same row. Each Phoenician letter has its own color. Arrows also relate letters to their equivalents."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Faces of Ancient Near Eastern Women (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This video is a slideshow of pictures of various artifacts and artworks that detail the visage of ancient Near Eastern women, most of which are royalty. Locations include: Mesopotamia (Sumer and Akkad), Arabia, Phoenicia (Lebanon) and Elam (Persia)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Fleeing Phoenician Queen (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This gypsum fragment shows a Phoenician queen holding a baby, fleeing in a boat from the invading Assyrian army. It was once part of limestone relief at the Throne room I of Sennacherib's palace at Nineveh. From the South-West Palace, Nineveh (modern-day Mosul Governorate, Iraq), Mesopotamia. Circa 700 BCE. (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Greek & Phoenician Colonies (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Greek (Red) and Phoenician (Yellow) colonization between the 8th and the 6th century BC. German placenames."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Greek and Phoenician Colonization (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Both the ancient Greeks and Phoenicians extensively colonized vast areas of Europe, along the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. In doing so, they spread their culture, which strongly influenced the local tribes. For the Greeks, this is called “Hellenization”. The Greeks mainly focused their colonization efforts on Italy and the Black Sea. Especially Sicily was a major Greek colony, with the bustling..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Jezebel: Princess of Sidon, Queen of Israel (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Jezebel was the Phoenician Princess of Sidon (9th century BCE) whose story is told in the Hebrew Tanakh (the Christian Old Testament) in I and II Kings where she is portrayed unfavorably as a conniving harlot who corrupts Israel and flaunts the commandments of God. Recent scholarship, which has led to a better understanding of the civilization of Phoenicia, the role of women, and the struggle of the adherents..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Phoenicia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of ancient Phoenicia with important cities."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the Mediterranean 550 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the Mediterranean around 550 BC, showing the major cultures: - Greece and its colonies - Phoenicia and its colonies - Lydia - Egypt - Persia - Thrace - Illyria"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 BC. Inset: Reference Map of the Nile Delta."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phoenician Alphabet (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Phoenician alphabet."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phoenician Glassware (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Two Phoenician coloured glass vessels. 5th-3rd century BCE. (Museum kunst Palast, Dusseldorf)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phoenician Names (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Phoenician names are generally composite words with a specific meaning. The naming of children had a significance in the Ancient Near East that is difficult to understand nowadays. By choosing a name for their child, the parents could not only celebrate their joy of having created life, but they believed that the naming of the child would greatly influence which divine being would benevolently influence..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phoenician Oblelisk from Cyprus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The finely carved inscription on this obelisk dates to the 4th century BCE. The obelisk was set up in a cemetery at the Phoenician colony of Kition in Cyprus by a certain Arish in memory of his parent; his father Parz, who is said to have been "chief of the commercial agents", and his mother Shamzabaal. During the 1st millennium BCE, the Phoenicians, descendants of the Levantine Canaanites, refined..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phoenician Religious Sacrifice (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A scene depicting a bird sacrifice, a common practice in the Phoenician religion. From the sarcophagus of Ahiram, king of Byblos. 10th century BCE. (Beirut National Museum)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phoenician Small Ship (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An Assyrian relief from King Sargon II's palace at Khorsabad showing a Phoenician ship transporting cedar logs. This type of vessel was probably used for coastal work and transporting goods to shore from larger cargo vessels. 8th century BCE. (Louvre, Paris)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phoenician Trade Network (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of Phoenicia and its trade routes."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phoenician-Punic Ship (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Phoenician-Punic ship from a relief carving on a 2nd century CE sarcophagus"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sarcophagus of Ahiram (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Sarcophagus of Ahiram, king of Byblos, bearing the oldest inscription of the Phoenician alphabet, which reads: "Coffin which Ittobaal, son of Ahiram, king of Byblos, made for Ahiram, his father, when he placed him in the 'house of eternity'. Now if a king among kings or a governor among governors or a commander of an army should come up against Byblos and uncovers this coffin, may the sceptre..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Assyrian Empire and the Region about the Eastern Mediterranean, 750-625 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Assyrian Empire and the Region about the Eastern Mediterranean, 750-625 BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Phoenician Alphabet & Language (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Phoenician is a Canaanite language closely related to Hebrew. Very little is known about the Canaanite language, except what can be gathered from the El-Amarna letters written by Canaanite kings to Pharaohs Amenhopis III (1402 - 1364 BCE) and Akhenaton (1364 - 1347 BCE). It appears that the Phoenician language, culture, and writing were strongly influenced by Egypt (which controlled Phoenicia for..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Phoenicians - Master Mariners (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Driven by their desire for trade and the acquisition of such commodities as silver from Spain, gold from Africa, and tin from the Scilly Isles, the Phoenicians sailed far and wide, even beyond the Mediterranean’s traditional safe limits of the Pillars of Hercules and into the Atlantic. They were credited with many important nautical inventions and firmly established a reputation as the greatest mariners..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Trade in the Phoenician World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Phoenicians, based on a narrow coastal strip of the Levant, put their excellent seafaring skills to good use and created a network of colonies and trade centres across the ancient Mediterranean. Their major trade routes were by sea to the Greek islands, across southern Europe, down the Atlantic coast of Africa, and up to ancient Britain. In addition, Arabia and India were reached via the Red Sea..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Jerusalem (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Jerusalem is an ancient city located in ancient Judah that is now the capital of Israel. The city has a history that goes back to the 4th millennium BCE, making it one of the oldest cities in the world. It is the holiest city in Judaism and Christianity and has been the spiritual center of the Jewish people since c. 1000 BCE, when David the King of Israel first established it as the capital..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Amulets from Ketef Hinnom (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Two silver amulets with inscriptions to ward off evil. Found at Ketef Hinnom, currently on display in the Israel Museum, Jerusalem."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ancient Palestine (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Insets: Plan of Jerusalem. Dominions of David and Solomon (1025-953 BC). Palestine under the later Kings (953-722 BC). Palestine under Joshua and the Judges (1250-1125 BC)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ecce Homo arch, a triple-arched gateway in Jerusalem (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The so-called Ecce Homo arch, a triple-arched gateway, built by Hadrian (2nd century CE), as an entrance to the eastern Forum of Aelia Capitolina. The central arch was flanked by two smaller arches, one of which can still be seen inside the Ecce Homo Church."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Jerusalem, Israel: Temple Mount and The Dome of the Rock (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More info about Rick's travels to Israel: http://www.ricksteves.com/watch-read-listen/read/articles/why-visit-israel Jerusalem is alive with religious tradition and passion — Christian, Muslim, and Jewish. Within a 10-minute walk you can see the Church of the Holy Sepulchre — so sacred to Christians, the Dome of the Rock — treasured by Muslims, and at Temple Mount, the holiest place in Judaism..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Judaism: Inside the Torah (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This video explains the conquering of Jerusalem and the fulfilment of creating a Kingdom of Israel for the Jewish people by King David. This sequence of events is paramount in the religious tradition of Judaism."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Ancient Israel (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the ancient Kingdom of Israel and its neighbours."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Jewish Deportations (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map showing the deportation of the Jews by the Assyrians."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the Levant circa 830 BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of Palestine circa 830 BC, showing the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, as well as the surrounding kingdoms and tribes."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Model of Herod's Renovation of the Temple of Jerusalem (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A model of the lavish renovation of the Temple of Jerusalem carried out by Herod the Great in the second half of the 1st century BCE. (Israel Museum, Jerusalem)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Reconstructed section of the Cardo Maximus of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem) (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Reconstructed southern section of the Cardo Maximus of Jerusalem. Paved and lined with columns, the Cardo Maximus was the main road that ran through the Roman and Byzantine city and also served as the center for the local economy. This portion dates to the time of Emperor Justinian (6th century CE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Relief from the Arch of Titus, showing The Spoils of Jerusalem being brought into Rome (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Relief panel showing The Spoils of Jerusalem being brought into Rome, Arch of Titus, Rome, after 81 C.E., marble, 7 feet,10 inches high Speakers: Dr. Steven Fine and Dr. Beth Harris"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Reproduction of Madaba Mosaic Map (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Reproduction of the 6th century CE Madaba Mosaic depicting the map of Jerusalem. The Madaba Mosaic Map is part of a floor mosaic in the early Byzantine church of Saint George at Madaba, Jordan. It is a map of the Middle East. Part of it contains the oldest surviving original cartographic depiction of the Holy Land and especially Jerusalem. The mosaic inscription reads 'The sacred city of Jerusalem'..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Second Temple Model (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A 50:1 scale model of the Second Temple, this detailed replica was originally commissioned by Hans Kroch for the Holyland Hotel in memory of his son, Jacob, following Israel's War of Independence. It was designed by Hebrew University's Professor of Archaeology, Michael Avi-Yonah, in 1966CE and was later relocated to the Israel Museum in 2006 CE. The model covers nearly one acre and recreates the layout..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Solomon's Temple, Jerusalem (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An artist's impression of what Solomon's temple at Jerusalem may have looked like. Built by Phoenician architects it is described in I Kings Ch. 6-7 of the Bible and was typical of temples of the region at that time in the 10th century BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Star of David on the Walls of Jerusalem (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The star is located near the New Gate on the northern part of the walls of Jerusalem."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Ancient Synagogue in Israel & the Diaspora (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "A unique and fundamental aspect of ancient Judean society in both Israel and the Diaspora, the ancient synagogue represents an inclusive, localized form of worship that did not crystallize until the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE. In antiquity, there was a variety of terms that represented the structure, although some of these were not exclusive to the synagogue and may refer to something else..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Capture of Jerusalem Panel of the Franks Casket (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is the back panel of the Franks/Auzon Casket. This panel depicts the capture of the city of Jerusalem in 70 CE by the Roman general (later Emperor) Titus. The inscription on this panel appears as a mixture of Old English, Latin, runes, and insular scripts. The labels on the two lower corners read "dom" (which means judgment) and "gisl" (meaning hostage). The Casket was donated by Sir Augustus Wollaston..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Church and The Jews - Cyrus The Great (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Dr. Neiman discusses the lives and experience of the Jews under Persian emperor Cyrus the Great and the subsequent rebuilding of their Temple in Judah."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Church and The Jews - Early Jewish Diaspora (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "In this second excerpt from Dr. David Neiman's lecture series, "The Church and The Jews", Dr. Neiman discusses the early Jewish diaspora communities that existed before the advent of Christianity."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Church and The Jews - The Jews in Ancient Persia (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "In this fourth excerpt from Dr. David Neiman's lecture series, "The Church and The Jews", Dr. Neiman describes the great freedoms and privileges that the diaspora Jews of the Persian Empire enjoyed."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Church and the Jews: The Destruction of the Temple (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This is the eighth and final segment in an ongoing series of lectures entitled "The Church and The Jews", Dr. Neiman analyzes the inherent conflicts that existed between the early Christians and the Jews, and the Christian attempt to confront the theological implications of the Jewish People."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Maccabean Revolt (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "After the death of Alexander the Great, his Kingdom was divided into four; Egypt, the Seleucid Empire, the Kingdom of Pergamon and Macedon (including Greece). Egypt, governed by Ptolemy I Soter allowed for Judaism in Jerusalem to flourish with very little intervening in the 3rd century BCE. However, during the 2nd century BCE, the Seleucids having gained dominance over Judea went to enforce a dominion..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Temple in Jerusalem (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "According to Jewish tradition, the original Jerusalem Temple was ordained by Yahweh/God, as described in 2 Samuel 7:12 where Yahweh commands Nathan to tell David:             When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your ancestors, I will raise up your offspring after you, who shall come forth from your body, and I will establish..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Twelve Apostles (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the twelve apostles (also called the Twelve Disciples), were the primary disciples of Jesus. During the life and ministry of Jesus in the 1st century C.E, the apostles were his first and closest followers, becoming the primary teachers of his gospel. This is their story."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sparta (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Sparta was one of the most important Greek city-states throughout the Archaic and Classical periods and was famous for its military prowess. The professional and well-trained Spartan hoplites with their distinctive red cloaks, long hair, and lambda-emblazoned shields were probably the best and most feared fighters in Greece, fighting with distinction at such key battles as Thermopylae and Plataea..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ancient Warriors - Episode 07: Spartans (History Documentary) (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Ancient Warriors - Episode 07: Spartans (History Documentary) This Ancient Warriors series from the Discovery Channel is an excellent look at the warrior groups and armies that shaped history. Each half-hour episode looks at a major fighting people or force and charts the reasons for their rise to dominance and subsequent fall. The warriors highlighted are: The Assyrians, Celts, Normans, Legions..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Battle of Leuctra, 371 BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The possible positions taken in the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BCE between Sparta and Thebes. The Thebans, led by the brilliant general Epaminondas, won the battle and established Thebes as the most powerful polis in Greece."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Battle of Thermopylae 480 BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map indicating the location and military positions taken in the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BCE between the Persian invading forces of Xerxes I against a small Greek force led by Spartan king Leonidas. Defending the pass for three days, the Greek force was ultimately defeated."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "East and West Pediments from the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, c. 490-480 B.C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=pdqOIg_QYSc East and West Pediments from the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, c. 490-480 B.C.E. (Glyptothek, Munich) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris & Dr. Steven Zucker"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Greek Hoplite (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Modern illustration of a 4th century BCE Greek hoplite."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Greek Hoplites (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An artist's rendition of how Greek hoplites may have appeared."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Greek Society (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Although the male citizen, with his full legal status, right to vote, hold public office, and own property, may well have dominated Greek Society, the social groups which made up the population of a typical Greek city-state or polis were remarkably diverse. Women, children, immigrants (both Greek and foreign), labourers, and slaves all had defined roles, but there was interaction (often illicit) between..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hoplite Warrior, Dodona (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The bronze statuette from Dodona depicting a hoplite warrior."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Last Spartans: the survival of Laconic Greek (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The story of a Greek town that I'm told still preserves the Spartan tongue. I explore why they don't speak like the rest of Greece and dig into their connection to ancient Sparta. Will their Tsakonian language survive? Ancient Greece was home to a variety of dialects. Athens and Sparta both put up a major fight. Long story short, the dialect of one of those cities won out. Guess which? Athens..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Leonidas (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A 5th century BCE marble figure of a Spartan hoplite, perhaps of Leonidas in memory of his sacrifice at the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BCE. (Archaeological Museum of Sparta, Greece)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Archaic Greece (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the political structure of Greece in the Archaic Age (ca. 750 - 490 BC)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Greece under Theban Hegemony (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map showing ancient Greece at the time of Theban hegemony, 371 BCE to 362 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the Peloponnesian War, Beginning (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the Alliances of the Peloponnesian War, as well as the respective strategies of the opposing factions of Sparta and Athens, and their allies."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Part of an Unfinished Horse in Limestone (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The outline is incised and then roughly cut round. A bridle is indicated and, on the extreme left, perhaps the knee of the rider. Presented by the Committee of the British School at Athens. Greek, about 500 BCE. From the Sanctuary of Artemis, Orthia, Sparta, Greece. (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Peloponnesian War (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map indicating the alliances and major battles of the Peloponnesian War in the Hellenic world (431-404 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Spartan Silver Tetradrachm (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver tetradrachm from Sparta (Lacadaemon), reign of Cleomenes III, 227-222 BCE. O: Head of Cleomenes III. (R: Artemis)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Spartan Territory (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map indicating the location of Sparta and her territory in the Peloponnese."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Spartan Warriors (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a 3d representation of how Spartan warriors in action might have looked. Armoured warriors equipped with shield and spear, known as Hoplites, were typical of ancient Greek warfare."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Spartan Woman Bronze Statue (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A bronze statue, likely of a Spartan woman. c. 500 BCE. (British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Delian League, Part 2: From Eurymedon to the Thirty Years Peace (465/4-445/4 BCE) (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The second phase of the Delian League’s operations begins with the Hellenic victory over Mede forces at Eurymedon and ends with the Thirty Years Peace between Athens and Sparta (roughly 465/4 – 445/4 BCE).The Greek triumph at Eurymedon resulted in a cessation of hostilities against the Persians, which lasted almost six years. Whether or not this peace or truce followed from some formal treaty..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Delian League, Part 4: The Ten Years War (431/0-421/0 BCE) (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The fourth phase of the Delian League encompasses the first part of the Great Peloponnesian War, also referred to as the Ten Years War, sometimes called quite incorrectly The Archidamian War, and it ends with the Peace of Nicias (431/30 – 421/20 BCE). Though the Ten Years War had several surprising events, the two alliances fought essentially within broad frameworks established by those..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Delian League, Part 5: The Peace of Nicias, Quadruple Alliance, and Sicilian Expedition (421/0-413/2 BCE) (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The fifth phase of the Delian League begins with the Peace of Nicias – a settlement that settled nothing – and ends with the start of the Decelean War (also referred to as the Ionian War). This conflict’s beginning overlaps the League’s disaster in Sicily, which occurred shortly thereafter (421/0 – 413/2 BCE). Although the resources still available to the Delian League..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Greek Phalanx (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "One of the most effective and enduring military formations in ancient warfare was that of the Greek Phalanx. The age of the Phalanx may be traced back to Sumeria in the 25th century BCE, through Egypt, and finally appearing in Greek literature through Homer in the 8th century BCE (and, since, has been generally associated with Greek warfare strategy, the name itself being from the Greek for `finger&rsquo..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Spartan Education (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "According to the legend, the Spartan law was written by the great lawmaker (Greek : νομοθέτης, nomothetis) Lycurgus. Plutarch mentions that Lycurgus (literally "wolf-worker") wrote the laws in order to make the city state of Sparta invincible, the Spartans fearless and law-abiding. It was a law-package with politico-military, economic and social reforms..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Women of Sparta: Athletic, Educated, and Outspoken Radicals of the Greek World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The laws of Sparta were developed and written by Lycurgus, a legendary lawmaker who, in the 7th century BCE reorganized the political and social structure of the polis, transforming it into a strictly disciplined and collective society. He also developed the stringent military academy of the agoge, where Spartan boys were trained from childhood to adulthood. The law reforms of Lycurgus also included certain..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Trade in Ancient Greece (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Trade was a fundamental aspect of the ancient Greek world and following territorial expansion, an increase in population movements, and innovations in transport, goods could be bought, sold, and exchanged in one part of the Mediterranean which had their origin in a completely different and far distant region. Food, raw materials, and manufactured goods were not only made available to Greeks for the first..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthage (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>According to legend, Carthage was founded by the Phoenician Queen Elissa (better known as Dido) sometime around 813 BCE although, actually, it rose following Alexander&#39;s destruction of Tyre in 332 BCE. The city (in modern-day Tunisia, North Africa) was originally known as <em>Kart-hadasht</em> (new city) to distinguish it from the older Phoenician city of Utica nearby..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Aristotle on the Constitution of Carthage, c. 340 BC (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Carthaginians are also considered to have an excellent form of government, which differs from that of any other state in several respects, though it is in some very like the Spartan. Indeed, all three states---the Spartan, the Cretan, and the Carthaginian---nearly resemble one another, and are very different from any others. Many of the Carthaginian institutions are excellent. The superiority..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Battle of Cannae - Initial Deployment (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the Battle of Cannae showing the initial deployment and the Roman attack."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Campaigns of the Second Punic War (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map illustrating the campaigns of the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthage and its Harbour (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a 3D rendition of what Carthage might have looked like at the height of its power. In the foreground you can see the Cothon, the city's famous military harbour."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthage Campaign Inscription on Coin (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The North African city of Carthage fought a series of wars against Syracuse in Sicily. Carthage issued Greek-style coins to pay their army. The inscription in Punic reads "in the land (of Sicily)". Greek coin inscriptions usually name only the city or people who issued the coin. Silver coin Carthage, minted in Sicily, circa 400-300 BCE. From Sicily. (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthage during the Punic Wars (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the Carthaginian Empire and its losses during the Punic Wars."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthage Under Siege (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An artist's impression of what the Roman siege of Carthage may have looked like during the Third Punic War, 149-146 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthaginian Mercenaries (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An artist's impression of how a troop of Carthaginian mercenaries may have appeared in battle formation."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthaginian Necklace (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A necklace of glass paste beads, Carthage, 4th-3rd century BCE. (National Archaeological Museum, Cagliari)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthaginian Portrait Bust (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A marble portrait bust of a Carthaginian woman. Carthage, 5th-2nd century BCE (?). (British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthaginian Sacred Band Hoplite (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Carthaginian hoplite from the Sacred Band, the army corps composed of Carthaginian citizens. Taken from a coin of Syracuse, 4th century BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthaginian Silver Coin (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Carthaginian silver coin, 5th-4th century BCE. Nike above a horse and a palm tree. Minted in Carthage. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthaginian Silver Tetradrachm (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A silver tetradrachm minted in Carthage, 330-300 BCE. Obv.: head of the goddess Tanit with dolphins. Rev. : horse's head and palm tree. The legend reads 'mmhnt' meaning 'in the camp', that is army camp. Many such coins were minted to pay mercenaries. (British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthaginian Society (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The society of Carthage was dominated by an aristocratic trading class who held all of the important political and religious positions, but below this strata was a cosmopolitan mix of artisans, labourers, mercenaries, slaves, and foreigners from across the Mediterranean. The city’s population at its peak was somewhere around 400,000, and the international blend of skills and cultures was a recipe..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthaginian Tombstone for Gemellus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This limestone monument was set up in a cemetery in Carthage, in memory of a man called Gemellus. The inscription towards the base is written in Phoenician, the native language of ancient Carthage, often known as Punic, and states "This tombstone has been set up for Gemellus, son of Selidius. He lived fifty years". Monuments like this were originally set up in tophets, open-air children's cemeteries..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthaginian Tombstone for Maximilla Bassi (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This finely carved limestone monument was set up in a memory for a woman called Maximilla Bassi. The Latin inscription says "Maximilla Bassi, Pious daughter, lived nineteen years. Here she is placed". After the Roman annexation of Carthage in 146 BCE, it became more fashionable to use Latin for inscriptions, although Phoenician remained the everyday language used. The shallow niche is carved with..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthaginian Trade (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Carthaginians, like their Phoenician forefathers, were highly successful traders who sailed the Mediterranean with their goods, and such was their success that Carthage became the richest city in the ancient world. Metals, foodstuffs, slaves, and high-quality manufactured goods such as fine cloths and gold jewellery were bought and sold to anyone who could afford them. The Carthaginians became renowned..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Carthaginian War Elephant (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An artist's rendition of a Carthaginian war elephant during the Punic Wars with Rome."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cult and Belief in Punic and Roman Africa (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a second attempt at a synthesis of the main problems for the forthcoming Cambridge History of Ancient Religions. The problems are complex and still threaten to overwhelm. This version remains a cri de coeur: any helpful comments and criticisms are encouraged."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Deer and Fountain Mosaic (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This mosaic scene of tame deer drinking from an ornate fountain was a popular scene in Early Christian art, as it symbolized the fountain of life. 4th or 5th century CE, from Carthage. On display at the British Museum, London (MLA 1859.4-2.90 BM Cat. Mosaics 48)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Deer Mosaic, Carthage (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Tame deer drinking from an ornate fountain; this scene became popular in Early Christian art as symbolizing the fountain of life. From Carthage, modern-day Tunisia. 4th or 5th century CE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Dido, Carthaginian Tetradrachm (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A silver tetradrachm from Carthage. The female head has been identified by some historians as Dido (Elissa), the legendary founder of the city. She wears a Phrygian cap while the reverse side shows a lion, palm tree and the legend 'mmhnt' - 'of the people of the army'. From Sicily, 4th century BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Elephants in Greek & Roman Warfare (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "In the search for ever more impressive and lethal weapons to shock the enemy and bring total victory the armies of ancient Greece, Carthage, and even sometimes Rome turned to the elephant. Huge, exotic, and frightening the life out of an unprepared enemy they seemed the perfect weapon in an age where developments in warfare were very limited. Unfortunately, impressive though they must have seemed..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Engineering an Empire: Carthage (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "On the coast of modern-day Tunisia flourished the great port city of Carthage, the magnificent capital of a superpower that rivaled Ancient Rome. Carthage, a remarkable city-state that dominated the Mediterranean for over 600 years, harnessed their extensive resources to develop some of the ancient world's most groundbreaking technology. For generations, Carthage defined power, strength, and ingenuity..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Genocide in the Ancient World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Introduction Genocide is often viewed as a particular feature of our own current age. This perception largely stems from the terrible events which took place during World War Two in the 20th century CE in the parts of Europe occupied by the Nazis. However, there are certain occasions in the ancient world which could also be possibly considered as genocide. In considering genocide from an historical perspective..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Greek & Phoenician Colonies (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Greek (Red) and Phoenician (Yellow) colonization between the 8th and the 6th century BC. German placenames."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hamilcar Barca (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Carthaginian silver dishekel. The head has been identified as Hamilcar Barca (c. 285 – c. 228 BCE). Minted in Carthago Nova, Spain, 237-227 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hannibal ROMAN EMPIRE | HISTORY of ROME (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Hannibal Barca, son of Hamilcar Barca, (247 – 183/182/181 BC) was a Punic Carthaginian military commander, generally considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. His father, Hamilcar Barca, was the leading Carthaginian commander during the First Punic War, his younger brothers were Mago and Hasdrubal, and he was brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair. Hannibal lived during a period..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hanno: Carthaginian Explorer (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "In the 5th century BCE, the Carthaginian explorer Hanno sailed beyond the Pillars of Hercules, out of the Mediterranean and into hitherto unknown territory down the Atlantic coast of Africa. In his search to find new resources and trading opportunities he encountered such exotic and unfamiliar sights as restless natives, swift-footed pygmies, gorillas, and erupting volcanoes. The expedition became..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Harbour of Carthage (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "circular war harbour of Carthage"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hunting Mosaic, Carthage (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This hunting scene from a mosaic pavement shows a horseman roping a stag. The pavement is one of a common North African type, depicting a favorite pastime of wealthy landowners. Since the horseman wears a Germanic dress, he has been identified as a member of the Vandal ruling class. From Carthage, modern-day Tunisia. Late 5th or 6th century CE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hunting Mosaic, Carthage (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is part of a hunting scene from a pavement showing a boar confronting a hunting dog. The pavement is one of a common North African type, depicting a favourite pastime of wealthy landowners. From Carthage, modern-day Tunisia. Late 5th or 6th century CE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Inscribed Dish from the Carthage Treasure (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Latin inscription on this dish, reading D.D.ICRESCONI CLARENT ("Gift given to the distinguished Cresconii"), identifying the family who owned the Carthage Treasure as Cresconii. They were prominent North African family of the 300s to 400s CE, whose members included high-ranking civil servants and members of the clergy. 300s-400s CE. From the Hill of St. Louis, Tunisia. The Carthage Treasure comprises..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of 2nd Century Roman Expansion (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map showing the early expansions of Rome, in the 2nd century BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Europe in 220 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Approximate borders in Europe around 220 BC. Based on the Pengiun Atlas of History."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Hannibals Route into Italy (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Hannibal's route into Italy in the Second Punic war."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Lepcis Magna (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map (rough) of ancient Leptis Magna, Libya, own work composed from various map references."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Roman Buildings in Carthage (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Rough map of modern Carthage showing remaining ruins from Punic and Roman Era."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the Battle of Trebia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the Battle of Trebia (218 BC), illustrating Hannibal's strategy."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the Mediterranean 218 BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the Mediterranean in 218 BC, showing the territorial extents of the following states: - Antigonids - Attalids - Carthage - Ptolemies - Roman Empire - Seleucids Major battle locations are also shown."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Military Harbour of Carthage (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Launching ramp for ships at the old Punic port. The Carthaginians developed high skills in the building of ships and used this to dominate the seas for centuries. According to Roman historians the shipyards of the military harbour at Carthage housed more than 200 ships."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Months & Seasons Mosaic, Carthage (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Part of a segment of floor mosaic depicting July and a corner medallion of Summer wreathed with ears of corn. The figure of July stands picking mulberries from a glass bowl. From Carthage, modern-day Tunisia. Second half of the 4th century CE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Naval Harbour of Carthage (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An artist's impression of how the naval harbour of Carthage may have looked."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "North Africa During the Classical Period (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Phoenician traders arrived on the North African coast around 900 B.C. and established Carthage (in present-day Tunisia) around 800 B.C. By the sixth century B.C., a Phoenician presence existed at Tipasa (east of Cherchell in Algeria). From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements (called emporia in Greek) along the North African coast..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "November Dressed as Isis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "November dressed as a priestess of Isis holding a sistrum (rattle). From Carthage, modern-day Tunisia. Second half of the 4th century CE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Parure of Jewellery from the Carthage Treasure (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Matching sets of jewellery (parures) are rare finds from the Late Roman Period. This set of a necklace and earrings combines rock emeralds, sapphires, and pearls threaded on gold wire. Approximately 50 years after this jewellery was made, the Emperor Leo (reigned 457-474 CE) restricted the wearing of these specific gems to imperial use only, demonstrating the value and esteem with they were held. 300s-400s..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phoenician/Punic Necklace with Amulets (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Phoenician or Carthaginian amulets in the form of bearded heads made of sand-core glass, 4th-3rd century BCE (Cagliari, Museo Archeologico Nazionale)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Priestess of Isis on a Carthaginian Sarcophagus Lid (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An illustration of a sarcophagus lid from Carthage depicting a priestess of Isis. (Carthage National Museum, Byrsa, Tunisia)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Punic Cuirass (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Punic gilded bronze cuirass from Ksour Essaf, 3rd-2nd century BCE. (Bardo National Museum, Tunisia)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Naval Attack on Carthage (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An artist's impression of what the Roman naval attack on Carthage may have looked like during the Third Punic War, 149-146 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Seasons Mosaic, Carthage (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The figure of March on this fragment of floor mosaic stands pointing at a swallow in a tree behind an altar. April holds a pair of castanets, dancing in front of an altar of Venus. From Carthage, modern-day Tunisia. Second half of the 4th century CE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Seasons Mosaic, Carthage (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Floral trellis pattern mosaic with busts of the seasons in wreathed squares. From Carthage, modern-day Tunisia. Mid-2nd century CE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Siege of Carthage (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An artist's impression of what the Roman siege of Carthage may have looked like during the Third Punic War, 149-146 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Silver Lidded Bowl from the Carthage Treasure (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This lidded bowl is the the only surviving complete example of its kind. The handle on the top doubled as the foot ring, enabling the lid to be turned upside-down and used as a dish for serving food. The outer surface is ornamented with broad vertical hammered facets. 300s-400s CE. From the Hill of St. Louis, Tunisia. The Carthage Treasure comprises 31 pieces of jewellery and silver tableware, dating..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Spoons & Patera from the Carthage Treasure (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "These spoons are an unusual shape for the Late Roman Period. Their decoration, inlaid with niello (a black metal alloy), demonstrates the fine craftsmanship represented by the Carthage Treasure. The Cross symbol suggests that the owners were Christians. The frog design on the shallow bowl (patera) may also have had a Christian significance. In pre-Christian Egypt, frogs symbolized the coming of flood..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Tanit, Carthaginian Electrum Coin (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An electrum coin minted in Carthage showing the goddess Tanit and horse. 4th-3rd century BCE. (British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Territories During the Second Punic War (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The territories involved in the Second Punic War, 218 and 201 BCE. Red = Roman Pink = Roman Allies Blue = Carthaginian Light Blue = Carthaginian Allies"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Battle of Lake Trasimene (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "As Hannibal passed Lake Trasimene, he came to a place very suitable for an ambush, and hearing that Flaminius had broken camp and was pursuing him, made preparations for the impending battle. To the north was a series of heavily forested hills where the Malpasso Road passed along the north side of Lake Trasimene. Along the hill-bordered skirts of the lake, Hannibal camped where he was in full view..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Battle of Zama - The Beginning of Roman Conquest (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Second Punic War (218-202 BCE) began when the Carthaginian general Hannibal attacked the city of Saguntum, a Roman ally, reached its height with the Carthaginian victory at Cannae (216) and ended with the Battle of Zama. At Zama, in North Africa, fifty miles south of the city of Carthage, the Roman general Scipio Africanus met Hannibal’s forces and defeated them. Scipio’s success as..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Phoenicians - Master Mariners (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Driven by their desire for trade and the acquisition of such commodities as silver from Spain, gold from Africa, and tin from the Scilly Isles, the Phoenicians sailed far and wide, even beyond the Mediterranean’s traditional safe limits of the Pillars of Hercules and into the Atlantic. They were credited with many important nautical inventions and firmly established a reputation as the greatest mariners..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Price of Greed: Hannibal's Betrayal by Carthage (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Although Hannibal’s forces were defeated on the field at the Battle of Zama (202 BCE) the groundwork for this defeat was laid throughout the Second Punic War through the Carthaginian government’s refusal to support their general and his troops on campaign. As they had done with his father, Hamilcar Barca, in the First Punic War, the Carthaginian senate continually refused aid and reinforcements..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Western Mediterranean 264 BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the western Mediterranean at the time of the First Punic War in 264 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Tophet of Carthage (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A section of the cemetery of ancient Carthage (modern Tunisia). Used between c. 400 and 200 BCE, the grave stelae on the site were usually set up above an urn of cremated remains of the deceased."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Tophet's steles (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Tophet's steles from Carthage. Most of them aren't inscriptions."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Trade in the Phoenician World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Phoenicians, based on a narrow coastal strip of the Levant, put their excellent seafaring skills to good use and created a network of colonies and trade centres across the ancient Mediterranean. Their major trade routes were by sea to the Greek islands, across southern Europe, down the Atlantic coast of Africa, and up to ancient Britain. In addition, Arabia and India were reached via the Red Sea..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Vases & Rainbow Mosaic, Carthage (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Vases linked by rainbows with various animals and flowers in between on a fllor mosaic. Below the upper row of vases is a spring, inscribed Fontes, at which 2 animals are drinking. From Carthage, modern-day Tunisia. 4th or 5th century CE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Voyage of Hanno the Carthaginian Explorer (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map indicating the possible route of Hanno, a Carthaginian who led a colonising and exploration expedition down the Atlantic coast of Africa in the 6th or 5th century BCE. Some scholars suggest he reached modern Sierra Leone, others that he went as far south as the Cameroons or Gabon."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Italy (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula is one of the three peninsulas of Southern Europe (the other two being the Iberian Peninsula and Balkan Peninsula), spanning 1,000 km from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. The peninsula is bordered by the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west, the Ionian Sea on the south, and the Adriatic Sea on the east. The interior..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Capitolium, Brixia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Part of the remains of the Roman temple at Brixia (modern Brescia)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Capitolium, Brixia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Remains of the Roman Capitolium, Brixia, (modern Brescia), Italy."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Estruscan Origins & Cities (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This video takes viewers on a journey to the ancient cities Volterra, Populonia and Cervetari to see why Etruscan civilization was famous for its wealth, fine ceramics, handcrafts and bustling trade. It is a broad survey of the Etruscan civilization."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Etruscan Civilization (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map showing the extent of Etruria and the Etruscan civilization. The map includes the 12 cities of the Etruscan League and notable cities founded by the Etruscans. Based on a map from The National Geographic Magazine Vol.173 No.6 June 1988."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Gods and Places in Etruscan Religion (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The ancient Romans took every precaution in their prayers or rituals to ensure that their deities were addressed by name or generically as a divine spirit, or numen. In many matters of ritual and tradition they acknowledged their dependence on Etruscan practices, Etrusca disciplina. The Etruscans were known for their interpretation of signs such as lightning and the flight of birds, and every Etruscan..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Italian Penninsula (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Principal areas of the Italian penninsula and its vincinity up to the Second Punic War (218 BC)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Magna Graecia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Magna Graecia (Megalē Hellas) refers to the coastal areas of southern Italy which were colonized by various Greek city-states from the 8th to 5th centuries BCE. Later writers such as Strabo also included Sicily and eventually the term came to signify the whole Greek world."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Ancient Italy, Northern Part (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Reference Map of Ancient Italy. Northern Part. "Historical Atlas" by William R. Shepherd, New York, Henry Holt and Company, 1923"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Ancient Italy, Southern Part (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Reference Map of Ancient Italy. Southern Part "Historical Atlas" by William R. Shepherd, New York, Henry Holt and Company, 1923"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Odoacer's Italy in 480 CE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of Odoacer's Italy in 480 CE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the Roman Conquest of Italy (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This map shows the Roman conquest of Italy from 500 BCE to 218 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Pompeii and Mt. Vesuivus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The excavated ruins of Pompeii in the foregreound with the volcano Mt. Vesuvius in the background. Along with Herculaneum, its sister city, Pompeii was destroyed and completely buried during a long catastrophic eruption of the volcano Mount Vesuvius spanning two days in 79 AD. The eruption buried Pompeii under 4 to 6 meters of ash and pumice, and it was lost for over 1,500 years before its accidental rediscovery..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Prodigies: Earthquake Perception from Julius to L'Aquila (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The beauty of being an archaeologist is having the good fortune to find something on an archaeological dig that remains in a relatively good state of preservation. In various degrees, there are those who study how nature can actually help the conservation of artifacts and buildings and those who study the natural agents of destruction, such as a particular pH in the soil, a series of floods of..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Healing Spas in Itaiy: A Study in Design and Function (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "A spa is defined as a bathing establishment which used thermal-mineral spring water for therapeutic purposes. Although the topics of bathing and medicine in the Roman world have received considerable attention, thermal-mineral spas have remained inadequately studied. Recent research acknowledges the importance of spas, but generally excludes any detailed discussion of the institution. More than..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Etruscans: A Population-Genetic Study (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The origins of the Etruscans, a non-Indo-European population of preclassical Italy, are unclear. There is broad agreement that their culture developed locally, but the Etruscans’ evolutionary and migrational relationships are largely unknown. In this study, we determined mitochondrial DNA sequences in multiple clones derived from bone samples of 80 Etruscans who lived between the 7th and the..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Underground Rome (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Underground archaeology is a niche topic and is highly specialized. We’re talking about simple structures underground, such as those of Roman North Africa (able to withstand the heat), or we can get as extreme, in a mostly urban context, as where the underground archaeological palimpsests are complex and highly suggestive. Pointing the finger at any European capital, we immediately think..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Corinth (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Located on the isthmus which connects mainland Greece with the Peloponnese, surrounded by fertile plains and blessed with natural springs, Corinth was an important city in Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman times. Its geographical location, role as a centre of trade, naval fleet, participation in various Greek wars, and status as a major Roman colony meant the city was, for over a millennium, rarely..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A Visual Glossary of Greek Pottery (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Alabastron (pl. alabastra) - a small jar for storing perfumes, named after the material (alabaster) the first examples were made from. They were often carried by a string looped around the neck of the vessel. Amphora (pl. amphorae) - one of the most common forms in Greek pottery, various shapes, always with two vertical neck-handles and used for storing and transporting oil, wine and foodstuffs..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Agora, Corinth (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A general view of the agora of ancient Roman Corinth with the Lechaion road, lined with remains of stoas and shops. In the background can be seen the acrocorinth, site of the ancient acropolis."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Agora, Corinth (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Part of the northwest shops of the agora of Roman Corinth with the archaic temple dedicated to Apollo in the left background."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Akrokorinth (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Akrokorinth as seen from the second gate Fortifications dating back to classical times and used continually down to the Venetians"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Bronze Aulos Player Figurine (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The man wears a long tunic and mantle. From his left shoulder hangs an instrument case. The straps for the instrument can also be seen, tied around the mouth and cheeks. From a Corinthian workshop, 500- 490 BC Delphi Museum"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Coin Commemorating the Isthmian Games (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Greek coin commemorating the Isthmian Games. Corinth, 117-138 CE. (Numismatics Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Corinthian Alabastron Vase (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Corinthian alabastron vase depicting two lions and an owl, 595-500 BCE. These vessels were used for storing perfumes and fine oils. (Getty Villa, Malibu)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Corinthian Capital (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A corinthian capital, situated in the Agora of Athens."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Corinthian Helmet (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A bronze 'Corinthian' helmet (6-5th century BCE). Olympia Archaeological Museum."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Corinthian Helmet (Detail) (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Detail of a Corinthian helmet, from the second half of the 6th century BCE. The decoration of the helmet suggests that it may have been produced in central Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris, France."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Corinthian Silver Stater (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver stater from Corinth, 386-307 BCE. O: Pegasus. R: Head of Athena."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Corinthian Silver Stater (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver stater from Corinth, 525-500 BCE. O: Pegasus. R: Incuse square of swastika design."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Corinthian Vessel with Protome (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A Corinthian vessel depicting animals and carrying a protome of a female head on the handle, c. 570 BCE. (Getty Villa, Malibu)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Dionysos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A detail of a mosaic flooring from a Roman Villa, Corinth, circa 2nd century BCE (Corinth Archaeological Museum)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Greek Society (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Although the male citizen, with his full legal status, right to vote, hold public office, and own property, may well have dominated Greek Society, the social groups which made up the population of a typical Greek city-state or polis were remarkably diverse. Women, children, immigrants (both Greek and foreign), labourers, and slaves all had defined roles, but there was interaction (often illicit) between..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Independent Colonies Emerge into Flourishing Independent City-States (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Did Greek city-states create colonies in the ancient world in order to expand their sphere of influence? If the answer is yes, then why did one of these colonies break away from its mother-city in order to better itself? The answer is a complicated one and is subject to analysis on both a macro and micro level. The primary example of a colony that found itself at odds with its mother-city is that..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Jason & the Argonauts (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The pan-Hellenic mythological hero Jason was famed for his expedition with the Argonauts in search of the Golden Fleece aboard the ship Argo, one of the most popular and enduring legends of Greek mythology. Jason's Youth Jason was believed to have been educated by the wise centaur Cheiron in the forests of Mount Pelion. He had been placed under the centaur’s care by his father Aison whose..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Archaic Greece (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the political structure of Greece in the Archaic Age (ca. 750 - 490 BC)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Monolithic Columns, Corinth (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The seven remaining columns of the Doric peripteral temple of Apollo at Corinth (550-530 BCE). The columns are monolithic, that is carved from a single piece of stone."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Peirene Fountain at Corinth (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Beautiful Fountain at the end of four manmade underground reservoirs and an intricate system of water pipes. Added to and changed throughout the Classical period right down to the Christians"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Periander (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A marble bust of Corinthian tyrant Periander, 627–587 BCE. Roman copy of a 4th century BCE Greek original. (Vatican Museums, Rome)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phrygian Captive, Corinth (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Colossal statue of a Phrygian Captive used as a pier in the 'Captives Facade' of the north Basilica, Corinth (second half 2nd century to early 3rd century CE), Corinth Archaeological Museum."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Pyxis (Cosmetic Box) (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A middle Corinthian Pyxis (cosmetic box) that shows friezes of lions, sirens, sphinxes and birds. At the rim there are female heads protruding. Circa 600-575 BCE, attributed to the Honolulu Painter. British Museum, London, GR 1873.10-12.1"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Mosaic Floor (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Central panel from tesselated floor of a Roman villa (second half 2nd Century BCE), Corinth. Depicted is Dionysos with fruit and ivy in his hair. Corinth Archaeological Museum."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Mosaic Floor (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Tessellated mosaic from a Roman villa, Corinth. Depicted is a pastoral scene. (150-200 CE) Corinth Archaeological Museum."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Apollo (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Temple of Apollo, Ancient Corinth, Greece, with the Acrocorinth in the background."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Apollo, Corinth (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The remains of the archaic temple of Apollo, Corinth (550-530 BCE). Originally, there were 6x15 Doric monolithic columns."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Octavia, Corinth (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The remains of the Roman temple attributed to Octavia - sister of Augustus (1st century BCE) and described by Pausanias as containing a statue of Octavia, who, seated on a throne inside the temple acted as a symbol of the Julia family. The temple was enclosed with Corinthian columns and built on a podium surrounded by stoas."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "THE APOSTLE PAUL'S CORINTH BY IAN PAUL & STEPHEN TRAVIS AN ON LOCATION GUIDE (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This is an extract/demonstration from a larger project.Please follow the link below to find out more. http://www.stjohnstimeline.co.uk/ note:some of our extracts loose sound but continue to play as a taster to further content"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Battle of Chaeronea in Diodorus Siculus (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Chaeronea is the site of the famous Battle of Chaeronea (338 BCE) Phillip II of Macedon’s decisive defeat of the Greek city-states. At Chaeronea in Boeotia (north of Corinth) Phillip and his allies from Thessaly, Epirus, Aetolia, Northern Phocis and Locrian defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes. Phillip commanded the right wing while his eighteen-year old son, Alexander lead the left. Alexander..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Delian League, Part 3: From the Thirty Years Peace to the Start of the Ten Years War (445/4–431/0 BCE) (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The third phase of the Delian League begins with the Thirty Years Peace between Athens and Sparta and ends with the start of the Ten Years War (445/4 – 431/0 BCE). The First Peloponnesian War, which effectively ended after the Battle of Coronea, and the Second Sacred War forced both the Spartans and Athenians to realize a new dualism existed in Hellenic affairs; the Hellenes now had one hegemon..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Delian League, Part 5: The Peace of Nicias, Quadruple Alliance, and Sicilian Expedition (421/0-413/2 BCE) (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The fifth phase of the Delian League begins with the Peace of Nicias – a settlement that settled nothing – and ends with the start of the Decelean War (also referred to as the Ionian War). This conflict’s beginning overlaps the League’s disaster in Sicily, which occurred shortly thereafter (421/0 – 413/2 BCE). Although the resources still available to the Delian League..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Theatre at Korinth (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Theatre at Korinth"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Trade in Ancient Greece (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Trade was a fundamental aspect of the ancient Greek world and following territorial expansion, an increase in population movements, and innovations in transport, goods could be bought, sold, and exchanged in one part of the Mediterranean which had their origin in a completely different and far distant region. Food, raw materials, and manufactured goods were not only made available to Greeks for the first..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Travel in the Ancient Greek World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Travel opportunities within the ancient Greek world largely depended on status and profession; nevertheless, a significant proportion of the population could, and did, travel across the Mediterranean to sell their wares, skills, go on religious pilgrimage, see sporting events or even travel simply for the pleasure of seeing the magnificent sights of the ancient world. Travel was not always glamorous, though..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Argos (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Argos lies on the fertile Argolid plain in the eastern Peloponnese in Greece. The site has been inhabited from prehistoric times up to the present day.&nbsp; Ancient Argos was built on two hills: Aspis and Larissa, 80 m and 289 m in height respectively. Argos, along with Mycenae and Tiryns, was a significant Mycenaean centre, and the city remained important throughout the Greek, Hellenistic..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Acropolis of Argos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Hill of Larissa, site of the ancient acropolis of Argos (6th to 5th century BCE). Visible today are the fortifications of the 10th century CE which incorporated some of the ancient polygonal walls, particularly on the north side."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS : Mycenaeans and Phoenicians (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "A look at Ancient Civilizations of the Mycenaeans and Phoenicians. A visit to the heart of the first great civilizations between the Euphrates and the Agean Sea takes us to the pre-Hellenic cities of Mycenae, Tiryns, and the legendary Babylonian city of Troy where archeological findings have confirmed existence of the world of heroes that Homer depicted in his epic poems. We will even visit the site..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Citadel of Mycenae (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The view to the south from the upper citadel of Mycenae looking towards Argos (1350 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Heraion of Argos, Greece (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Heraion of Argos is an ancient temple in Argos, Greece. It was part of the greatest sanctuary in the Argolid, dedicated to the goddess Hera. The sanctuary grew and expended during the Archaic and Classical period and most of the remains (with the exception of the Roman baths and palaestra) date to the 7th through 5th centuries BCE. The sanctuary continued in importance through the Roman period..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Kouroi of Argos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Twin Kouroi of Argos - named Kleobis and Biton - sculpted by Polymedes (c 580 BCE), mature archaic style. Delphi Archaeological Museum, Greece."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ten Noble and Notorious Women of Ancient Greece (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "There were, no doubt, many notable women in ancient Greece, but history books are usually silent on female accomplishments. According to the historian and novelist Helena P. Schrader, this is because, "Herodotus and other ancient Greek historians are far more likely to mention Persian queens than the wives of Greeks – not because Persian women were more powerful than their Greek counterparts..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Delian League, Part 5: The Peace of Nicias, Quadruple Alliance, and Sicilian Expedition (421/0-413/2 BCE) (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The fifth phase of the Delian League begins with the Peace of Nicias – a settlement that settled nothing – and ends with the start of the Decelean War (also referred to as the Ionian War). This conflict’s beginning overlaps the League’s disaster in Sicily, which occurred shortly thereafter (421/0 – 413/2 BCE). Although the resources still available to the Delian League..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Olive in the Ancient Mediterranean (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Olives and olive oil were not only an important component of the ancient Mediterranean diet but also one of the most successful industries in antiquity. Cultivation of the olive spread with Phoenician and Greek colonization from Asia Minor to Iberia and North Africa and fine olive oil became a great trading commodity right through to the Roman period and beyond. The olive also came to have a wider cultural significance..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Theatre of Argos (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Built from the 4th to 3rd century BCE. Originally there were 81 rows of seats giving a total capacity of 20,000 spectators, making it the largest Greek theatre."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Travel in the Ancient Greek World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Travel opportunities within the ancient Greek world largely depended on status and profession; nevertheless, a significant proportion of the population could, and did, travel across the Mediterranean to sell their wares, skills, go on religious pilgrimage, see sporting events or even travel simply for the pleasure of seeing the magnificent sights of the ancient world. Travel was not always glamorous, though..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Wine in the Ancient Mediterranean (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Wine was the most popular manufactured drink in the ancient Mediterranean. With a rich mythology, everyday consumption, and important role in rituals wine would spread via the colonization process to regions all around the Mediterranean coastal areas and beyond. The Greeks institutionalised wine-drinking in their famous symposia drinking parties, and the Romans turned viticulture into a hugely successful..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Syracuse (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>The city of Syracuse is located on the east coast of Sicily and was originally a Greek colony founded by Corinth in 734 BCE. The city enjoyed a period of expansion and prosperity under the tyrant Gelon in the 5th century BCE, survived a two year siege by Athenian forces from 415 to 413 BCE, and again prospered under the tyrant Dionysius in the 4th century BCE when the city controlled much..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Agathocles of Syracuse (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A gold coin from Syracuse depicting the tyrant Agathocles, 310-300 BCE. (Palazzo Blu, Pisa)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS : Ancient Greece in Italy (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "A look at Ancient Civilizations and Ancient Greece in Italy. Nearly 2800 years ago, a group of Greek settlers landed on the coast of Italy. That event marked the start the process which created Magna Graecia, named after the motherland. Join us as we walk through the streets of Cumae, Pasteum, Puteoli, and Neapolis, reconstructed using the most advanced computer graphics. Part 2 starts at 25.42..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Archimedes of Syracuse (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Courtesy of the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland Love art? Follow us on Google+ to stay in touch: http://bit.ly/gettygoogleplus"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Decadrachm, Syracuse (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A silver decadrachm from Syracuse. Arethousa with dolphins. (Numismatics Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Greek Harbour Scene (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Artist's impression of how a harbour scene in ancient Greece may have looked."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Greek Society (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Although the male citizen, with his full legal status, right to vote, hold public office, and own property, may well have dominated Greek Society, the social groups which made up the population of a typical Greek city-state or polis were remarkably diverse. Women, children, immigrants (both Greek and foreign), labourers, and slaves all had defined roles, but there was interaction (often illicit) between..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Independent Colonies Emerge into Flourishing Independent City-States (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Did Greek city-states create colonies in the ancient world in order to expand their sphere of influence? If the answer is yes, then why did one of these colonies break away from its mother-city in order to better itself? The answer is a complicated one and is subject to analysis on both a macro and micro level. The primary example of a colony that found itself at odds with its mother-city is that..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sicilian Temples (Greek Metrology) (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Characteristics of Sicilian Archaic Temples The large dimensions of the components, the presence of a propteron, an adyton, and other specific elements of the plan and elevation speak for an originally very autonomous development of Sicilian architecture. The large quantities of available and easy-to-work-with building materials at the sites of Syracuse, Megara Hyblaea, and Selinunte enabled..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Silver Decadrachm, Syracuse (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver decadrachm from Syracuse, Sicily, c. 400 BCE. O: Quadriga with Nike crowning a charioteer. R: Head of Arethousa with dolphins. (Alpha Bank Numismatics Collection, Kerkyra, Corfu)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Siracusa 3D Reborn. An Ancient Greek City brought Back To Life (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "2013 CHNT Video Award - Vote if you like it! Davide TANASI / Francesco GABELLONE / Ivan FERRARI (Arcadia University, The College of Global Studies, Siracusa / CNR IBAM, Lecce, Italy) Abstract: The ignorance or the mis-knowledge of the archaeological background of a modern city can negatively affect its economy and cultural growth, limiting attractivity and spreading erroneous or distorted messages..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Syracuse Silver Decadrachm (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver decadrachm from Syracuse, Sicily, c. 400 BCE. O: Quadriga with Nike crowning a charioteer. R: Head of Arethousa with dolphins."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Western Mediterranean 264 BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the western Mediterranean at the time of the First Punic War in 264 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Trade in Ancient Greece (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Trade was a fundamental aspect of the ancient Greek world and following territorial expansion, an increase in population movements, and innovations in transport, goods could be bought, sold, and exchanged in one part of the Mediterranean which had their origin in a completely different and far distant region. Food, raw materials, and manufactured goods were not only made available to Greeks for the first..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sicily (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>The Mediterranean island of Sicily, with its natural resources and strategic position on ancient trading routes, aroused the intense interest of successive empires from Carthage to Athens to Rome. Consequently, the island was never far from centre-stage in regional politics and was very often a theatre of war throughout the Classical period. Invasions, tyrants, and battles did, though, eventually..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS : Ancient Greece in Italy (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "A look at Ancient Civilizations and Ancient Greece in Italy. Nearly 2800 years ago, a group of Greek settlers landed on the coast of Italy. That event marked the start the process which created Magna Graecia, named after the motherland. Join us as we walk through the streets of Cumae, Pasteum, Puteoli, and Neapolis, reconstructed using the most advanced computer graphics. Part 2 starts at 25.42..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ancient Greek Temples at Paestum (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=_tNnI_w6TTQ Ancient Greek Temples at Paestum: Hera I, c. 560-530 B.C.E. Hera II, c. 460 B.C.E. Temple of Minerva, c. 500 B.C.E. A conversation with Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Bikini Mosaic (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "3rd Century mosaic of Bikini Girls at the Villa Romana at Piazza Armerina in Sicily."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Demeter (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Terracotta statue of a throned divinity, probably Demeter (Goddess of harvests and earth fertility). Late 6th, early 5th century BCE, from Sicily. (Archaeological Museum, Milan)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Greek Society (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Although the male citizen, with his full legal status, right to vote, hold public office, and own property, may well have dominated Greek Society, the social groups which made up the population of a typical Greek city-state or polis were remarkably diverse. Women, children, immigrants (both Greek and foreign), labourers, and slaves all had defined roles, but there was interaction (often illicit) between..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Kouros (The Agrigento Youth) (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The kouros known as 'The Agrigento Youth', marble, c. 480 BCE, from Agrigento, Sicily. (Archaeological Museum of Agrigento)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Man-headed Bull, Gela (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A silver coin depicting a man-headed bull from Gela, Sicily. 5th century BCE (Numismatics Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Ancient Italy, Southern Part (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Reference Map of Ancient Italy. Southern Part "Historical Atlas" by William R. Shepherd, New York, Henry Holt and Company, 1923"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Perseus and Medusa (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Archaic style sculpture depicting Perseus slaying the Gorgon Medusa who holds Pegasus. Mid-6th century BCE metope from Temple C, Selinus, Sicily. (Archaeological Museum of Palermo)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Prince's Tomb (Cava Lazzaro, Ragusa, Sicily) (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Castelluccian Culture tomb (early bronze age, 2200-1400 BCE) with double room and facade with false pillars plus addition of fine decorations in bas-relief and linear elements. Some scholars think these signs refer to the solar cult, especially for the pointed circles on the top of the columns, while others have interpreted the linear series as the extreme stylization of the deceased."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Scylla (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A red-figure vase depicting Scylla, the monster which preyed on victims going through the Straits of Messina. Boeotian, 450-425 BCE. (Louvre Museum, Paris)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Selinus Silver Didrachm (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver didrachm from Selinus, Sicily, c. 530 BCE. O: Celery leaf. (R: incuse square with triangle sections)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sicilian Silver Tetradrachm (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver tetradrachm from Catane, Sicily, c. 410 BCE. O: Head of Apollo. (R: Charioteer and Nike)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sicilian Temples (Greek Metrology) (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Characteristics of Sicilian Archaic Temples The large dimensions of the components, the presence of a propteron, an adyton, and other specific elements of the plan and elevation speak for an originally very autonomous development of Sicilian architecture. The large quantities of available and easy-to-work-with building materials at the sites of Syracuse, Megara Hyblaea, and Selinunte enabled..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Siracusa 3D Reborn. An Ancient Greek City brought Back To Life (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "2013 CHNT Video Award - Vote if you like it! Davide TANASI / Francesco GABELLONE / Ivan FERRARI (Arcadia University, The College of Global Studies, Siracusa / CNR IBAM, Lecce, Italy) Abstract: The ignorance or the mis-knowledge of the archaeological background of a modern city can negatively affect its economy and cultural growth, limiting attractivity and spreading erroneous or distorted messages..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Syracuse Silver Decadrachm (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver decadrachm from Syracuse, Sicily, c. 400 BCE. O: Quadriga with Nike crowning a charioteer. R: Head of Arethousa with dolphins."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple C, Selinus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Temple C, Selinus (Selinunte), Sicily. Built 580-560 BCE and possibly dedicated to Apollo and or Artemis. Originally the temple had 6 columns on the facade and 17 along the length. The temple once measured 63.7 x 24 metres and was the main temple of the acropolis."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Concordia, Agrigento (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Concordia, Agrigento, Sicily. The temple, in Doric style, was constructed between 440 and 430 BCE and had 6 columns on the facade and 13 along the sides. It is one of the best preserved Greek style temples in the Mediterranean."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Hera, Selinus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Hera (aka Temple 'E'), from Selinus (Selinunte) in Sicily. The temple was dedicated to Hera in the 5th century BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Juno, Agrigento (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Doric temple attributed to Juno Lacinia but dating from c. 450 BCE, Agrigento, Sicily. The columns are a good example of entasis - the thickening at the base and centre of columns to give the optical illusion of being perfectly perpendicular when seen from a distance."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Juno, Agrigento (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Juno (Hera) at Agrigento, Sicily. The Doric temple was not in fact dedicated to Juno and acquired the name due to an error by a Latin author. Built between 450 and 440 BCE, the temple once had six columns on each facade and 13 along the long sides."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Segesta (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Doric temple of Segesta, north-west Sicily. The temple was built c. 417 BCE in dedication to an unknown deity."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of the Dioscuri, Agrigento (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The remains of the Temple of the Dioscuri (Castor & Pollux), Agrigento, Sicily. The Doric temple, built between 480 and 460 BCE, originally had 6 columns on each facade and 13 along the longer sides."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Dolmen of Sciacca (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Dolmen of Sciacca, in "Contrada Femmina Morta", Sicily."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Western Mediterranean 264 BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the western Mediterranean at the time of the First Punic War in 264 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Trade in Ancient Greece (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Trade was a fundamental aspect of the ancient Greek world and following territorial expansion, an increase in population movements, and innovations in transport, goods could be bought, sold, and exchanged in one part of the Mediterranean which had their origin in a completely different and far distant region. Food, raw materials, and manufactured goods were not only made available to Greeks for the first..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Travel in the Ancient Greek World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Travel opportunities within the ancient Greek world largely depended on status and profession; nevertheless, a significant proportion of the population could, and did, travel across the Mediterranean to sell their wares, skills, go on religious pilgrimage, see sporting events or even travel simply for the pleasure of seeing the magnificent sights of the ancient world. Travel was not always glamorous, though..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Persepolis (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Persepolis is the Greek name (from perses polis for &#39;Persian City&#39;) for the ancient city of Parsa, located seventy miles northeast of Shiraz in present-day Iran. The name Parsa meant &#39;City of The Persians&#39; and construction began at the site in 518 BCE under the rule of King Darius the Great (who reigned 522-486 BCE). Darius made Parsa the new capital of the Persian..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Achaemenid Empire Map (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the Persian Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent under the reigns of Darius the Great and Xerxes. Inspired by Historical Atlas of Georges Duby (p.11, map D), this map was made by Fabienkhan the 24th of August 2006, using Inkscape and GIMP. Arad translated the map to help."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Alexander the Great & the Burning of Persepolis (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "In the year 330 BCE Alexander the Great conquered the Persian capital city of Persepolis, and after looting its treasures, burned the great palace and surrounding city to the ground. Persepolis had been known in antiquity as Parsa (`The City of the Persians’) and the name `Persepolis’ meant the same in Greek. The city and great palace were built in 518 BCE by Darius the Great (522-486..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "All Nations Gate at Persepolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Western view of the "All Nations Gate" at Persepolis, located in present-day Iran. This gate was not on Darius the Great's initial plan for Persepolis but was added by his son and successor, Xerxes. The initial main entrance of the palace complex was located on the south wall of the terrace supporting the palaces. Xerxes changed it, adding a monumental stairway on the west side leading to that gate upstairs..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Capital of a column from the audience hall of the palace of Darius I, Susa, c. 510 B.C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Capital of a column from the audience hall of the palace of Darius I, Susa, c. 510 B.C.E., Achaemenid, Tell of the Apadana, Susa, Iran (Louvre) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker & Dr. Beth Harris"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Colossal Bull Head, Persepolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Colossal Bull Head from Hundred-Column Hall, Dark gray limestone, Persepolis (Iran), Achaemenid Period (Reign of Xerxes and Ataxerxes I, 486-424 BCE), Oriental Institute, University of Chicago."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Column Capital, Persepolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A column capital in the form of a bull-man from the Tripylon, Persepolis, Achaemenid Period, Reign of Xerxes 486-465 BCE. (The Oriental Institute, University of Chicago)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Gift-Bearer from Persepolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This limestone wall relief shows a man holding a gift for the king. The man wears the typical Persian garment. From Persepolis, the Palace Terrace of Darius I (521-486 BCE) or Xerxes I (485-465 BCE), modern-day Iran. (Pergamon Museum, Berlin, Germany)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Gift-bearer Holding a Lamb from Persepolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This limestone wall relief shows a Mede man holding a gift, which appears to be a lamb, for the king. From Persepolis, the Palace Terrace of Darius I (521-486 BCE) or Xerxes I (485-465 BCE), modern-day Iran. (Pergamon Museum, Berlin)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hellenic Trade Routes, 300 BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Alexander the Great died in Babylon on the 13th of June, 323 BCE. His Macedonian-Greek empire broke apart, but Alexander’s heritage was felt throughout the ancient Mediterranean world for centuries. Three Hellenic empires emerged from the wars of succession that followed his death: The Antigonid Empire in Macedonia, the Seleucid Empire in Persia and Mesopotamia, and the Ptolemaic Empire in Egypt. Hellenic..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Herodotus: On The Customs of the Persians (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Herodotus (484-425 BCE) the Greek historian who wrote extensively on the Persian Empire, here describes Persian customs as they would have been practiced around the year 430 BCE at Susa and other Persian communities. The passage, from Book I of his Histories, is interesting in the way Herodotus contrasts the behavior and values of the Persians with those of the Greeks, with the Persians seeming..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lydian Tribute-Bearer (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Detail of a Lydian tribute bearer, bas-relief of the northern stairway of the Apadana (Darius the Great's audience hall) at Persepolis, capital of the Achaemenid empire. Lyda has become a satrapy (province) of the Persian empire with Sardis as its capital. As all the nations subjected to the empire, the Lydians had to bear tribute every year to the king of kings. Persepolis' bas-reliefs describe..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Persepolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of Persepolis."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Men with shields and spears from Persepolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This limestone wall relief shows two men carrying shields and spears. Their distinctive costume identifies them as members of an entourage from the Land of Skudra (Thrace). From Persepolis, the Palace Terrace of Darius I (521-486 BCE) or Xerxes I (485-465 BCE), modern-day Iran. (Pergamon Museum, Berlin, Germany)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Of Temples, Towers, Altars, and Fire Worship: The Ritual Landscape at Persepolis (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Join Mark B. Garrison, Alice Pratt Brown Distinguished Professor of Art History, Trinity University, as he discusses the role of fire in Persian religions, including Zoroastrianism. Using glyphs and reliefs from Persepolis, he outlines the role of fire rituals in the ancient world. This program was made possible by the American Institute of Iranian Studies."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Persepolis PERSIAN EMPIRE | HISTORY of IRAN (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Persepolis Old Persian: Pārśa, New Persian: Takht-e Jamshid or Pārseh, literally meaning "city of Persians", was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550–330 BCE). Persepolis is situated 70 km northeast of city of Shiraz in Fars Province in Iran. The earliest remains of Persepolis date back to 515 BCE. It exemplifies the Achaemenid style of architecture. UNESCO declared the ruins..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Relief of Darius I from Persepolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Relief of Darius I from Persepolis, 522-486 BCE"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ruins of Persepolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A photo of the ruins of Persepolis."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Striding Lions, Persepolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Frieze of Striding Lions, Perspolis (Iran), Palace G, Limestone, Achaemenid Period (Reign of Darius I and Xerxes, 522-465 BCE), Oriental Institute, University of Chicago This carving represents a cloth canopy with tassels (partly chipped away) at the bottom. The sculptor or group of sculptors of this relief left their mark, a pair of diamonds joined together in a figure eight, in three places..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Persian Empire (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Persian Empire about 500 BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Persian Empire (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This video details the incredible power of the Achaemenid Persian Empire of antiquity, including it's many cultural developments and military achievements. The reign of Cyrus the Great is especially documented."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Persian Empire: 7,000 years of History (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Drawing on historical and archaeological evidence, this documentary, by Dr. Farzin Rezaeian, reconstructs 7,000 years of Iranian (Persian) history."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Xerxes I Relief (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A relief with a representation of Persian King Xerxes I. 5th century BCE, Persepolis."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Alexandria, Egypt (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Alexandria is a port city on the Mediterranean Sea in northern Egypt founded in 331 BCE by Alexander the Great. It is most famous in antiquity as the site of the Pharos, the great lighthouse, considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, for the Temple of Serapis, the Serapion, which was part of the legendary library at Alexandria, as a seat of learning and, once, the largest and..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A taste for rioting: Christians in Alexandria (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The Alexandrians loved a good quarrel, according to Tom Holland, historian and author of ‘Dynasty’ and ‘In the Shadow of the Sword’. According to Philo of Alexandria, Alexandrian women would grab the testicles of any man they disagreed with, and religion was often a focus for tension. In a swift overview from early Christianity to the coming of Islam, Tom talks about the bust of Germanicus..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Agora (2009) - Official Trailer (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Following "Rome", comes the new historical drama "Agora" (meaning 'market'). Alexandria, 391: Hypatia teaches astronomy, mathematics, and philosophy. Her student Orestes is in love with her as is Davus, her personal slave. As the city's Christians, led by Ammonius and Cyril, gain political power, the great institutions of learning and governance may not survive. Jump ahead 20 years: Orestes, the city's..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Alexander the Great, Ptolemaic Coin of Alexandria (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A silver coin of Alexandria depicting Alexander the Great. Reign of Ptolemy I (366 BCE – 282 BCE). (British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Alexandria: Library of Dreams (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "My title does not intend to suggest that the Alexandrian Library did not exist, but it does point to what I regard as the unreal character of much that has been said about it. The disparity between, on the one hand, the grandeur and importance of this library, both in its reality in antiquity and in its image both ancient and modern, and, on the other, our nearly total ignorance about it, has been unbearable..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Alexandrian Coins Depicting the Lighthouse of Alexandria (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Two coins depicting the lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Alexandrian mint, 2nd century CE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ancient Egypt (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of Ancient Egypt, showing the Nile up to the fifth cataract, and major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC). Cairo and Jerusalem are shown as reference cities."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Christian Pilgrim Bottle (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a pinkish pottery bottle, through which Christian pilgrims took water from the healing spring of St. Menas near Alexandria. From Alexandria, Egypt. Byzantine period, 4th to 7th centuries CE. Unpublished. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London (with thanks to The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, UCL)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Euclid of Alexandria (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An illustration of Euclid of Alexandria, the 4th century BCE mathematician."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hellenic Trade Routes, 300 BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Alexander the Great died in Babylon on the 13th of June, 323 BCE. His Macedonian-Greek empire broke apart, but Alexander’s heritage was felt throughout the ancient Mediterranean world for centuries. Three Hellenic empires emerged from the wars of succession that followed his death: The Antigonid Empire in Macedonia, the Seleucid Empire in Persia and Mesopotamia, and the Ptolemaic Empire in Egypt. Hellenic..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Historical Accuracy in the Film Agora (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "In 2009, film director Alejandro Amenabar brought the story of Hypatia of Alexandria (c. 370-415 CE) to the screen through the feature film Agora. Prior to the film’s release, and more so following, Christian writers criticized the movie’s historical inaccuracies and its depiction of Christians specifically. On his weblog, one John Sanidopoulos writes, “On May 17, 2009 I wrote a short..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hypatia of Alexandria: The Passing of Philosophy to Religion (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Hypatia, the much loved pagan philosopher of Alexandria, Egypt, has long been acknowledged as the symbol of the passing of the old ways and the triumph of the new. Hypatia (370-415 CE) was the daughter of Theon, the last professor of the Alexandrian University (associated closely with the famous Library of Alexandria). Theon was a brilliant mathematician who closely copied Euclid's Elements and..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lighthouse of Alexandria (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A drawing of the Lighthouse of Alexandria, also known as Pharos, by German archaeologist Prof. H. Thiersch (1909)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Theatre, Alexandria (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Roman theatre of Alexandria, Egypt."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Lighthouse at Alexandria: the Seventh Wonder of the Ancient World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Pharos at Alexandria was the last structure to be named on Antipater of Sidon's list of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was constructed at the beginning of the 3rd century BCE, begun by Ptolemy Soter, the ruler of the Egyptian region after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE. It was impressive in its construction and scale, and legends claim that its light (a reflective mirror..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, as first recorded by Philo of Byzantium in 225 BCE in his work, `On The Seven Wonders’, were: The Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt; The Hanging Gardens of Babylon; The Statue of Zeus at Olympia, Greece; The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus; The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus; The Colossus of Rhodes and the Lighthouse at Alexandria, Egypt. Of these seven, only the Great..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Seven Wonders Of The World (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "This BBC video is an informative production about the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. It goes into detail regarding the features and history of the making of the Seven Wonders."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Trade in Ancient Egypt (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Trade has always been a vital aspect of any civilization whether at the local or international level. However many goods one has, whether as an individual, a community, or a country, there will always be something one lacks and will need to purchase through trade with another. Ancient Egypt was a country rich in many natural resources but still was not self-sufficient and so had to rely on trade for necessary..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "What happened to the Great Library at Alexandria? (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Once the largest library in the ancient world, and containing works by the greatest thinkers and writers of antiquity, including Homer, Plato, Socrates and many more, the Library of Alexandria,  northern Egypt, is popularly believed to have been destroyed in a huge fire around 2000 years ago and its volumous works lost. Since its destruction this wonder of the ancient world has haunted the imagination..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Aegina (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Aegina is an island in the Saronic Gulf, south of Athens. It was one of Greece&#39;s early maritime powers, famous for minting the earliest coins in Greece which were accepted all over the Mediterranean region. According to the classical writer Ovid, the island was originally known as Oenone. As the myth explains, the god Zeus, in the shape of a great flame, carried off the nymph Aegina..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Aegina Silver Stater (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver stater from Aegina, 550-500 BCE. O: Sea turtle. R: Incuse square with eight sections."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Aegina Silver Stater (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver stater from Aegina, 4th century BCE. O: turtle. R: Incuse square with five sections."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "East and West Pediments from the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, c. 490-480 B.C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=pdqOIg_QYSc East and West Pediments from the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, c. 490-480 B.C.E. (Glyptothek, Munich) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris & Dr. Steven Zucker"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Laomedon (Temple of Aphaia) (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Trojan king Laomedon(?) from the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia on Aegina (c. 490-480 BCE). The scene is thought to depict Hercules' attack on the city of Troy. (Glyptothek, Munich)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Silver Stater, Aegina (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver stater from Aegina, 4th century BCE. O: Tortoise, R: Incuse square. (Alpha Bank Numismatic Collection, Kerkyra, Corfu)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Aphaea (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The ruins of the temple of Aphaea on Aegina. Aphaea was only worshipped in this temple. Pausanias (2nd century AD) writes: "On Aigina as one goes toward the mountain of Pan-Greek Zeus, the sanctuary of Aphaia comes up, for whom Pindar composed an ode at the behest of the Aeginetans. The Cretans say (the myths about her are native to Crete) that Euboulos was the son of Karmanor, who purified Apollo..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Island Kingdom of Aegina: The Old Gods Still Whisper Their Truths (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Today, traveling an hour by ferry from Piraeus, the port of Athens, the first remnant of Aegina’s great past a visitor will see is the lonely pillar of Apollo rising from the trees on the hill of Kolona. Once a splendid complex of three buildings (the Temple of Apollo itself rose on eleven large pillars and six smaller ones) and a cemetery (in which a large collection of gold and jewelry was found..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Olive in the Ancient Mediterranean (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Olives and olive oil were not only an important component of the ancient Mediterranean diet but also one of the most successful industries in antiquity. Cultivation of the olive spread with Phoenician and Greek colonization from Asia Minor to Iberia and North Africa and fine olive oil became a great trading commodity right through to the Roman period and beyond. The olive also came to have a wider cultural significance..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Pillar of Apollo (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Pillar of Apollo on Kolona Hill, Aegina, Greece. The last remnant of the Temple of Apollo and Acropolis complex which stood on the site in the days of Aegina's glory."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Trade in Ancient Greece (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Trade was a fundamental aspect of the ancient Greek world and following territorial expansion, an increase in population movements, and innovations in transport, goods could be bought, sold, and exchanged in one part of the Mediterranean which had their origin in a completely different and far distant region. Food, raw materials, and manufactured goods were not only made available to Greeks for the first..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Wine in the Ancient Mediterranean (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Wine was the most popular manufactured drink in the ancient Mediterranean. With a rich mythology, everyday consumption, and important role in rituals wine would spread via the colonization process to regions all around the Mediterranean coastal areas and beyond. The Greeks institutionalised wine-drinking in their famous symposia drinking parties, and the Romans turned viticulture into a hugely successful..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Thebes (Egypt) (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Thebes was the capital of Egypt during the period of the New Kingdom (c.1570-c.1069 BCE) and became an important center of worship of the god Amun (also known as Amon or Amen, a combination of the earlier gods Atum and Ra). Its sacred name was <em>P-Amen</em> or <em>Pa-Amen</em> meaning &quot;the abode of Amen&quot;. It was also known to the Egyptians as <em>Wase</em>..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Amun & Tutankhamun (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A limestone sculpture depicting the god Amun (larger) and Tutankhamun. XVIII Dynasty, 1333-1323 BCE, from the Temple of Amun, Thebes. (Egyptian Museum, Turin)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Amun, Ramesses II, & Mut (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A granite monument depicting the goddess Amun, Ramesses II, and the goddess Mut. Dynasty XIX, 1279-1213 BCE. Temple of Amun, Thebes. (Egyptian Museum, Turin, Italy)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Avenue of the Sphinxes, Thebes (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Avenue of the Sphinxes is a 3km ancient processional route that once linked Luxor temple with the Temple of Mut at Karnak to the south. The avenue and sphinxes were built during the reign of Nectanebo I (380-363 BC) who ruled during the 30th Dynasty. Each of the approximately 1350 sphinxes which originally lined the route are inscribed with his name."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Block Statue of Teti (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Teti, who held many official and priestly titles, sits on a mat. He wears a priest's leopard skin and sandals. The tail of the leopard lies beside his right foot. His right hand clasps a lotus flower, a symbol of rejuvenation. The hieroglyphic text is most notable for detailing Teti's ancestry. His grandfather and great-grandfather had been viceroy of Nubia. Teti's son, Hori, commissioned the statue..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Book of the Dead of Tayesnakht (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A detail from the Book of the Dead of Tayesnakht from Thebes, Ptolemaic Period, 332-30 BCE. (Egyptian Museum, Turin)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Coffin of Sitdjehuti, Back View (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Sitdjehuti was a sister and daughter of Egyptian pharaohs. This is the back side of the the upper part of her coffin, which was made of gold-plated sycamore wood and stucco. There are hieroglyphic inscriptions. From Western Thebes, modern-day Egypt. 17th Dynasty, circa 1575 BCE. State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Coffin of Sitdjehuti, Close-Up of Interior (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Sitdjehuti was a sister and daughter of Egyptian pharaohs. This is a close-up view of the back side of the the upper part of her coffin, which was made of gold-plated sycamore wood and stucco. There are hieroglyphic inscriptions. From Western Thebes, modern-day Egypt. 17th Dynasty, circa 1575 BCE. State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany. Exclusive photo!"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Coffin of Sitdjehuti, Left Side (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Sitdjehuti was a sister and daughter of Egyptian pharaohs. This is the left side of the upper part of her coffin, which was made of gold-plated sycamore wood and stucco. There are hieroglyphic inscriptions. From Western Thebes, modern-day Egypt. 17th Dynasty, circa 1575 BCE. State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Coffin of Sitdjehuti, Right Side (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Sitdjehuti was a sister and daughter of Egyptian pharaohs. This is the right side of the upper part of her coffin, which was made of gold-plated sycamore wood and stucco. There are hieroglyphic inscriptions. From Western Thebes, modern-day Egypt. 17th Dynasty, circa 1575 BCE. State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Egyptian Pilgrim Bottle (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Gold-mounted alabaster "Pilgrim-bottle". It has a silver foot and was incised with blue-filled cartouches of the Egyptian pharaoh Rameses II and Queen Nefertari. From Thebes, Egypt. 19th Dynasty, 1292–1189 BCE. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London (with thanks to The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, UCL)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Egyptian Sarcophagus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Egyptian sarcophagus of Ankh-ef-Khons, a priest of Thebes. Wood, 945-712 BCE. (Vannes Archaeological Museum, France)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Festivals in Ancient Egypt (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The gods of the ancient Egyptians were always apparent to the people through natural events. The sunrise was Ra emerging from the underworld in his great ship, for example, and the moon was the god Khonsu traveling across the night sky. When a woman became pregnant, it was through the fertility encouraged by Bes or Tawaret, and the Seven Hathors were present at the child's birth to declare its destiny..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Funerary Cones of Basa (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Two ceramic funerary cones of Basa, the high priest of Min of Coptos and mayor of Thebes. From Western Thebes, modern-day Egypt. Saite period, 26th Dynasty, circa 600 BCE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Funerary Papyrus of Tphous (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The papyrus contains the text of the 2nd "Book of Breathing". It was written in hieratic script. From Thebes, Egypt. Roman, reign of Hadrian, circa 127 CE. (The British Museum, London)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Funerary Papyrus of Tphous (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The papyrus contains the text of the Second Book of Breathing, written in the hieratic script. From Thebes, modern-day Egypt. Roman Period, reign of Hadrian, 127 CE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Hatshepsut's Temple, Karnak (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Hatshepsut's temple at Karnak, Thebes with a colossal statue of Amenhotep I. Limestone, 15th century BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Head of Mentuemhat (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Quartzite head of the Theban official Mentuemhat. From modern-day Egypt. Saite period, 26th Dynasty, circa 650 BCE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Interrelations of Kerma and Pharaonic Egypt (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The vacillating nature of Ancient Egypt’s associations with the Kingdom of Kerma may be described as one of expansion and contraction; a virtual tug-of-war between rival cultures. Structural changes in Egypt’s administration led to alternating policies with Lower Nubia, whilst the increasing complexity of Kushite culture provided a serious counterweight to Egyptian dominance. These multigenerational..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Judgement in the Presence of Osiris, Hunefer's Book of the Dead (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=WceVwMdN0eE Hunefer's Judgement in the presence of Osiris, Book of the Dead, 19th Dynasty, New Kingdom, c. 1275 B.C.E., papyrus, Thebes, Egypt (British Museum). Erratum: near the end of the video we say that Nephthys and Anubis are siblings, this is not correct. Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker Figures represented in order of appearence..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mentuhotep II (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Limestone head of Egyptian pharaoh Mentuhotep II, 11th Dynasty 2061-2010 BCE. The head comes from a column of the mortuary temple Deir el-Bahari at Thebes West. Mentuhotep II was the Theban king who ruled for half a century and reunified Egypt at the end of the First Intermediate Period 2134-2040 BCE. (Vatican Museums, Rome)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mummified Lung of the Scribe Sutimose (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This embalmed lung tissue was found in the canopic coffinette of the treasury scribe of the domain of Amun, Sutimose. Microscopic examination of a section of this tissue revealed an evidence that Sutimose had suffered from anthracosis (a build-up of carbon deposits in the lungs), calcification of tissue, and pulmonary edema. From Thebes, Egypt. Late 20th Dynasty, circa 1100 BCE. The British Museum, London..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Osiride Statue of Amenhotep I (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The King is shown in the pose, beard and robe of Osiris, the god of rebirth. This expressed a wish for eternal sed festivals: jubilees in which Amenhotep was to be rejuvenated. The King wears the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. Amenhotep's temple at Deir el-Bahri included many Osiride statues, inspired by prototypes in the nearby temple of Montuhotep II.Queen Hatshepsut substituted a grander building..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Pharaoh Amenhotep III (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a quartzite head of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III; the king wears the red crown of Lower Egypt. This style is very typical of the sculpture of Amenhotep III, especially in the depiction of the eyes. It also foreshadows the artistic mannerism of Armana Period at the end of the 18th Dynasty. From Thebes (modern-day Luxor), Egypt. 18th Dynasty, circa 1400 BCE. (The British Museum, London..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ptah (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Limestone statue of the Egyptian god Ptah. XVIII-XX Dynasty, 1550-1070 BCE, Temple of Amun, Thebes. (Egyptian Museum, Turin)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ramesses II Statue (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Upper part of a seated granite statue of Ramesses II of Egypt (c. 1270 BCE). It was found in the pharaoh's mortuary temple in the Ramesseum in western Thebes. The granite is naturally two-coloured: The darker bottom colour was deliberately left to draw a clear distinction between the statue's head and body. British Museum, London, UK. EA 19."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sarcophagus Lid of Shepmin (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A detail of the sarcophagus lid of Shepmin who was Royal Scribe of Thebes and Priest of Osiris. Meta-greywacke stone, Dynasty XXX, c. 350 BCE, Thebes (Egyptian Museum, Turin, Italy)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Shabti Box (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Painted wooden shabti box of of the priest of Amun Amenhotep containing blue faience shabtis. There are 6 columns of Hieroglyphic inscription on one side. From Thebes, Egypt. 21st Dynasty, 1070-945 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Shabti Box of Neskhons (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Neskhons was the 4th daughter of the prophet of Amun Djedkhonsefankh. The scene on the side, of uncertain significance, depicts the deceased presenting a shabti to a group of deities. From Thebes, Egypt. Early 26th Dynasty, circa 650 BCE. (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sitdjehuti's Coffin Mask (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Sitdjehuti was a sister and daughter of Egyptian pharaohs. This is a close-up view of the upper part of her coffin, which was made of gold-plated sycamore wood and stucco. From Western Thebes, modern-day Egypt. 17th Dynasty, circa 1575 BCE. State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Statue of Amun Bakenkhonsu's High Priest (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This block limestone statue depicts the high priest of Amun Bakenkhonsu. The statue dates back to the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom (1320 BCE) and then it was re-used during the 19th Dynasty (1220 BCE). From Karnak, Thebes, modern-day Egypt. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Statue of Egyptian Priest Senemiah (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The inscriptions on the sides identify the man as Senemiah, a priest of the Theban moon-god Khons, with the unsual phrase "he whose hands are pure when adorning his god," referring to the daily ritual in which the image of the god was given fresh food and clothing. This is a fine example of a type of small statue placed in tombs at this period, inscribed in clearly incised hieroglyphs with the formula requesting..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Statue of Governor Montuemhat (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Montuemhat kneels behind a stela, raising his hands in worship. The damaged top left of the stela shows him likewise, adorning the sun-god Atum-Khepri. A hymn below describes Atum's sunset into the netherworld. A matching statue, now in Cairo, bears a hymn to the sun at sunrise. Both must have come form the Governor's giant tomb. Montuemhat ruled from Thebes over upper Egypt, first as a vassal of the Kushite..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Statue of Husband & Wife from the 18th Dynasty (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Painted limestone statue of an unnamed man and his wife. Both sit on a high backed chair and wear elaborate layered wigs. There are no hieroglyphic inscriptions on the statue. It was found inside a tomb chapel at Thebes, Egypt. 18th Dynasty, 1543–1292 BCE (The British Museum, London)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Statue of King Sobekemsaf I or II (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is one of just a few surviving royal statues from the late Second Intermediate Period, when southern Egypt was ruled from Thebes. Two of its kings had the birth name of Sobekemsaf, but their order and chronological potions remain disputed. Sculpture from this period is often crude and highly stylized, a faint echo of masterpieces created two centuries earlier. The King's waist, for instance..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Statue of King Thutmose III (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The King wears the white crown of Upper Egypt, with a protective cobra emblem, representing the goddess Wadjyt. A long flaring beard has broken away. The hands are in a position of devotion. For stylistic reasons, the identity of this king seems certain, but his name on the belt was erased, when the statue was usurped. King Ramesses II put cartouches with his names (both on the belt and shoulders..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Statue of Nebhepetra (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This serpentine statue comes from the lost tomb of Nebhepetra. It shows him in prayer, with arms extended. The long inscriptions on his robe and on the back pillar reveal an extraordinary career as a lector and a guard. 12th Dynasty, probably reign of Senwosret III, circa 1874-1855 BCE. Probably from Western Thebes, Egypt. This is a new acquisition; acquired with support from the Art Fund and the Wolfson Foundation..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Statue of the Nile God Hapy (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The fleshy body symbolizes the Nile's fertility. Hapy holds a table of offerings, from which hang geese, quails, lotuses, pomegranates, and grapes. He presents his produce to Amun-Ra, in whose principal temple this statue stood. A relief behind Hapy's left leg shows who dedicated this statue; Sheshonq, high-priest of Amun-Ra in Thebes. He was designated heir to the throne of his father, Osorkon I. They..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Statuette of an Egyptian Woman & Monkey (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is an ebony statuette of a woman holding a tray on the head of a monkey. From Thebes, 18th Dynasty, 1549-1292 BCE. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London (with thanks to The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, UCL)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Amun Plan, Karnak (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A plan of the Temple of Amun and other temples at Karnak, Thebes. c. 1312–1235 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Amun, Karnak (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The first courtyard of the Temple of Amun, Karnak. It measures 84 x 99 metres and was built during the 22nd Dynasty rule of Sheshonk I (Shoshenq I)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Hatshepsut (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt at Deir al-Bahri, Thebes, Egypt"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Five Great Kings of Egypt's Early Dynastic Period (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Egypt's Early Dynastic Period (3150-2613 BCE) lay the foundation of what would become one of the most impressive civilizations of the ancient world. The kings of this era, except for Narmer and Djoser, are often overlooked but were responsible for some of the most defining aspects of Egyptian culture. This is not to say that the Early Dynastic Period has been completely neglected; only that it does..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Gifts of Isis: Women's Status in Ancient Egypt (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "A story on a papyrus dating from the 2nd century CE relates that the goddess Isis, bestowing gifts on humanity, gave as much power and honor to women as she did to men. This tale reflects the high status women enjoyed in ancient Egypt. Although they never had the same rights as males, an Egyptian woman could own property in her own name and hold professions that gave her economic freedom from male relatives..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The History of Egypt - Two Lands (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Dr. David Neiman continues his lecture on ancient Egypt by describing the methods of irrigation used in ancient and current times on the banks of the Nile. The ancient capitals of Thebes and Memphis were united, but the designations of Upper Egypt and a Lower Egypt remain. This duality was reflected in the double crown that was worn by the Pharaohs thereafter."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Thutmose III's Battle of Megiddo Inscription (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Battle of Megiddo (c. 1457 BCE) is one of the most famous military engagements in history in which Thutmose III (1458-1425 BCE) of Egypt defeated the coalition of subject regions led in rebellion by the kings of Kadesh and Megiddo. The battle itself was a decisive victory for Egypt and the seven- or eight-month siege which followed reduced the power of the subject kings, gave Thutmose III control..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Thutmosis III (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A diorite statue of Thutmosis III. From the Temple of Amun, Thebes. Dynasty XVIII, 1479-1425 BCE. (Egyptian Museum, Turin)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Unidentified head of an Egyptian king (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A fragment of a limestone slab which depicts a relief of a head of an unidentified Egyptian king (in profile). The king looks to the right. From Thebes, Egypt. Ramesside Period, 1292–1069 BCE. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London (with thanks to The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, UCL)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Meroe (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Meroe was a wealthy metropolis of the ancient kingdom of Kush in what is today the Republic of Sudan. The city was located at the crossroads of major trade routes and it flourished from 800 BCE to 350 CE. As no one yet has been able to decipher the Meroitic script, very little can be said for certain on how Meroe grew to become the wonderous city written about by Herodotus in circa 430 BCE..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Anklet (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Period: Meroitic Period Date: 100–250 CE Geography: From Egypt and Sudan, Nubia, Gebel Faras, Cemetery 1, Grave 186, Oxford Univ. Exped. 1926 Medium: cupreous alloy Dimensions: Diam. 11 cm (4 5/16 in) Credit Line: Gift of Oxford University Expedition to Nubia, 1926 Accession Number: 26.4.110a"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Apedemak Temple (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Lion Temple to the Nubian deity Apedemak in Musawwarat (modern-day Sudan). Apedemak was worshipped in Nubia by Meroitic peoples, and Musawwarat appears to have been its central temple. The deity had only a small influence on the Egyptian pantheon. 3D reconstruction courtesy of the Zamani Project."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Armlet from Meroe (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Gold armlet with pendants and busts of gods. From the treasure of the Nubian queen Amanishakheto, pyramid N6, Meroe, modern-day northern Sudan. Meroitic period, around 1 CE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Armlet with Mummiform Gods from Meroe (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Gold armlet with depictions of mummiform gods. From the treasure of the Nubian queen Amanishakheto, pyramid N6, Meroe, modern-day northern Sudan. Meroitic period, around 1 CE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Bronze Head of Augustus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Bronze head from an over-life-sized statue of Augustus, found in the ancient Nubian site of Meroë in Sudan, 27 - 25 BCE. On display in the British Museum, London."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Candace Amanitore of Meroe (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A depiction of one of the Queens of Meroe known as Kentakes (or Candaces) the Candace Amanitore (c.50 CE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Chain of Ankhs (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Gold chain of ankhs (signs of life; also known as key of life, the key of the Nile, or crux ansata). From the treasure of the Nubian queen Amanishakheto, pyramid N6, Meroe, modern-day northern Sudan. Meroitic period, around 1 CE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Chain with Hathor Heads (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Golden chain links in the shape of Hathor heads. From the treasure of the Nubian queen Amanishakheto, pyramid N6, Meroe, modern-day northern Sudan. Meroitic period, around 1 CE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cursive Block from Meroe (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Sandstone block with cursive Meroitic inscriptions. From Meroe, modern-day northern Sudan. 1st century CE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "God Sebiumeker Gold Shield (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Gold shield with the head of god Sebiumeker. From the treasure of the Nubian queen Amanishakheto, pyramid N6, Meroe, modern-day northern Sudan. Meroitic period, around 1 CE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Golden Jackal from Meroe (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Golden jackal. From the treasure of the Nubian queen Amanishakheto, pyramid N6, Meroe, modern-day northern Sudan. Meroitic period, around 1 CE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the Ptolemaic World (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map showing the known world at the time of the Ptolemaic Empire, ca. 300 BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Meroe (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Ruins of the royal city in Meroe, Nubia, Sudan"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Meroe Pottery Bowl (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a painted cream-ware pottery bowl. It was reconstructed from fragments and has a rounded base, The interior was painted with brown vine stems and leaves. The exterior surface was painted with leaf motifs between parallel sets of lines. From cemetery 300 at Meroe, Sudan. Meroitic period, 300 BCE to 400 CE. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London (with thanks to The Petrie Museum..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Meroe Pyramids Reconstruction (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A partial reconstruction of the pyramids of Meroe (modern Sudan). Meroe was a wealthy metropolis of the ancient kingdom of Kush in what is today the Republic of Sudan. The city was located at the crossroads of major trade routes and it flourished from 800 BCE to 350 CE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Meroitic Pottery Flask (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This is a red burnished globular flask with a wide mouth. The flask has been incised with decoration of horizontal bands at the neck and shoulder above an impressed design of triangles. From cemetery 300 at Meroe, Sudan. Meroitic period, 300 BCE to 400 CE. Unpublished. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London (with thanks to The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, UCL)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Meroitic Script (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Meroitic hieroglyphic and demotic script. Made from RK Meroitic font (free online, same font as old version) and Gentium Basic for Latin."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Nubian Armlet (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Gold armlet with a figure of a winged goddess. From the treasure of the Nubian queen Amanishakheto, pyramid N6, Meroe, modern-day northern Sudan. Meroitic period, around 1 CE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Nubian Floor Tiles (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Floor tiles of building that once stood in the Royal City of Meroe which was sacked in 350 CE by Emperor Ezana of the Kingdom of Aksum. The sand has helped preserve the tiles in good condition. These tiles must of been constructed and placed before the sacking of the city, so before 350 CE. The quality is comparable to today's appearance of floor tiles."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Original Site Of The Meroe Head (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This photo shows the location where the 'Meroe Head', being the head section of a statue of Augustus Caesar, was found by British Professor, John Garstang in 1910 CE. The head was located below the steps of the entrance of the temple in the Royal City of Meroe, which was sacked by Emperor Ezana of the Kingdom of Aksum in 350 CE. After Egypt was made a Roman province in the battle of Actium in 31 BCE, statues..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Relief from the Interior of the Funerary Chapel of a Meroe Queen (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "From early 3rh century BCE until the 4th century CE the majority of Meroitic rulers were buried beneath pyramids close to the city of Meroe. On several occasions the kingdom was ruled by queen whose title was Kandake. A distorted reference to this practice appears in Classical accounts, which report that the "Ethiopians" were always ruled by women called Candace. The ruler buried beneath Pyramid N.11..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Seal Rings from Meroe (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Several golden seal rings with different gods; the focus is on one ring only. From the treasure of the Nubian queen Amanishakheto, pyramid N6, Meroe, modern-day northern Sudan. Meroitic period, around 1 CE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Shield Ring with Amun's head (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Golden shield ring with a ram's head (representing the god Amun). From the treasure of the Nubian queen Amanishakheto, pyramid N6, Meroe, modern-day northern Sudan. Meroitic period, around 1 CE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Shield Ring with an Udjat (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Golden shield ring an Udjat (Eye of Horus) in sun disc. From the treasure of the Nubian queen Amanishakheto, pyramid N6, Meroe, modern-day northern Sudan. Meroitic period, around 1 CE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Shield Ring with Goddess Mut (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Golden shield ring with a bust of the goddess Mut. From the treasure of the Nubian queen Amanishakheto, pyramid N6, Meroe, modern-day northern Sudan. Meroitic period, around 1 CE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Sudan - Meroë pyramids (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Meroë is an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile approximately 200 km north-east of Khartoum, Sudan. It was the capital of the Kingdom of Kush for several centuries. The site of the city of Meroë is marked by more than two hundred pyramids in three groups, of which many are in ruins. They have distinctive size and proportions of Nubian pyramids. (extract from Wikipedia). We visited Meroë during..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Eastern Hemisphere, 100 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map showing the major empires, kingdoms, tribes, and ethnic groups of the Eastern Hemisphere in 100 BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Kush Empire (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "In an area straddling Egypt and Sudan, the rise and fall of a great civilization founded on iron. See All National Geographic Videos http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/?source=4001"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Meroe Head (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Meroe Head, so-called because it was found beneath a temple in the ruins of Meroe, is the head of a larger-than life statue of Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (better known as Augustus Caesar) the first Emperor of Rome (reigned 31 BCE-14 CE). On 2 September 31 BCE  Octavian Caesar (the future Augustus) defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt at the Battle of Actium and claimed Egypt..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Meroe Head of Augustus Caesar (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Meroe Head is from a larger-than life statue of Augustus Caesar (reigned 31 BCE-14 CE). It is 47.7 cm, made of bronze with alabaster, glass and coral inlays for the eyes. Discovered at Meroe in 1910 by J. Garstang."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Pyramids of Meroe (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroe, Republic of Sudan, 2001."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Susa (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Susa is one of the oldest cities in the world. Excavations have uncovered evidence of continual habitation dating back to 4200 BCE. Susa was a principal city of the Elamite, Persian and Parthian empires (capital of the Elamites) and was originally known to the Elamites as &#39;Susan&rsquo; or &#39;Susun&rsquo;. The Greek name for the city was Sousa and the Hebrew, Shushan.</p>..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Babylon at the time of the Kassites (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the Babylonian Empire during the time of the Kassites, roughly the 13th century BC. This map shows the probable river courses and coastline at that time."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Bushel with ibex motifs, c. 4200--3500 B.C.E., Susa (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Bushel with ibex motifs, 4200--3500 B.C.E., Susa I period, necropolis, acropolis mound, Susa, Iran, painted terra-cotta, 28.90 x 16.40 cm, excavations led by Jacques de Morgan, 1906-08 (Musée du Louvre) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Destruction of Susa (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Ashurbanipal's campaign against Susa is triumphantly recorded in this relief showing the sack of Susa in 647 BC. Here, flames rise from the city as Assyrian soldiers topple it with pickaxes and crowbars and carry off the spoils."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Glazed Brick Guardsman from Susa, Iran (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This was part of a frieze depicting rows of guards. The vivid colors show how the carved stone sculptures would have looked when they were painted. The guards were thought to be members of the 1000 special royal guards. They were said to have formed part of the royal army known as the "Immortals" because their strength was always apparently maintained at this level. From the east gate of Palace, Susa..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Herodotus: On The Customs of the Persians (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Herodotus (484-425 BCE) the Greek historian who wrote extensively on the Persian Empire, here describes Persian customs as they would have been practiced around the year 430 BCE at Susa and other Persian communities. The passage, from Book I of his Histories, is interesting in the way Herodotus contrasts the behavior and values of the Persians with those of the Greeks, with the Persians seeming..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Sumer (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The area which formed Sumer started at the Persian Gulf and reached north to the 'neck' of Mesopotamia where the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates meander much closer to each other. To the east loomed the Zagros Mountains, where scattered city states thrived on trade and learning from Sumer, and to the west was the vast expanse of the Arabian desert. The rivers have changed course considerably..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Persian Archers (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Persian Archers at Darius' palace at Susa. Exhibited in Pergamon Museum / Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Proto-Elamite Tablets (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The so-called proto-Elamite script is still undeciphered. The influence of contemporary Mesopotamian writing and sealing is clear, however. From Susa, Iran. Circa 3000-2800 BCE. Lent by the Musee de Louvre. It is currently housed in the British Museum, London."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ranks of Immortals (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Ranks of the Louvre Museum melophores (immortal Persian guard) from the famous glazed bricks friezes found in the Apadana (Darius the Great's palace) in Susa by archeologist Marcel Dieulafoy and brought to Paris. Such polychromic friezes used to decorate the Achaemenid king's palaces in their capitals of Susa, Ecbatana and Persepolis. There were 10,000 royal guards, any dead being replaced straight..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Winged Sphinx of Susa (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Winged Sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great (549-486 BCE) at Susa."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ziggurat Consecrated to God Inshushinak at Choqa Zanbil (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Ziggurat at Chogha Zanbil consecrated to the God Inshushinak. Inshushinak was one of the most important Elamite deities, worshipped in Susa and Khuzestan region during the Middle Elamite Period."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lydia (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>Lydia was a region of western Asia Minor which prospered due to its natural resources and position on trading routes between the Mediterranean and Asia. The Kingdom of Lydia flourished in the 7th and 6th centuries BCE and expanded to its greatest extent during the reign of Croesus, famed for his great wealth. &nbsp;Lydia then became a Persian satrapy with its capital at Sardis. Conquered..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Electrum Sixth Of A Stater (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Sixth of a stater in electrum from either Ionia or Lydia, 630-600 BCE. O: Non-type. R: Two incuse squares."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Electrum Third Of A Stater (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A third of a stater in electrum from either Ionia or Lydia, ca 600 BCE. O: Geometric motif. (R: Incuse oblong)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Herodotus on Lydia (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "I:93. Of marvels to be recorded the land of Lydia has no great store as compared with other lands, excepting the gold-dust which is carried down from Tmolos; but one work it has to show which is larger far than any other except only those in Egypt and Babylon: for there is there the sepulchral monument of Alyattes the father of Croesus, of which the base is made of larger stones and the rest of the monument..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lydia Electrum Stater (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Uncertain King of Lydia. Early 6th century BCE. Made from electrum. Obverse: Head of roaring lion right, the sun with multiple rays on the forehead. Reverse: Double incuse punch."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lydian Gold Stater (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Gold stater from Lydia, reign of Croesus, 560-546 BCE. O: Lion and ox. R: Two incuse squares."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lydian Relief: 5th Century BCE (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This relief of a male holding a bird is from the 5th century BCE, found in modern day western Turkey near the ancient city of Thyatira. Thyatira was named such by Seleucos I Nicator around 290 BCE but prior to that it was an important city center for the Lydian kingdom. This relief is housed in the Akhisar History Museum, Turkey."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lydian Silver Stater (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Lydian silver stater from the reign of Croesus, 560-546 BCE. O: Foreparts of a lion and ox. (R: Two incuse squares)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lydian Tribute-Bearer (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Detail of a Lydian tribute bearer, bas-relief of the northern stairway of the Apadana (Darius the Great's audience hall) at Persepolis, capital of the Achaemenid empire. Lyda has become a satrapy (province) of the Persian empire with Sardis as its capital. As all the nations subjected to the empire, the Lydians had to bear tribute every year to the king of kings. Persepolis' bas-reliefs describe..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Lydia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of Lydia in the middle of the 6th century BCE. The red line shows an alternative interpretation of Lydia's ancient borders."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the Mediterranean 550 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the Mediterranean around 550 BC, showing the major cultures: - Greece and its colonies - Phoenicia and its colonies - Lydia - Egypt - Persia - Thrace - Illyria"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Tabular from Thyatira (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "This tablet (tabular) dates to the 2nd century BCE and the ancient city of Thyatira. Thyatira was once a Lydian city, on the border of Lydia and Mysia, but at times was under the control of the Persians, and then the generals of Alexander the Great. It is one of the seven churches mentioned in John's New Testament apocalyptic work, the book of Revelation, and is mentioned in the book of Acts in the..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Artemis, Sardis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The ruins of the Temple of Artemis in Sardis in Lydia (modern-day western Turkey), originally built by the Greeks in 300 BCE and later renovated by the Romans in the 2nd century CE. The Temple of Artemis in Sardis was the fourth largest Ionic temple in the ancient world."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Assyrian Empire and the Region about the Eastern Mediterranean, 750-625 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Assyrian Empire and the Region about the Eastern Mediterranean, 750-625 BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Bath-Gymnasium Complex at Sardis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The most imposing building of Roman Sardis is the (much reconstructed) courtyard of the Bath-Gymnasium complex. Its design reflects the elaborate architecture of the Severian dynasty, late 2nd - early 3rd century CE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Earliest Coins from Lydia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "These are some of the earliest coins in the World. Made from electrum, a naturally occurring mixture of gold and silver, they were issued in Lydia. Although irregular in size and shape, these early coins were produced according to a strict weight standard. They had a design on one side, and the other side was marked with certain punches. The lion's head seems to have been a royal symbol, so we assume..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Importance of the Lydian Stater as the World's First Coin (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Lydian Stater was the official coin of the Lydian Empire, introduced before the kingdom fell to the Persian Empire. The earliest staters are believed to date to around the second half of the 7th century BCE, during the reign of King Alyattes (r. 619-560 BCE). According to a consensus of numismatic historians, the Lydian stater was the first coin officially issued by a government in world history..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Oriental Empires (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map showing the Median, Lydian, Chaldean, and Egyptian empires around 600 BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Regions of Ancient Anatolia (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the regions of ancient Anatolia, circa 500 BC. Greek settlement areas are noted in italics."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus: The Un-Greek Temple and Wonder of the Ancient World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, also known as the Artemesium, was constructed in the mid 6th century BCE. It was located in Ephesus (modern Turkey), and was considered to be one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Antipater of Sidon included it on his definitive list of monuments, partly because of its size and grandeur, but also because of its location. Its location on the rim of the Greek..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Bactria (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p> Bactria was a province of the Persian empire located in modern Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan.<br /> <br /> After the defeat of Darius III of Persia, Bactria continued to offer resistance against Alexander the Great, led by Bessus, who had proclaimed himself successor to Darius. Alexander conquered it with great difficulty between 329-327 BCE, largely with the help..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Achaemenid Empire Map (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the Persian Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent under the reigns of Darius the Great and Xerxes. Inspired by Historical Atlas of Georges Duby (p.11, map D), this map was made by Fabienkhan the 24th of August 2006, using Inkscape and GIMP. Arad translated the map to help."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Ai Khanum, the Capital of Eucratides (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Ai Khanum (also spelled Ai-Khanoum or Ay-Khanum, lit. “Lady Moon” in Uzbek), was founded in the 4th century BC, following the conquests of Alexander the Great and was one of the primary cities of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom. The site is located in the northern part of modern Afghanistan, in a little plain between the Amou-Darya and the Kokcha. In 1961, the Afghan king Mohammad Zaher Chach..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Bactrian Silver Tetradrachm (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver tetradrachm from Bactria, reign of Demetrius I, 205-171 BCE. O: Head of Demetrius I. R: Hercules."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Bactrian Silver Tetradrachm (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver tetradrachm from Bactria, reign of Antimachus I, 185-170 BCE. O: Head of Antimachus I. (R: Poseidon)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Graeco-Bactrian Empire (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The map shows the first Graeco Bactrian kingdom established by Diodotus 1 following the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire. c. 240 - 170 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Alexander the Great's Conquests (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map showing the route that Alexander the Great took to conquer Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Bactria."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Approximate maximum extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 180 BCE, including the regions of Tapuria and Traxiane to the West, Sogdiana and Ferghana to the north, Bactria and Arachosia to the south."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Some new hypotheses on the problems of the Indo-Greek kingdoms (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Warning: See the definitions of Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek Kingdoms before reading this article, otherwise the following lines could give you serious headaches! A lack of information is a common problem for historians of the Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdoms, due to the almost-inexistence of written accounts about them. The fact that the modern political problems in the area allow looters..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Empire of Alexander the Great (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map showing the Empire of Alexander the Great, his conquests, and the routes he took (334 BC - 323 BC). Major cities, roads, and battles are indicated."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Persian Empire (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Persian Empire about 500 BC."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Athens (1)"; dcterms:abstract "<p>The city of Athens, Greece, with its famous Acropolis, has come to symbolize the whole of the country in the popular imagination, and not without cause. Athens began as a small, Mycenaen community and grew to become a city that, at its height, epitomized the best of Greek virtues and enjoyed such prestige that the Spartans refused to sack the city or enslave the citizens, even after Athens&#39..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A Tour in Ancient Athens (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Athens is mostly associated with its ancient past rather than its modern turbulent state of the latest two hundred years. While walking the centre of the luminous city, the visitor can easily observe both ends of Hellenic culture. The city offers plenty of ancient examples in every corner, the visitor must only roam aimlessly in the narrow alleys of the old town, and they will stumble upon these details..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "A Visual Glossary of Greek Pottery (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Alabastron (pl. alabastra) - a small jar for storing perfumes, named after the material (alabaster) the first examples were made from. They were often carried by a string looped around the neck of the vessel. Amphora (pl. amphorae) - one of the most common forms in Greek pottery, various shapes, always with two vertical neck-handles and used for storing and transporting oil, wine and foodstuffs..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Acropolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Artist's impression of a reconstructed Acropolis, from the 1901 Brockhaus Enzyklopädie."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Acropolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Idealised reconstruction of the Acropolis and Areus Pagus in Athens (1846 CE). Leo von Klenze (1784-1864 CE). Neue Pinakothek, Munich."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Acropolis - Parthenon (Παρθενώνας - Ακρόπολη) 3D.mp4 (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "The Parthenon (Ancient Greek: Παρθενών) is a temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their virgin patron. Its construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon Ο Παρθενώνας αποτελεί το λαμπρότερο μνημείο της Αθηναϊκής πολιτείας..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Acropolis Plan, Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A plan of the acropolis of Athens. Occupied from Mycenaean times, the monuments visible today largely date from the 5th century BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Agora of Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the Athenian Agora in the 5th century BCE. Key 1 Peristylar Court 2 Mint 3 Enneacrounos 4 South stoa 5 Heliaea 6 Strategeion 7 Colonos Agoraios 8 Tholos 9 Agora stone 10 Monument of the Eponymous Heroes 11 Old Bouleuterion 12 New Bouleuterion 13 Temple of Hephaestus (Hephaestion) 14 Temple of Apollo Patroos 15 Stoa of Zeus 16 Altar of the Twelve Gods 17 Royal stoa 18 Temple..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Agora of Athens and the Temple of Hephaestus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Agora of Athens and the Temple of Hephaistos. Founded 6th century BCE"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Alcibiades (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An idealised bust attributed to Athenian statesman and general Alcibiades (c. 451-403 BCE). Roman copy of a 4th century BCE original (Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Aspasia: Influential Concubine to Pericles (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Aspasia was born around 470 BCE in Miletus in Asia Minor. She was likely born into a wealthy family because she was known to have been highly educated.. How she arrived in Athens is the source of some debate among scholars. A few sources suggest that she traveled there when her older sister married Alcibiades, who had been ostracized from Athens, and had spent his expulsion in Miletus..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Athena Parthenos by Phidias (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The magnificent temple on the Acropolis of Athens, known as the Parthenon, was built between 447 and 432 BCE in the Golden Age of Pericles, and it was dedicated to the city’s patron deity Athena. The temple was constructed to house the new gold and ivory cult statue of the goddess by the master sculptor Phidias (also Pheidias) and to proclaim to the world..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Athenian Hoplites (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A 3D representation of Athenian hoplites in battle. The Gorgon device on the central figure's shield was a typical feature of Greek shield design. In Greek mythology the stare of the Gorgon Medusa was said to turn people to stone."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Athenian Silver Tertradrachm (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Athenian Silver Tetradrachm, 479-454 BCE. O: Athena. R: Owl and olive branch. (Alpha Bank Numismatics Collection, Kerkyra, Corfu)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Athenian Silver Tetradrachm (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Silver tetradrachm from Athens, 479-454 BCE. O: Head of Athena. R: Owl and olive branch."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Athens Acropolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Acropolis of Athens. Dominating the acropolis is the Parthenon, built between 447 and 432 BCE in the Age of Pericles, and dedicated to the city’s patron deity Athena."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Athens, Greece: Ancient Acropolis and Agora (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More info about travel to Athens: http://www.ricksteves.com/europe/greece/athens Crowned by the mighty Parthenon temple, the Acropolis rises above modern Athens; a lasting testament to Greece's glorious golden age. The Acropolis was the center of ritual and ceremony, and the religious heart of the city. The marketplace at its base is Agora, and was the hub of commercial, political and social life..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Byzantium Site: Athens (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Video courtesy of the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports, Athens. Watch more videos about Byzantium: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLij2XTFgmBSQskKvT13tl72SPNmFlMDA2 Heaven and Earth: Art of Byzantium from Greek Collections http://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/art_of_byzantium/ Subscribe NOW to the Getty Museum channel: http://bit.ly/gettymuseumyoutube Love art? Follow us..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Caryatid (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Caryatids of the 5th century BCE Erechtheion on the Athenian Acropolis."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Caryatids of the Erechtheion (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A detail of the south porch of the Erechtheion temple on the Athenian acropolis. The building was constructed between 421 to 406 BCE to house the ancient wooden cult statue of Athena and as a shrine to various local deities including Erechtheus."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Choragic Monument of Lysicrates (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Choragic Monument of Lysicrates Dedication: 335/334 BCE Location: Athens, Greece"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Cimon's Tomb (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Remains of Cimon's tomb on the path over Filopappou Hill in Athens"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Delian League (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map illustrating the members of the Delian League, led by Athens c. 431 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Dionysos from the Parthenon. (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Figure D (commonly identified as Dionysos) from the East Pediment of the Parthenon. Here we can see his legs, and where his feet would have been attatched. He reclines on a rock. His seat is softened by a mantle and an animal fur. Despite the fact that both of his hands are missing, Figure D is the only pediment sculpture with an intact head. He glances to the left, towards the rising sun of Helios..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Epistemic democracy in classical Athens (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Analysis of democracy in Athens as an “epistemic” (knowledge-based) form of political and social organization. Adapted from Ober, Democracy and Knowledge, chapters 1-4. Jon Elster (ed.), volume on “Collective Wisdom” (to be published in English and French)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Erechtheion (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Erechtheion temple of the Athenian acropolis was constructed between 421 and 406 BCE. The temple was built to house the ancient cult wooden statue of Athena and as a shrine to other local gods such as the early Athenian kings Erechtheus and Kekrops, and Boutes and Pandrosos. Poseidon and Zeus also had sacred precincts within the building. The south porch has the iconic Caryatids which make the building..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Erechtheion Entrance Facade (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The six Ionic columns of the front entrance of the Erechtheion temple on the Athenian acropolis which was constructed between 421 and 406 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Erechtheion Floor Plan (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A floor plan of the Erechtheion on the Athenian acropolis, constructed 421-406 BCE. On the right, indicated in purple are the six Caryatids of the south porch. The main cella is divided into four chambers, the largest of which housed the cult wooden statue of Athena Polias. The north porch of six Ionic columns was an area sacred to Poseidon and Zeus. The main entrance was at the east of the buildiing..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Facade, Library of Hadrian, Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The north facade of the Library of Hadrian, Athens. c. 132-134 CE"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Genocide in the Ancient World (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Introduction Genocide is often viewed as a particular feature of our own current age. This perception largely stems from the terrible events which took place during World War Two in the 20th century CE in the parts of Europe occupied by the Nazis. However, there are certain occasions in the ancient world which could also be possibly considered as genocide. In considering genocide from an historical perspective..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Greek Society (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Although the male citizen, with his full legal status, right to vote, hold public office, and own property, may well have dominated Greek Society, the social groups which made up the population of a typical Greek city-state or polis were remarkably diverse. Women, children, immigrants (both Greek and foreign), labourers, and slaves all had defined roles, but there was interaction (often illicit) between..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Greek Trireme Shipsheds (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "3D reconstruction of the shipsheds for the Athenian navy at Zea Harbour. Republished with permission from the Zea Harbour Project."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Iktinos and Kallikrates, The Parthenon, 447 - 432 B.C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=tWDflkBZC6U Iktinos and Kallikrates (Phidias directed the sculptural program), Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, 447 - 432 B.C.E. Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Kimon: Beautifier of the Athenian Agora (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Classical Athenian Agora began to take shape under the ruling of Kimon. He took power around 479 B.C., as the Athenian people ostracized Themistocles. As a respected general who had led many victories for Athens in the Persian Wars, he was easily accepted as a new leader. Kimon is widely known in ancient history as a beautifier of the arid Athenian countryside, and he was responsible for several buildings..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Law and Politics in the Athenian Agora: Ancient Democracy at Work (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Agora was the central gathering place for all of Athens, where social and commercial dealings took place. Arguably, it's most important purpose was as the home base for all of the city-state's administrative, legal and political functions. Some of the most important, yet least acclaimed, buildings of ancient history and Classical Athens were located in the Agora. The Tholos, a uniquely round structure..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Library of Hadrian, East Wall (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Library of Hadrian in Athens showing the eastern end wall of the peristyle court. The room with the niches (now under scaffolding) would have been the library proper, where ancient scrolls were stored. c. 132-134 CE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Lyceum of Aristotle (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Lyceum of Aristotle, one of the centres of ancient Greek Philosophy. Founded: 334 BCE Location: Athens, Greece"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Ancient Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of ancient Athens (with some text in German)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Archaic Greece (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map of the political structure of Greece in the Archaic Age (ca. 750 - 490 BC)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of Greece under Theban Hegemony (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map showing ancient Greece at the time of Theban hegemony, 371 BCE to 362 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Map of the Peloponnesian War, Beginning (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Map of the Alliances of the Peloponnesian War, as well as the respective strategies of the opposing factions of Sparta and Athens, and their allies."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Model of Athens' Acropolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A model of the Athenian acropolis in the 5th century BCE. The monumental Propylaea gives access to the Parthenon (centre) and the Erechtheion (left side). (Acropolis Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Model of the Agora of Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A model of the agora of Athens at its maximum extension during the 2nd century CE. (Agora Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Model of the Athenian Acropolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A model of the Athenian acropolis in the 5th century BCE. The monumental Propylaea gives access to the Parthenon (centre) and the Erechtheion (left side). (Agora Museum, Athens)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mounichia Harbour (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Artist's impression of Mounichia naval harbour near Athens. Republished with Permission from Zea Harbour Project"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 BC (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 BC. Inset: Reference Map of the Nile Delta."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Nike Adjusting Her Sandal, c. 410 B.C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Nike Adjusting Her Sandal, from the south side of the parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, c. 410 B.C.E., marble, 3' 6" high (Acropolis Museum, Athens) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker & Dr. Beth Harris"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Overlooked Athens: 5 Ancient Sites (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "For centuries, the Parthenon has been Athens’ biggest tourist magnet. Pausanias gushed over it in the 2nd century CE, Elgin coveted it, Byron mourned for it, and countless tour groups and camera-toting enthusiasts swarm over it today. But stunning as it undoubtedly is, there are other sites dotted around the city which almost no one takes the time to visit. Un-ticketed and largely deserted, these..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Parthenon (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "West facade of the Parthenon, Athens, 5th century BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Pausanius' Guide To Ancient Athens (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Pausanius was a 2nd century CE writer who traveled extensively, taking notes on points of interest, and recorded his travels in `guide books’ which could be used by tourists visiting the sites described. Born in Lydia, in Asia Minor (present day Turkey) Pausanius traveled to Macedonia, Jerusalem, Egypt and Rome and wrote of seeing the ruins of the city of Troy (an important passage for later archaeologists..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Peloponnesian War (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A map indicating the alliances and major battles of the Peloponnesian War in the Hellenic world (431-404 BCE)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Pericles (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "A 1st century CE bust of the Athenian statesman Pericles probably from a 5th century BCE original bronze. Provenance: Rome. (Vatican Museums, Rome)."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Pericles and the Agora: Ancient Symbol of Commerce and Democracy (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The great statesman Pericles was credited with bringing Athens into its "golden age", at a pinnacle of culture, wealth, and influence that few other cultures have achieved in history. Under Pericles, Athens became the legendary city that we think of today, with its democratic political ideals, magnificent columned temples, and artistic innovations. Pericles' Project Pericles was..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Phidias(?), Parthenon Frieze, c. 438-32 B.C.E. (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=KzZF1lP4Rbk Phidias(?), Parthenon Frieze, c. 438-32 B.C.E., pentelic marble (420 linear feet of the 525 that complete the frieze are in the British Museum)"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Piraeus & The Long Walls (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An illustration of the Long Walls fortifications which connected the city of Athens to its port of Piraeus from the 5th century BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Poseidon and the Founding of Athens | Mythology w/ Dael (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Dael tells the story of how Poseidon tried to invest in some real estate and was very bad at it, featuring useless gifts, thwarted floods and and an unhappy sea god. Head over to the Geek & Sundry forums and join in the discussion: http://geekandsundry.com/forums/categories/dael-kingsmill Follow Dael! http://www.youtube.com/monarchsfactory Twitter: @DailyDael Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/monarchsfactory..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Propylaea (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Propylaea, the monumental gate entrance to the Athens acropolis. Architect: Mnesicles, c. 437–431 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Propylaea Plan (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The plan of the Propylaea, the monumental gate of the Athens acropolis, c. 437-431 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Propylaea, Athenian Acropolis (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Propylaea, the monumental gate to the acropolis of Athens. Interior (west) view. Architect: Mnesicles, c. 437–431 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Propylaea, Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Propylaea, monumental gateway to the acropolis of Athens. Constructed between c. 437 and 431 BCE in the age of Pericles under the supervision of architect Mnesicles."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Propylaea, Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "An illustration of the Propylaea or monumental gateway of the Athenian acropolis, 5th century BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Prostitution in Ancient Athens (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "As a coastal city and hub of the Ancient Greek world, Athens was frequently visited by sailors and merchants who docked their ships for business and respite. The presence of these visitors to the city sparked a need for entertainment, and that need was fulfilled by the emergence of prostitution in the Archaic Period (800 - 500 BCE). Prostitution continued, and in the Classical Period of Athens (the..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Reconstruction of Ancient Athenian Girl: Myrtis (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Scientists in Greece have reconstructed the face of an ancient Athenian girl, using the teeth and skull found in a mass grave. Named "Myrtis", the life size mannequin now forms part of an exhibition called "Face to Face with the Past." Greek scientists and archaeologists have given a face to an ancient Athenian girl from the 5th century B.C. The facial reconstruction process utilized the teeth..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Roman Agora Gate, Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The monumental entrance gate (propylaea) to the Roman agora of Athens. Pentellic marble, 19-11 BCE. Donated by Julius Caesar and Augustus, it is known as the Gate of Athena Archegetis."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Socrates and democratic Athens (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Socrates was both a loyal citizen (by his own lights) and a critic of the democratic community’s way of doing things. This led to a crisis in 339 B.C. In order to understand Socrates’ and the Athenian community’s actions (as reported by Plato and Xenophon) it is necessary to understand the historical and legal contexts, the democratic state’s commitment to the notion that citizens..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Socrates' Prison, Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The cave in Athens said to be where Socrates was held prisoner and died."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Speaker's Platform, Athens Assembly, Pynx, Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The platform on the Pnyx hill where speakers stood to address the Athenian democratic assembly in the 5th century BCE. The space dedicated for the assembly could hold 6000 people."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Athena Nike - Acropolis, Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Nike, Acropolis of Athens. Construction: 449-420 BCE"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Hephaestus (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Hephaistos, Agora of Athens. Construction: 449-416 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Hephaistos & Athena, Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "Also known as the Theseum because of its decorative sculpture depicting the feats of Theseus, the Doric temple, built in 449 BCE, is situated in the agora of Athens. Hephaistos and Athena, as gods of crafts were worshipped here and within were bronze statues of the divinities."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Nike, Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Nike, Athens, 427-424 BCE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens, also known as the Olympieion, was built over several centuries starting in 174 BCE and only finally completed by Roman emperor Hadrian in 131 CE. Its unusually tall columns and ambitious layout made the temple one of the largest ever built in the ancient world. Historical Overview Located south-east of Athens’ acropolis near the River Ilissos..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The remaining Corinthian columns of the 5th century BCE temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens. It was not completed until the reign of the Roman Emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century CE some 638 years after the project had begun."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens (Image)"; dcterms:abstract "The Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens. Completed 131 CE."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Ancient Greeks: Crucible of Civilization - Episode 2: Golden Age (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "EPISODE 2: GOLDEN AGE The second part recounts the Greeks' heroic victory against the mighty Persian empire through the life of Themistocles, one of Athens' greatest generals.The episode opens in 490 B.C. when tiny Athens prepares to safeguard its growing economy and infant democracy against an invasion by Persian armies of Darius the Great. When the Persians arrive for battle, the Greek courier Phidippides..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Ancient Greeks: Crucible of Civilization - Episode 3: Empire of the Mind (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "EPISODE 3: EMPIRE OF THE MIND The final segment describes how Athens, at the height of her glory, engaged in a suicidal conflict with her greatest rival, Sparta. Through the eyes of Socrates, Athens' first philosopher, viewers see the tragic descent of Athenian democracy into mob rule.The episode opens in 399 B.C., after the great philosopher Socrates has been sentenced to death and Athens lies in ruins..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Archaic Athenian Agora: Gateway to Classical Athenian Democracy (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The early Athenian Agora served a series of very different purposes than it did in its halcyon days of ancient history. The area that came to be the Agora was in use as a cemetery from the Bronze Age (approximately 3000 B.C.) until the end of the 7th century B.C. It was also a residential area during this time. This is evidenced by the discovery of remains of wells that would have been dug..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Athenian Agora and the experiment in democracy (Video)"; dcterms:abstract "Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris"; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Athenian Agora in the Roman Era (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Greece became a Roman province in 146 BCE after the Roman general Mummius destroyed the Greek capital city of Corinth. Athens did not convert to Roman ways so quickly, however. The city and its building programs remained relatively static in their typical Greek style. This was certainly the case in the Athenian Agora. After all, the Stoa of Attalos was constructed during this period, and there were..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Athenian Calendar (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "The term “Athenian Calendar” (also called the “Attic Calendar”) has become somewhat of a misnomer, since Ancient Athenians never really used just one method to reckon the passage of time. Athenians, especially from the 3rd Century BCE forward, could consult any one of five separate “calendars:” Olympiad, Seasonal, Civil, Conciliar, and finally Metonic – depending..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Athenian Ephebeia in the Lycurgan Period: 334/3-322/1 BC (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "This dissertation examines the origin, purpose, and function of the Athenian ephebeia during the Lycurgan period (334/3-322/1 B.C.). The ephebeia, a compulsory two-year long state-funded and organized program of military service for eighteen and nineteen year old citizens called ephebes, did not exist as a formal institution prior to 334/3 B.C., the date of the earliest known ephebic inscriptions. Instead..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Battle of Chaeronea in Diodorus Siculus (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Chaeronea is the site of the famous Battle of Chaeronea (338 BCE) Phillip II of Macedon’s decisive defeat of the Greek city-states. At Chaeronea in Boeotia (north of Corinth) Phillip and his allies from Thessaly, Epirus, Aetolia, Northern Phocis and Locrian defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes. Phillip commanded the right wing while his eighteen-year old son, Alexander lead the left. Alexander..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Classical Agora, the Final Chapter: The Beginning of the End For the Heyday of Ancient Athens (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "Just as the Athenian Agora was home to the many legal and political headquarters of the polis, it also was home base to the all-important Athenian army. In the chronicles of ancient history, we can see how armies and navies played a vital role on the succession of power of important ancient civilizations, and Athens is no exception. The Athenian military power was a vital ingredient in the success..."; oac:hasBody ; oac:hasTarget ; foaf:thumbnail . a oac:Annotation; dcterms:creator "Ancient History Encyclopedia"; dcterms:title "The Classical Athenian Agora: Setting the Standard for Democracy (Article)"; dcterms:abstract "After Athens' victory in the Persian War (around 448 BC), it was leader among the Greek poleis in the realms of politics, economics, art, and literature. They were seemingly untouchable, except by perhaps the Spartans. This period of power and prosperity is known widely as the Classical Period of ancient history