Visual Timeline: Religion

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4000 BCE 3500 BCE 3000 BCE 2500 BCE 2000 BCE 1500 BCE 1000 BCE 500 BCE 0 CE 500 CE 1000 CE  
4000 BCE: Earliest Egyptian Myths Recorded.
3500 BCE: First written evidence of religion in the world recorded on Sumerian tablets.
3500 BCE: First written evidence of religion in Sumerian cuneiform.
3000 BCE: Hathor, known as Mistress of Dendera, cult center flourishes in the city of Dendera.
2500 BCE: Osiris as Dying and Reviving God and God of the Dead appears in Pyramid Texts.
2100 BCE: First ziggurats in Ur, Eridu, Uruk, and Nippur.
1500 BCE - 500 BCE: The Vedic Period in India.
1500 BCE - 1100 BCE: The Rig Veda written, mentioning the god Rudra (Shiva) for the first time.
1120 BCE: The Sumerian Enuma Elish (creation story) is written.
700 BCE: Greek poet Hesiod writes his Theogony and Works and Days.
700 BCE: Indian scholars codify and reinterpret Aryan beliefs to create the Upanishads texts forming the basis of Hinduism.
700 BCE: Development of the Charvaka school of philosophy in India.
599 BCE - 527 BCE: Traditional dating of the life of Vardhamana, according to Jain tradition.
566 BCE - 486 BCE: The life of Siddhartha Gautama according to the Corrected long chronology.
563 BCE: Siddhartha Gautama is born in Lumbini (present day Nepal).
490 BCE - 410 BCE: The life of Siddhartha Gautama according to modern scholar consensus.
6 BCE - 30 CE: Life of Jesus Christ.
1 CE - 100 CE: Mithraism spreads in the Roman empire.
1 CE - 100 CE: The Mahayana movement begins in India with its belief in bodhisattva - saintly souls who helped the living.
42 CE - 62 CE: St. Paul goes on missionary journeys across Asia Minor, Greece, and Rome.
64 CE: Unofficial persecution of Christians in Rome.
65 CE - 100 CE: The tales of the life and work of Jesus (gospels) composed.
132 CE: Septuagint (Greek translation of the Bible) composed at Alexandria.
224 CE: Zoroastrianism becomes Persian state religion under the Sasanian dynasty.
313 CE: Roman emperor Constantine I tolerates Christianity.
314 CE: Armenia adopts Christianity as the state religion.
500 CE - 600 CE: In India the Tantric expands the number of deities to include helpful demons, contactable through ritual.
503 CE: Clovis converts to Christianity.
570 CE: Muhammad is born in Mecca.
610 CE: Muhammad receives his first revelation on Mount Hira.
622 CE: Muhammad undertakes the Hijra (migration) from Mecca to Medina, establishing the start of the Islamic calendar.
624 CE: Battle of Badr: Muhammad’s forces win, resulting in a turning point for Islam against the ruling Quraysh tribe.
625 CE: Battle of Uhud: Quraysh tribe defeats the Muslims.
627 CE: Battle of the Trench: Quraysh troops attempt to siege Medina (then called Yathrib), but lose to the Muslim force.
627 CE: Siege of Bani Qurayzah: Muslims capture the Jewish stronghold and Muhammad approves of the killing of all of the males who had reached puberty, and one female, the rest of whom are sold in exchange for goods.
628 CE: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah: A peace agreement is signed between Muhammad’s Muslims and the people of Mecca.
628 CE: Conquest of Khaybar oasis: Jews barricade themselves in a fort at Khaybar oasis and are allowed to remain living there if they pay the Muslims one third of their produce.
629 CE: First Pilgrimage ("lesser" pilgrimage or "umrah") made by Muhammad and his Muslims to Mecca after migrating to Medina.
629 CE: Battle of Mu’tah:Muslims attempt to capture the village east of the Jordan River from the Byzantine Empire to show their expanding dominance, resulting in a Muslim defeat.
630 CE: Non-violent conquest of Mecca: The Quraysh realize that the Muslims now greatly outnumber them and allow the Muslims to capture their city, Mecca, and rule it as they please.
630 CE: Battle of Hunayn: Ending in a decisive victory for the Muslims over the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin.
630 CE: Attempted Siege of Ta’if: Muhammad’s forces are initially unable to siege Ta’if and convert its people to Islam.
632 CE: “Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage”: This is the only Hajj pilgrimage in which Muhammad participates.
632 CE: Muhammad dies in Medina, not clearly naming a successor to lead the Muslim people.
632 CE - 634 CE: Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) of the Rashidun Caliphate.
634 CE - 644 CE: 'Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
644 CE - 656 CE: 'Uthman ibn 'Affan succeeds 'Umar to become the third caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
650 CE: Realizing several variations in Qur'ans throughout the Islamic Empire, 'Uthman orders the establishment of one "true" Qur'an while destroying the others. Thus, the 'Uthman Qur'an Codex was created and is still the acceptable Qur'an used to this day.
656 CE - 661 CE: 'Ali ibn Abi Talib succeeds 'Uthman to become the fourth and final caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
670 CE: Hasan ibn 'Ali, Shi'a Islam's second imam (his father, 'Ali, being the first imam), is poisoned to death
680 CE: Husayn ibn 'Ali, Shi'a Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq.
712 CE: The Kojiki is written, a collection of oral myths forming the basis of the Shinto religion.
720 CE: The Nihon Shoki is written, a collection of oral myths forming the basis of the Shinto religion.
807 CE: Imibe-no-Hironari writes the Kogoshui, a collection of oral myths forming the basis of the Shinto religion.
1122 CE: Construction begins of the Hindu temple at Angkor Wat.
4000 BCE 3000 BCE 2000 BCE 1000 BCE 0 CE