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285 CE: The Roman empire is split into the Western and Eastern Roman empires.
312 CE: Constantine I introduces the gold nomisma (solidus) coin.
313 CE: Roman emperor Constantine I tolerates Christianity.
330 CE - 379 CE: Life of Basil Great, one of the founding fathers of the Eastern Christian Church.
330 CE: Constantinople is founded on the site of old Byzantium as “the new Rome.”
331 CE: The Great Palace of Constantinople is first built by Constantine I.
360 CE: First Hagia Sophia built in Constantinople.
361 CE: Roman emperor Julian attempts to revive Paganism.
370 CE: Basil the Great is made the bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia.
376 CE: The Visigoths are fleeing the Huns, entering the Eastern Roman Empire.
378 CE: The Goths defeat Emperor Valens is near Adrianople.
391 CE: Emperor Theodosius closes pagan temples.
395 CE - 637 CE: Byblos is a colony of the Byzantine Empire (formerly known as the Eastern Roman Empire).
395 CE - 408 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Arkadios.
395 CE: The statue of Zeus at Olympia is removed to Constantinople.
408 CE - 450 CE: Reign of Byzantine Emperor Thedosius II.
410 CE - 413 CE: The Theodosian Walls are built to better protect Constantinople.
450 CE - 457 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Marcian.
451 CE: Fourth Ecumenical Council takes place in Chalcedon, determining that Jesus Christ had two distinct natures and wills, perfectly united.
457 CE - 474 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo I.
457 CE: Leo I is crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople, the first Byzantine emperor to be crowned by a bishop.
466 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo I gives his daughter Ariadne as a wife to the Isaurian chief Tarasicodissa (Zeno).
468 CE: A Byzantine army led by Basiliscus is defeated by the Vandals in North Africa.
469 CE: The Byzantine Empire builds the Anastasian Wall.
471 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo I conspires to murder his rival the general Aspar.
474 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo II.
474 CE - 491 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Zeno.
475 CE - 476 CE: Revolt of Basiliscus against Zeno in the Byzantine Empire.
479 CE: Revolt by Marcian against Zeno in the Byzantine Empire.
481 CE: Theodoric Strabo marches on Constantinople.
482 CE: Patriarch Acacius and Zeno release the Henotikon, an attempted religious compromise, which creates the Acacian Schism with Rome.
484 CE - 519 CE: Acacian Schism between the Byzantine Empire and the Pope in Rome.
491 CE - 518 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I introduces the copper follis coin (288 are worth one gold nomisma).
491 CE - 518 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Anastasios I.
493 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I builds the Long Wall in Thrace to protect Constantinople.
497 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I recognises Theodoric as the King of Italy.
498 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I abolishes the chrysargyron, an unpopular tax on business transactions.
504 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I retakes the fortress of Amida on the Persian frontier.
505 CE - 507 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I builds a new fortress at Anastasiopolis (Dara) on the frontier with Persia.
506 CE: A peace treaty is signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Persians.
507 CE: Byzantine emperor Anastasios I sends Childeric, the king of the Franks in Gaul, a fleet to aid his war with the Ostrogoths.
513 CE - 515 CE: Vitalian leads a revolt in Byzantine
518 CE - 527 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Justin I.
525 CE: Justinian I marries Theodora, a woman from a poor background and possibly a courtesan.
527 CE - 565 CE: Reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I.
527 CE - 646 CE: The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.
527 CE - 548 CE: Reign of Empress Theodora of the Byzantine Empire.
527 CE: Coronation of Justinian I and Theodora in the Hagia Sophia Church in Constantinople.
529 CE: The first part of Justinian's Code, the Codex Justinianus, is released and immediately adopted across the Byzantine Empire.
531 CE - 534 CE: Byzantine forces engaged in a series of military campaigns against the Slavs and other groups.
532 CE - 537 CE: Hagia Sophia is built anew in Constantinople.
533 CE: Belisarius defeats the Persians to the east of the Byzantine Empire and the Vandals of Africa.
533 CE - 534 CE: The Vandal War launched by Emperor Justinian I, aimed a reconquering Africa from the Vandals.
533 CE: The Digestum and Institutiones parts of Justinian's Code are released which supersedes all previous laws across the Byzantine Empire.
534 CE: Justinian of the Byzantine Empire conquers the Vandal kingdom in Africa.
535 CE: Belisarius' first campaign against the Ostrogoths in Italy.
536 CE - 562 CE: The Byzantine Empire conquers Italy.
536 CE: Rome falls to Belisarius.
540 CE: The Byzantine mosaics of the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy are created.
545 CE: Belisarius' second campaign against the Ostrogoths in Italy.
550 CE: The Slavs advance towards Thessalonica, entering the region of the Hebrus River and the Thracian coast. Thessalonica is saved by the Roman army.
554 CE: Byzantine Empire conquers southern Iberia.
556 CE - 572 CE: Samaritan revolt beginning in Caesarea Maritima, perhaps with Jewish support. A number of churches are destroyed and there is a significant loss of life.
565 CE - 578 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Justin II.
578 CE - 582 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Tiberius II.
580 CE: The Slavs and the Avars overwhelm Greece, Thrace and Thessaly.
582 CE - 602 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Maurice.
585 CE: The Slavs march on to Constantinople, they are driven off by the Roman defence.
602 CE - 610 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Phocas.
607 CE - 627 CE: East Rome defeats Sasanian Persia.
610 CE - 641 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Heraclius.
626 CE: A coalition of Persians, Slavs, Avars and Bulgars unsuccessfully lays siege to Constantinople.
627 CE: Byzantine emperor Heraclius wins a crushing victory over the Persian army at Nineveh.
628 CE: Byzantine Empire re-takes Alexandria, Egypt, from the Persians.
636 CE: A Byzantine army is crushed by an Arab force at the battle of Yarmuk.
637 CE: Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
641 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine III.
641 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Heraklonas.
641 CE - 668 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constans II.
642 CE: Byzantine Alexandria falls to the Arab Caliphate.
649 CE: The Arab Caliphate attacks Byzantine Cyprus.
654 CE: Byzantine Crete, Kos and Rhodes fall to the Arab Caliphate.
655 CE: A Byzantine fleet is destroyed by the Arab Caliphate off the coast of Lycia.
659 CE: A peace treaty is signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Arab Caliphate.
668 CE - 685 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine IV.
674 CE - 678 CE: The Arab Umayyad Caliphate unsuccessfully besieges Constantinople.
678 CE: First recorded use of Greek Fire in Byzantine warfare during the Arab siege of Constantinople.
679 CE: The Umayyad Caliphate is obliged by treaty to give up former Byzantine territories in the Aegean.
680 CE: A Byzantine naval fleet is defeated by the Bulgars.
680 CE - 681 CE: The Sixth Ecumenical Council in Constantinople declares the end of Monotheletism and Monoenergism.
681 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine IV signs a peace treaty with the Bulgars.
685 CE - 695 CE: First reign of Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
691 CE: Byzantine emperor Justinian II mints the first coins to depict Jesus Christ.
695 CE - 698 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Leontios.
695 CE: The usurper Leontios exiles Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
698 CE - 705 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Tiberios II.
698 CE: The Byzantine ruler Leontios is exiled by the usurper Apsimar (aka Tiberios III).
705 CE - 711 CE: Second reign of Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
705 CE: Justinian II besieges Constantinople and reinstates himself as Byzantine emperor, removing the usurper Tiberios III.
709 CE: Byzantine Tyana in Cappadocia is lost to the Arabs.
711 CE - 713 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Philippikos.
711 CE: Pope Constantine visits Constantinople at the invitation of Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
711 CE: The general and usurper Philippikos murders Byzantine emperor Justinian II.
713 CE - 716 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Anastasius II
716 CE - 717 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Theodosius III.
717 CE - 718 CE: Greek Fire is used by Byzantine ships to attack an Arab fleet besieging Constantinople.
717 CE - 741 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo III.
717 CE - 802 CE: The Isaurian dynasty, founded by Leo III, rules the Byzantine Empire.
720 CE - 721 CE: The silver miliaresion coin is introduced in the Byzantine Empire by Leo III.
726 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo III makes legal reforms, publishing his Ecloga.
730 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo III decrees that all religious icons be destroyed.
740 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo III wins a decisive victory over the Arabs at the battle of Akroinon.
741 CE - 775 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine V
744 CE: Emperor Constantine V regains the Byzantine throne from the usurper Artabasdos.
746 CE - 752 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine V conducts successful campaigns in northern Syria and Armenia.
754 CE: The Council of Hieria declares the worship of icons by Christians as heresy.
755 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine V instigates a persecution of Christians who worship icons.
756 CE - 775 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine V wins a string of military victories against the Bulgars.
775 CE - 780 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo IV.
780 CE - 790 CE: Empress Irene rules as regent for Byzantine emperor Constantine VI.
780 CE - 797 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VI (with Empress Iren as regent 780-790 CE).
787 CE: The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea rules an end to iconoclasm in the Byzantine Christian Church.
790 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine VI exiles his mother and regent Empress Irene.
795 CE: Constantine VI divorces Mary of Amnia and then marries his mistress Theodote, causing the so-called Moechian Controversy, which divides the Byzantine Church.
797 CE - 802 CE: Empress Irene rules the Byzantine empire.
797 CE: Byzantine empress Irene blinds and kills her son Constantine VI.
797 CE - 802 CE: Empress Irene is the first Byzantine ruler to put an image of herself on both sides of her coinage.
802 CE - 811 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Nikephoros I.
807 CE: A peace treaty is signed between king of the Franks Charlemagne and Byzantine emperor Nikephoros I.
811 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Stavrakios.
811 CE - 813 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael I.
813 CE - 820 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian.
814 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian defeats a Bulgar army near Mesembria.
815 CE: Byzantine emperor Leo V the Armenian proclaims the veneration of icons as heresy.
820 CE - 829 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael II.
820 CE - 823 CE: Byzantine emperor Michael II puts down a revolt led by Thomas the Slav.
821 CE - 822 CE: Greek Fire is used by Byzantine ships to attack a Slav fleet besieging Constantinople.
821 CE - 823 CE: Thomas the Slav unsuccessfully besieges Constantinople.
829 CE - 842 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Theophilos.
830 CE - 831 CE: Byzantine emperor Theophilos wins victories in Cilica and awards himself a triumph.
838 CE: The Arab Caliphate defeats a Byzantine army and captures the cities of Ankara and Amorion.
839 CE: The Byzantine empire loses Taranto in southern Italy to the western Arabs.
842 CE - 867 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael III.
842 CE - 855 CE: Theodora rules as regent for her son Michael III, emperor of the Byzantine empire.
855 CE - 856 CE: Michael III removes his mother Theodora, the regent, and rules alone as emperor of the Byzantine empire.
856 CE: The armies of Byzantine emperor Michael III win great victories in Cappadocia and Mesopotamia.
862 CE: Council of Ŝirakawan between the Armenian and Byzantine Orthodox Churches discuss Christological issues in an effort to reunify, although ultimately unsuccessful.
863 CE: Byzantine emperor Michael III sends Saint Cyril and Methodius on a mission to Moravia.
864 CE: Byzantine emperor Michael III presides over the baptism of Boris I, khan of the Bulgars.
866 CE: Byzantine emperor Michael III makes Basil the Macedonian co-emperor.
867 CE: Basil the Macedonian murders Byzantine emperor Michael III and declares himself Emperor Basil I.
867 CE - 886 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Basil I.
883 CE: A decree by Byzantine emperor Basil I is the first recorded evidence of a monastery on Mount Athos.
886 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil I is (probably) murdered by his son and successor Leo VI.
886 CE - 912 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Leo VI.
894 CE: Symeon, Tsar of the Bulgars, invades Thrace, then Byzantine territory.
902 CE: Byzantine Taormina on Sicily falls to Arab attacks.
904 CE: Leo of Tripoli leads an Arab force which sacks Byzantine Thessaloniki and Abydos.
912 CE - 913 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexander.
912 CE: Byzantine emperor Constantine VII inherits the throne but is served by four consecutive regents.
920 CE - 944 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos.
920 CE: Romanos I's Tome of Union reconciles the rift in the Byzantine Church caused by Leo VI's third and fourth marriages.
922 CE: Byzantine emperor Romanos I passes a law to protect the land of the peasantry.
934 CE: A Byzantine army captures Melitene in Cappadocia.
941 CE: Greek Fire is used by Romanos I's fleet against a Russian fleet attacking Constantinople.
943 CE: A Byzantine army led by John Kourkouas captures the border Mesopotamians fortresses of Nisibis, Dara, Amida, and Martyropolis.
944 CE: A Byzantine army led by John Kourkouas besieges Edessa. The Mandylion icon is taken to Constantinople
945 CE - 959 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VII (ruled with a regent from 912 CE).
959 CE - 963 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Romanos II.
962 CE: Byzantine forces under Nikephoros Phokas sack Anazarbos and Hierapolis in Syria.
963 CE - 969 CE: Byzantine emperor Nikephoros II Phokas introduces the gold tetarteron coin (one-twelfth of a gold nomisma in value).
963 CE: The Great Lavra monastery on Mount Athos is founded by Saint Athanasios.
963 CE - 969 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Nikephoros II Phokas.
965 CE: Byzantine forces are defeated and forced out of Sicily by Muslim troops.
968 CE: Nikephoros II Phokas marches Byzantine forces as far south as Lebanon.
969 CE: Byzantine forces recapture the city of Antioch from the Arabs.
969 CE: John Tzimiskes murders Nikephoros II Phokas in the imperial Byzantine palace in Constantinople.
969 CE - 976 CE: Reign of Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimiskes.
970 CE: The Treaty of Safar makes Aleppo a client state of the Byzantine Empire.
971 CE: John I Tzimiskes and the Byzantine army defeat the Rus at Dorystolon, forcing Sviatoslav and the Rus army to retreat from Bulgaria.
972 CE: Byzantine emperor John I Tzimisces uses Greek Fire to take the Bulgar capital of Preslav, then in Russian hands.
972 CE: John I Tzimiskes captures Nisibis and forces the Emir of Mosul to pay tribute to the Byzantine Empire.
975 CE: John I Tzimiskes invades Syria, conquering several cities and forcing neighboring Muslim states such as Damascus to pay tribute to the Byzantines.
976 CE - 1025 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Basil II.
986 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II suffers a terrible defeat to Samuel the Bulgar at Trajan's Gate.
987 CE - 989 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II defeats the usurpers Bardas Skleros and Bardas Phokas.
988 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II uses a force of Varangians for the first time.
988 CE - 989 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II uses Greek Fire to attack a rebel force led by the usurper Bardas Phokas.
994 CE: Trdat the Architect completes his reconstruction of the dome of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople.
995 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II wins victories in Syria against the Fatimids.
997 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II reconquers Greece from Samuel the Bulgar.
1014 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II wins final victory against Samuel the Bulgar at Kleidion.
1018 CE - 1082 CE: Life of Byzantine minister, scholar, and historian Michael Psellos.
1021 CE - 1022 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II wins victories in Armenia and Georgia.
1025 CE: Byzantine emperor Basil II dies and his plans to invade Sicily are abandoned.
1025 CE - 1028 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VIII.
1025 CE - 1028 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine VIII.
1028 CE - 1034 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Romanos III Argyros.
1028 CE - 1050 CE: Reign of Byzantine Empress Zoe (including spells alongside three husbands, a nephew and sister).
1034 CE - 1041 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael IV the Paphalgonian.
1040 CE: The Bulgarian leader Deljan starts a major Bulgarian uprising against the Byzantine Empire.
1041 CE - 1042 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael V.
1042 CE - 1055 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine IX.
1042 CE: Reign of Byzantine empresses Zoe and Theodora.
1055 CE - 1056 CE: Reign of Byzantine Empress Theodora (alone).
1056 CE - 1057 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael VI.
1057 CE - 1059 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Isaac I Komnenos.
1057 CE: Isaac Komnenos and other leading military men in the Byzantine Empire rebel against Emperor Michael VI.
1057 CE: Isaac Komnenos is declared Byzantine emperor by imperial soldiers in Anatolia in rebellion against Emperor Michael VI.
1059 CE - 1067 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Constantine X.
1059 CE: Isaac I Komnenos defeats the Pechenegs in battle, but loses soldiers in a storm during his march home.
1067 CE - 1071 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Romanus IV Diogenes.
1068 CE: The Normans under Robert Guiscard begin the three-year siege of Bari, the Byzantine provincial capital of southern Italy.
1071 CE - 1078 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael VII.
1078 CE - 1081 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Nikephoros III.
1081 CE - 1082 CE: The Normans, led by Robert Guiscard, attack Byzantine Greece.
1081 CE - 1118 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos.
1082 CE: Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos grants trade access and privileges to the Venetians in return for naval support.
1083 CE - 1153 CE: Life of the Byzantine historian Anna Komnene.
1084 CE: The Normans defeat a Venetian naval force, allies of the Byzantine Empire.
1085 CE: Alexios I Komnenos recaptures Dyracchion from the Normans.
1087 CE - 1090 CE: The Pechenegs attack Byzantine Thrace.
1091 CE: A Byzantine army, with Cumans as allies, defeats the Pechenegs at the battle of Mount Lebounion.
1092 CE: Alexios I Komnenos introduces the electrum hyperpyron coin (worth one-third of a gold nomisma).
1095 CE: Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos quashes a rebellion led by Nikephoros Diogenes.
1097 CE: The First Crusaders capture Nicaea.
1098 CE: The First Crusaders capture Antioch after an 8-month siege.
1100 CE: The Jesus Christ mosaic in the dome of the church at Daphni, Greece is made.
1107 CE: The Normans, led by Bohemund, besiege Dyracchion.
1108 CE: The Treaty of Devol is signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Normans, removing any Norman threat from the empire's territory.
1118 CE - 1143 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos.
1122 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos defeats the Pechenegs in the Balkans.
1125 CE: The Vladimir Icon of the Virgin and Child is painted in Constantinople.
1126 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos restores the trade privileges given to the Venetians.
1129 CE: Serbia is obliged to accept Byzantine sovereignty.
1130 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos defeats the Danishmendids in Asia Minor.
1133 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos celebrates a triumph in Constantinople after five successful campaigns in Asia Minor.
1137 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos conquers the Rubenids in Armenia and occupies the capital at Anazarbos.
1137 CE: Byzantine historian Anna Komnene begins her Alexiad.
1138 CE: Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos besieges and takes the city of Shaizar in Syria.
1143 CE - 1180 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos.
1144 CE - 1146 CE: Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos wins victories in Cilicia, Syria and Asia Minor.
1147 CE: The armies of the Second Crusade arrive in Constantinople.
1149 CE: A fleet led by George of Antioch attacks Constantinople.
1155 CE - 1157 CE: The Byzantines unsuccessfully invade southern Italy.
1158 CE: Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos signs a treaty with William I of Sicily.
1171 CE: Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos arrests 10,000 Venetian traders across the empire to limit their stranglehold on trade.
1176 CE: A Byzantine army is ambushed by the Seljuks at the battle of Myriokephalon in Phyrgia.
1180 CE - 1183 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexios II.
1183 CE - 1185 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Andronikos I.
1185 CE - 1195 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Isaac II.
1195 CE - 1203 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexios III.
1203 CE - 1204 CE: Joint reign of Byzantine emperors Isaac II and Alexios IV.
1204 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexios IV.
1204 CE: Reign of Byzantine Alexios V.
1204 CE - 1261 CE: Latin emperors rule the Byzantine Empire.
1204 CE: Constantinople is sacked by the Fourth Crusaders.
1259 CE - 1282 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael VIII.
1260 CE: The wall paintings of the church of Sancta Sophia in Trebizond are made.
1282 CE - 1328 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Andronikos I.
1293 CE - 1320 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Michael IX.
1304 CE - 1309 CE: Spanish mercenaries of the Catalan Grand Company attack the monasteries on Mount Athos.
1306 CE: The Knights Hospitaller, looking for a new base, attack Byzantine Rhodes.
1328 CE - 1341 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Andronikos III.
1341 CE - 1376 CE: First reign of Byzantine emperor John V.
1341 CE - 1354 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor John VI.
1370 CE - 1375 CE: The Byzantine manuscript the Theological Works of John VI Cantacuzenos is produced and contains many miniature paintings.
1376 CE - 1379 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Andronikos IV.
1379 CE - 1391 CE: Second reign of Byzantine emperor John V.
1390 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor John VII.
1391 CE - 1425 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Manuel II.
1397 CE: The Knights Hospitaller buy Corinth from the Byzantine Empire.
1404 CE: Last historical mention of the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
1425 CE - 1448 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor John VIII.
1430 CE: The Ottoman Empire grants Mount Athos and its monasteries independence in exchange for annual tribute.
1449 CE - 1453 CE: Reign of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI.
1453 CE: Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II sacks Constantinople.