Painting by Laurits Tuxen showing a Christian Bishop displacing an image of the pagan Slavic deities during the Christianisation process of the Slavic culture. Most the Slavic mythology and lore was lost during this time.
Artistic representation of Maya giving birth to the Buddha. This depiction is part of the altar in the "Mother Temple of the Graduated Path to Enlightenment", an Austrian Buddhist temple located at the West Monastic Zone-9 in Lumbini, Rupandehi, Nepal.
Siddhartha Gautama (also known as the Buddha “the awakened one”) was the leader and founder of a sect of wanderer ascetics (Sramanas), one of many sects which existed at that time all over India. This sect came to be known as Sangha, to distinguish it from other similar communities. The teachings of Siddhartha Gautama are considered... [continue reading]
According to Buddhist tradition, Lumbini is the name of the birthplace of Siddhartha Gautma, also known as the Buddha. Lumbini is located in present-day Rummindei, in the Terai region of Southern Nepal, not far from the Indian-Nepalese border. Legendary Accounts Buddhist sources say that the mother of the Buddha, Maya, was travelling from her home... [continue reading]
The mathematicians of ancient Greece made a hugely significant contribution to world thought and all practical subjects which depend on that intellectual basis, from geometry to engineering, astronomy to design. Influenced initially by the Egyptians, Greek mathematicians would push on to make breakthroughs such as Pythagoras' theory of right-angled triangles... [continue reading]
Fresco by the Italian Renaissance master Piero della Francesca, painted around 1463-65 CE.
Statue of Indian Emperor Chandragupta (r. 322-298 BCE), founder of the Mauryan dynasty. The statue is located at the Laxminarayan Temple in New Delhi, India.
Introduction Like any other religious tradition, Buddhism has undergone a number of different transformations that have led to the emergence of many different Buddhist schools. Analyzing the major Buddhist traditions, we find a great number of topics ranging from moral concerns (which seems to have been originally the number one concern of the Buddha... [continue reading]
Buddhism is one of the most influential traditions of the Eastern world, with about two and a half thousand years of development. It has touched and adorned virtually every single aspect of Asian society: its lore, mythology, morals, art and even metaphysics and religion, despite the fact the Buddha, its founder, does not seem to have had any kind of metaphysical... [continue reading]
The Delian Problem: finding the value of the cube root of 2
Title page of Sir Henry Billingsley's first English version of Euclid's Elements, 1570.
This is one of the best methods of approximation to the value of square root of 2 used by the Pythagorean brotherhood.
The Buddhist text known as the Diamond Sutra is believed to be the oldest surviving printed book in the world, dated to 868 CE and written in Chinese. This work is one of the most important works of the Buddhist tradition.
A Sanskrit manuscript copy of the Heart Sutra at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France.
Tibetan Mandala painted in the Sera Monastery, about 2 km away from Lhasa, Tibet.
The Mandala of the Diamond World, also known as The Diamond Realm Mandala. Japanese hanging scroll, Kamakura period, 13th-14th century.
Statue at a temple in Singapore of the God Krishna manifesting his full glory to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra.
A 16th-century painting illustrating a battle scene in the Bhagavad Gita, during the battle of Kurukshetra. Arjuna (far right), hero and leader of the Pandava army, is supported by his personal charioteer, the god Krishna (second from right). The gods are looking down on the battlefield. Krishna is aiding Arjuna mentally and spiritually, explaining... [continue reading]
The 'Great Stupa' located at Sanchi, a village in the Raisen District of the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. This stupa was originally commissioned by the emperor Ashoka the Great in the 3rd century BCE. According to some Buddhist accounts, it was built over the relics of the Buddha.
Ashoka's pillar erected in the district of Vaishali, located in the Bihar state, India. This is one of the nineteen surviving columns erected or at least inscribed with edicts by the Emperor Ashoka during his reign in the 3rd century BCE. These columns are also referred to as the "Pillars of Ashoka" and they are dispersed throughout the northern Indian subcontinent... [continue reading]
A copy of Zhu Xi's commentary on the 'Analects' of Confucius, printed during the Ming dynasty.
Picture of George Trebizond's Latin translation of Claudius Ptolemy's Almagest (ca. 1451)
Archimedes is considered one of the most important mathematicians. He was extremely well known for his involvement in the defense of Syracuse against the Roman siege in the Second Punic War.
A fragment of the second book of the Elements of Euclid in Greek, discovered in 1897 at Oxyrhynchus, Egypt.
Map showing the political division in the Eastern hemisphere in 1 CE. The Han dynasty was almost at its peak in terms of geographical expansion.
A servant statue, Western Han Period (206 BCE – 9 CE). Cernuschi Museum, Paris, France.
Objects from the tomb of Thutmose IV, 14th century BCE, including amulets in the form of the ankh, symbol of life or everlasting life. Two large amulets in the shape of an ankh were found among shabti figures and other funerary objects from the tomb of Thutmose IV (KV 43). Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Scarab shaped amulet containing the image and cartouche of Amenhotep III, promising its owner in this world 'life' (represented by an ankh). These beetle amulets were used in Ancient Egypt for rituals or administrative purposes (14th century BCE).
Four Armed Vishnu statue, 8-9th Century
Statue of Khosrau I, a Sasanian king who was known to be a great patron of philosophy and knowledge.
A chart describing the different dates of the Buddha's life according to different sources.
A rock cut image of Buddha at Bojjanakonda cave Monastery near Anakapalle in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh in India.
A 19th century CE Tibetan mandala, a tool used in some Buddhist schools and also in Hindu and Jain tradition. Mandalas are ritual images designed to facilitate different psychophysical practices such as meditation.
Thor fighting the mighty giant serpent Jörmungandr during a fishing trip with Hymir the giant. Painting by Henry Fuseli. (1788). Royal Academy of Arts, London
Statue of Vardhamana Mahavira dating of 1470 CE: Gujarat, India. Royal Museums of Art and History (MRAH, Jubilee Park, Brussels, Belgium).
An image of a Ming dynasty woodcut showing the main steps in the ancient Chinese papermaking process as outlined by Cai Lun in 105 CE.
Marble carving in a Jain temple complex located in Ranakpur, Rajasthan, India.
Partial tree of Indo-European languages. Branches are in order of first attestation; those to the left are Centum, those to the right are Satem. Languages in red are extinct. White labels indicate categories / un-attested proto-languages.
Painting of Vardhamana Mahavira, dated on 1900. Personal collection of photos of Jules Jain.
An artist's impression of Kautilya, the 4th to 3rd century BCE Indian statesman and philosopher. From a cover of a 1915 CE edition of the 'Arthashastra' translated by Rudrapatnam Shamasastry.
The Buddha seated in meditation, one hand on his lap, the other pendant in a gesture known as earth-witness, which represents unshakability or steadfastness when being subject to the demons' temptations. This is a superb example of 12th century Nepalese metalcraft: Copper alloy, gilt. "Shakyamuni, the Historical Buddha" (Object 614), Patan Museum - Mangal Bazaar, Lalitpur (Nepal)
Ruins of Mohenjo-daro in present-day Sindh, Pakistan, one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Mohenjo-daro is one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. The city was abandoned around 1800 BCE and rediscovered in 1922 CE.
From the dawn of our species to the present day, stone-made artefacts are the dominant form of material remains that have survived to today concerning human technology. The term “Stone Age” was coined in the late 19th century CE by the Danish scholar Christian J. Thomsen, who came up with a framework for the study of the human past, known... [continue reading]
The states during the Western Zhou period (1046-771 BCE) in China.
The oldest known icon depicting Jesus Christ (6th century) in Saint Catherine's Monastery, Egypt.
After the term “Stone Age” was coined in the late 19th century CE, scholars proposed to divide the Stone Age into different periods: Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic. The term Neolithic refers to the last stage of the Stone Age. The period is significant for its megalithic architecture, spread of agricultural practices, and use of polished... [continue reading]
The Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) was one of the longest of China’s major dynasties. In terms of power and prestige, the Han Dynasty in the East rivalled its almost contemporary Roman Empire in the West. With only minor interruptions it lasted a span of over four centuries and was considered a golden age in Chinese history especially in arts, politics... [continue reading]
Ionia is the name given during ancient times to the central region of Anatolia’s Aegean shore in Asia Minor, present-day Turkey, one of the most important centres of the Greek world. Here the Greeks founded a dozen mini-states, two of them on the offshore islands of Chios and Samos, the rest of them stretching along the strip of mountainous coastland. During... [continue reading]
The term science comes from the Latin word scientia, meaning “knowledge”. It can be defined as a systematic attempt to discover, by means of observation and reasoning, particular facts about the world, and to establish laws connecting facts with one another and, in some cases, to make it possible to predict future occurrences. There are other ways... [continue reading]
Pergamon (also referred to as Pergamum or Pergamo) was an ancient city located approximately 25 kilometres from the Aegean sea in present-day Bergama, Izmir Province of Turkey in the Anatolia region. The city was connected to the Caicus river valley (modern name Bakırçay) which provided access from Pergamon to the Aegean coast. Pergamon reached... [continue reading]
Archaeological site of Cyrene, Libya.
One of the first details we read about Archimedes (287-212 BCE) in almost every account of his life is the famous scene where he runs wet and naked through the streets of Syracuse shouting “Eureka!, Eureka!” (“I have found it!”). This nudist episode, however, fails to capture the respect that the life of the greatest Greek mathematician... [continue reading]
Emperor Ashoka the Great (sometimes spelt Aśoka) lived from 304 to 232 BCE and was the third ruler of the Indian Mauryan Empire, the largest ever in the Indian subcontinent and one of the world's largest empires at its time. He ruled form 268 BCE to 232 BCE and became a model of kingship in the Buddhist tradition. Under Ashoka India had an estimated population... [continue reading]
The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity. Evidence of religious practices in this area date back approximately to 5500 BCE. Farming settlements began around 4000 BCE and around 3000 BCE there appeared the first... [continue reading]
The word civilization is related to the Latin word, civitas ”city”. The term is used in several ways, generally denoting complex human cultural development. Some scholars restrict the use of the term to urbanized societies, in other words, cultures that have achieved a development that has allowed them to create large and permanent settlements... [continue reading]
Unlike other religious traditions, Hinduism does not originate in a single founder, a single book or a single point in time. It contains many different beliefs, philosophies and viewpoints, not always consistent with each other. These apparent contradictions strike only those who are not familiar with this tradition: the Hindu insight claims that the Oneness... [continue reading]
Indian Emperor Chandragupta lived from 340-298 BCE and was the first ruler of the Mauryan Empire. He ruled from 322-298 BCE; he was the father of Emperor Bindusara and grandfather of Emperor Ashoka, who was the third Mauryan ruler and under whose reign the Mauryan Empire reached its full power and became the largest empire ever in the Indian subcontinent... [continue reading]
The philosopher Confucius (or Kongzi, c. 551 to c. 479 BCE) is the recognized founder of Confucianism, also referred to as the Ru-jia doctrine or School of Literati as it is known by Western scholars. Originally, Confucianism was composed of a set of political and moral doctrines with the teachings of Confucius as its basis. Later on, the teachings... [continue reading]
In Buddhism, a stupa is a commemorative building usually housing sacred relics associated with important saintly figures. Stupas have a very distinctive semi-spherical shape and are made of unburnt bricks, often surrounded by a stone fence. They contain a circular platform in the centre of which there is a small place for a receptacle containing different relics. Traditionally... [continue reading]
Jainism, along with Buddhism and Charvaka, is considered part of the heterodox systems (also referred to as heresies) of Indian philosophy. Its philosophy is grounded in the doctrine of of the Yajur-Veda but it was systematized by Vardhamana (also known as Mahavira) who substituted the authority of the Vedas with logic and experience and also reinterpreted... [continue reading]
Buddhism is one of the most important Asian spiritual traditions. During its roughly 2.5 millennia of history, Buddhism has shown a flexible approach, adapting itself to different conditions and local ideas while maintaining its core teachings. As a result of its wide geographical expansion, coupled with its tolerant spirit, Buddhism today encompasses... [continue reading]
The term “Aryan” has had a history filled with controversy. The source of the English word Aryan comes from the Sanskrit word ārya, which is the self-designation used by the Vedic Indic people who migrated into the Indian subcontinent about 1500 BCE. The Sanskrit term has a cognate in the Iranian word arya, which is also a self-designation. Both... [continue reading]
Chinese philosophy when contrasted with the western tradition, seems very different. We could take for example the old philosophical obsession in some western schools: the quest to find the underlying building blocks of things, the essential and ultimate substance or reality behind all appearances. Such an idea would not be popular in the Chinese intellectual... [continue reading]
The Vedas are a collection of hymns and other religious texts composed in India between about 1500 and 1000 BCE. It includes elements such as liturgical material as well as mythological accounts, poems, prayers, and formulas considered to be sacred by the Vedic religion. Origin & Authorship The origin of the Vedas can be traced back as far as 1500... [continue reading]
The Upanishads are a collection of texts of religious and philosophical nature, written in India probably between c. 800 BCE and c. 500 BCE, during a time when Indian society started to question the traditional Vedic religious order. Some people during this time decided to engage in the pursuit of spiritual progress, living as ascetic hermits, rejecting ordinary... [continue reading]
The Indo-European languages are a family of related languages that today are widely spoken in the Americas, Europe, and also Western and Southern Asia. Just as Romance languages such as Spanish, French, and Italian are all descended from Latin, Indo-European languages are believed to derive from a hypothetical language known as Proto-Indo-European... [continue reading]
Vardhamana (meaning "prosperous") was an important Indian religious figure who became the leader of a sect of wanderer ascetics (Sramanas), one of the many sects which existed at that time in India. He is best known under the name of Mahavira, which is not an actual name, but a title that means “Great Victor”. The teachings... [continue reading]
The Charvaka school was a philosophical movement in India that rejected the traditional religious order by challenging the authority of the Vedas as well as the hegemony the Brahman priests. Contrary to the view that India has always been an entirely religious and spiritual land, the Charvaka school is one of the most irreligious and skeptical systems of thought... [continue reading]
Image of the Maya Devi Temple and Holy Pond in Lumbini, the birthplace of the Buddha. The area of the temple covers the exact spot where Siddhartha Gautama was born, which is indicated by the marker stone. The Holy Pond is where, according to the legend, both the Buddha and his mother were washed by divinities.
Aristarchus of Samos (c. 310 - c. 230 BCE) was an ancient Greek mathematician and astronomer from Ionia who came up with a revolutionary astronomical hypothesis. He claimed the Sun, not the Earth, was the fixed centre of the universe, and that the Earth, along with the rest of the planets, revolved around the Sun. He also said that the stars were... [continue reading]
Eratosthenes (276-195 BCE) was an ancient Greek Alexandrian scholar, native of Cyrene, who attained distinction in many fields including philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and history. However, it was in geography where he proved to be more skillful for he was one of the greatest of all ancient geographers. Eratosthenes was also known as Beta: his erudition... [continue reading]
Hipparchus of Nicea (190 BCE - 120 BCE) was an ancient Greek mathematician, astronomer and geographer, regarded by many historians as a scientist of the highest quality and possibly the greatest astronomical genius among the ancient Greeks. Basing most of his success on systematically exploiting the Chaldean and Babylonian astronomical knowledge... [continue reading]
Salona was an ancient city located at the estuary of the river Jadro in present-day Solin, a suburb of Split on the Adriatic coast of Croatia. It became the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia in 9 CE. Before the Romans Salona was a settlement of the Dalmatean, an Illyrian people who lived on the shore of the Adriatic. During the 3rd century BCE, Greek colonists... [continue reading]
Who are we? How can we be happy? Does the universe have a purpose? Greek philosophers approached the big questions of life sometimes in a genuine scientific way, sometimes in mystic ways, but always in an imaginative fashion. Pythagoras considered a charlatan for claiming the doctrine of reincarnation, a half-naked Socrates haranguing people in the street... [continue reading]
Thor was one of the most important and famous gods in Norse mythology. He was the son of Odin and Fyorgyn, the earth goddess. Thor was considered the storm-weather god of sky and thunder and also a fertility god. His wife was Sif, a goddess also linked to fertility. He had a red beard and eyes, he was huge in size, he had an insatiable appetite and not much... [continue reading]
By careful thinking based upon observation, some ancient Greeks realized that it was possible to find regularities and patterns hidden in nature and that those regularities were the key to unlocking the secrets of the universe. It became evident that even nature had to obey certain rules and by knowing those rules one could predict the behaviour of nature... [continue reading]
Astronomy is an area where the Greeks displayed a remarkable talent. Observational astronomy, which was the main form of astronomy elsewhere, was taken a step further in Greece: they attempted to build a model of the universe that could account for the observations. They explored all imaginable alternatives, they considered many different solutions... [continue reading]
The Bhagavad Gita is an ancient Indian text that became an important work of Hindu tradition in terms of both literature and philosophy. The earliest translations of this work from Sanskrit into English were made around 1795 CE by Sir Charles Wilkins. The name Bhagavad Gita means “the song of the Lord”. It is composed as a poem and it contains... [continue reading]
Arjuna is one of the heroes of the massive Indian epic named “The Mahabharata”, the longest Indian epic. He is the third of the five Pandava brothers, officially the son of king Pandu and his two wives Kunti (who is also known as Pritha) and Madri. However, we read in books 1 and 3 of the Mahabharata that the Pandava brothers are actually the offspring... [continue reading]
The word mandala is a Sanskrit term that means “circle” or “discoid object”. A mandala can be defined in two ways: externally as a schematic visual representation of the universe and internally as a guide for several psychophysical practices that take place in many Asian traditions, including meditation. Mandalas are objects of devotion... [continue reading]
Sutra is a type of religious literature present in many Asian traditions such as Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. The word sutra is a Sanskrit term that means “discourse” (in the Pali language: sutta). Another meaning suggested for the word sutra is “threads”. Sutras were originally oral traditions and designed to prompt the memory... [continue reading]
“Perfection of Wisdom” is the English translation of the name of a large series of Mahayana Buddhist texts named in Sanskrit Prajnaparamita, sometimes referred to as Prajnaparamita literature. This collection includes around 40 texts and although they vary in length and form, they all explore similar key ideas in Mahayana Buddhism... [continue reading]
Kautilya (also known as Chanakya, c. 350-275 BCE) was an Indian statesman and philosopher, chief advisor and Prime Minister of the Indian Emperor Chandragupta, the first ruler of the Mauryan Empire. Kautilya belonged to the Brahmin caste (the priestly class), he was originally from Northern India and a professor of political science and economics at the University... [continue reading]
Jesus Christ (c. 6/4 BCE - c. 30 CE), also called Jesus son of Joseph, Jesus of Nazareth, Jesus of Galilee or simply “Christ”, was a Jewish religious leader who became a central figure in Christianity, regarded by most Christian branches as God himself. He is also considered an important prophet in Muslim tradition and the precursor of Prophet... [continue reading]
Russian Orthodox icon of the Apostle Paul, 18th century CE. Kizhi Monastery, Karelia, Russia.
Statue of a Bodhisattva (someone who is on the way to obtaining enlightenment) from a Buddhist monastery in Afghanistan, a region where the Buddhist Lokottaravāda school (which emerged from the Mahasanghika school) were known to be prominent.
Possible remains of the Western Gate of Kapilavastu, the ancient Shakya city where Siddhartha Gautama lived until the age of 29. There is some controversy about the exact location of Kapilavastu. Some versions say that it is located in present-day Rummindei, in the Terai region of Southern Nepal, about 10 kilometres west of Lumbini (the birthplace of... [continue reading]
According to Buddhist tradition, Kapilavastu is the name of the ancient city where Siddhartha Gautama, also known as the Buddha, was raised and lived until the age of 29, when he renounced worldly life. There is some controversy about the exact location of Kapilavastu. Some versions say that it is located in present-day Rummindei, in the Terai region... [continue reading]
Mahasanghika is the name of an early Buddhist school in India, which emerged about a century after the death of Siddhartha Gautama or the Buddha, during the Second Buddhist council held at Vaishali. The Sanskrit name Mahasanghika means “Great congregation” or "Great order of monks”. The Mahasanghika school represents the first major... [continue reading]
The Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BCE) was the longest-lasting of China’s dynasties. It followed the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600-1046 BCE) and it finished when the army of the state of Qin captured the city of Chengzhou in 256 BCE. The long history of the Zhou Dynasty is normally divided in two different periods: Western Zhou (1046-771 BCE) and Eastern Zhou (770-256... [continue reading]
The map shows the territory controlled by the Qin dynasty in China in 210 BCE.
Painted portrait of Sima Qian (c. 145-86 BCE). Although he is commonly referred to as a Chinese historian, he was actually the Grand Astrologer at the court of Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141 and 87 BCE).
For history lovers, the valuable gift of China’s long tradition is largely owed to Sima Qian (c. 145 - 86 BCE). Although he is commonly referred to as a Chinese historian, he was actually the Grand Astrologer at the court of Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141 - 87 BCE). Sima Qian was also the author of China’s first comprehensive and systematic book... [continue reading]
Cyrene was an ancient Greek city on the North African coast near present-day Shahhat, a town located in north-eastern Libya. The precise location of the ancient city was thirteen kilometres from the coast. A Greek Colony Cyrene owes its birth to a Greek Island named Thera in ancient times and which today is known as Santorini, located in the Southern... [continue reading]
Ruins of the ancient city of Sardis, the capital of the kingdom of Lydia, located in western Anatolia, present-day western Turkey.
Sardis was an important ancient city and capital of the kingdom of Lydia, located in western Anatolia, present-day Sartmustafa, Manisa province in western Turkey. Its strategic location made it a central point connecting the interior of Anatolia to the Aegean coast. During its history, control of Sardis changed many times, but it always kept a high status... [continue reading]
Easter is the Christian holiday that celebrates the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Christian tradition links the date of the Easter celebration to the Hebrew calendar based on a combination of astronomical events. Easter and the Jewish Passover festival are strongly connected. The passion of Jesus Christ in the gospels is often presented with the festival... [continue reading]
The Mauryan Empire at its greatest extent in 265 BCE.
A short documentary on The Stupa, a hemispherical mound that represents the burial mound of the Buddha.
Learn about Bodh Gaya, one of several sights in India associated with the birth of Buddhism.
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=8jFxkEQacVA Bodhisattva, probably Avalokiteshvara (Guanyin), Northern Qi dynasty, c. 550--60, Shanxi Province, China, sandstone with pigments, 13-3/4 feet / 419.1 cm high (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) View this work up close on the Google Art Project: http://www.googleartproject.com/collection/the-metropolitan-museum-of-art/artwork/bodhisattva-probably-avalokiteshvara-guanyin-unknown/648019/... [continue reading]
Mauryan ringstone, Northwest Pakistan, 3rd century BCE. (British Museum, London)
The Arthashastra is the title of a handbook for running an empire, written by Kautilya (also known as Chanakya, c. 350-275 BCE) an Indian statesman and philosopher, chief advisor and Prime Minister of the Indian Emperor Chandragupta, the first ruler of the Mauryan Empire. The title Arthashastra is a Sanskrit word which is normally translated as The... [continue reading]
Christianity (from the Greek word Xριστός, Khristos, "Christ", literally "anointed one") is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. Adherents of the Christian faith, known as Christians, believe that Jesus is the son of god and the Messiah... [continue reading]
Zoroaster (also known as Zarathustra) was an important religious figure in ancient Persia (present-day Iran and surrounding areas), whose teachings became the foundation of a religious movement named Zoroastrianism, a tradition that would largely dominate Persia until the mid-7th century CE, when Islam gained ascendancy in the region after the fall of the Sasanian... [continue reading]
Approximate geographical distribution of the Indo-European language family today in Eurasia.
A Faravahar or Frawahr symbol in a Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd, Iran, one of the symbols adopted by Zoroastrianism. This symbol represents a winged guardian or fravashi, an angelic being of the Zoroastrian religion.
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=S2P4I_hFnFI Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, 5th century A.D. A Smarthistory video with partner Context Travel. Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker and Richard Bowen.
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=VeZ3_VZytPw Basilica of Santa Sabina, Rome, c. 432.
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=UjX4ExCixWY Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, marble, 359 C.E. (Treasury of Saint Peter's Basilica) Please note that due to photography restrictions, the images used in the video above show the plaster cast on display in the Vatican Museum. Nevertheless, the audio conversation was recorded in the treasury... [continue reading]
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=yvnr0wnmoGY The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, 425 C.E., Ravenna, Italy Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker
This is a replica of one of the many paintings in the Chauvet Cave, located south of France, dated back to c. 30,000 years ago, during the late stage of the Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age).
An Egyptian hieroglyphic showing an early instance of cow domestication. Animal husbandry is one of the key features of the Neolithic culture.
An example of the Indus script carved on a stamp seal. Other examples of this script have been found on pottery, amulets, weights, and copper tablets.