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6000 BCE: Settlement of Tell Brak founded in Syria.
3000 BCE - 2300 BCE: The Semitic Kish culture is dominant in the area of modern-day Syria. This culure is exemplified by Ebla and the Cities I and II of Mari.
3000 BCE: City of Ebla founded in Syria.
3000 BCE: Trade already established between Syria and Egypt.
3000 BCE - 2900 BCE: Mari, the earliest known planned city, is built near the eastern bank of the Euphrates.
2334 BCE - 2279 BCE: Reign of Sargon the Great of Akkad who conquers Syria.
2240 BCE: Naram-Sin of Akkad campaigns against the Amorites in northern Syria.
1344 BCE - 1322 BCE: Reign of the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I. Hittites conquer Syria.
1274 BCE: Battle of Kadesh between Pharaoh Ramesses II of Egypt and King Muwatalli II of the Hittites.
1245 BCE: Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I defeats Hittites at Nihriya. Assyrians rule Syria.
1200 BCE: Region of Syria invaded by Sea Peoples.
912 BCE - 612 BCE: Syria is part of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
605 BCE - 549 BCE: Babyon rules over Syria.
549 BCE - 300 BCE: The Persian Achaemenid Empire rules Syria.
332 BCE - 330 BCE: Alexander the Great invades Syria, conquers the Persians.
332 BCE: Alexander the Great conquers Syria and turns toward Egypt.
312 BCE - 83 BCE: Syria under the rule of Seleucid Empire.
274 BCE - 271 BCE: The first Syrian war, marking the beginning of the contest between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids for Phoenicia and Coele-Syria.
195 BCE: After the battle at Panion, the Seleucids finally take the rule of Phoenicia from the Ptolemies. Tyre and the other Phoenician cities will remain in the Seleucid power until the Roman conquest of Syria.
83 BCE: Tigranes the Great of Armenia liberates Syria and rules the region.
64 BCE: The Roman general Pompey defeats the Seleucid Antiochus XIII and incorporates Syria as a province of the Roman empire.
64 BCE: Pompey the Great claims Syria for Rome.
66 CE - 73 CE: Syrian troops participate in the First Jewish-Roman War.
115 CE - 116 CE: Roman Empire annexes Syria.
117 CE: Death of Trajan. Now governor of Syria, Hadrian becomes emperor as he was previously adopted by Trajan.
125 CE - 180 CE: Life of the Rhetorician and Satirist Lucian of Samosata, an Hellenized Syrian writing in Attic Greek during the Second Sophistic.
128 CE - 134 CE: Hadrian travels to Greece, Anatolia, Syria, Judea, Arabia, Egypt and goes back via Greece.
132 CE - 136 CE: Syrian troops under Rome suppress the Bar Kokhba Revolt.
262 CE - 266 CE: Odaenathus expels Persian garrisons and restores Syria and Armenia to the Roman Empire. Odaenathus invades Mesopotamia, and inflicts two defeats upon Shapur I, which ends with the sack of Ctesiphon.
476 CE: Fall of the Western Roman Empire. Syria continues under Eastern (Byzantine)Empire.
637 CE: Muslim forces defeat the Byzantine army. Syria becomes part of Rashidun Caliphate.