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1200 BCE: Lydia arises as a Neo-Hittite kingdom.
1185 BCE - 687 BCE: Heraclid dynasty rules Lydia.
700 BCE - 546 BCE: The Mermnad dynasty rules Lydia.
687 BCE - 652 BCE: King Gyges rules Lydia and expands its borders. Sardis becomes Lydian capital.
687 BCE - 546 BCE: Mermnad dynasty rules Lydia.
625 BCE: Lydia drives back the Cimmerians and conquers Phrygia.
609 BCE - 560 BCE: Reign of Alyattes of Lydia. Minting of first coins made from electrum.
600 BCE: Gordium becomes part of Lydia.
585 BCE: A battle between Media and Lydia broke off immediately as a result a total eclipse of the sun and the two armies made peace. The eclipse was successfully predicted by Thales of Miletus.
560 BCE: The oracles of Delphi and Thebes both tell King Croesus of Lydia that if he attacks the Medes, he will destroy a great empire. Seeing this as a good omen, he goes to war, loses, and the Lydian Empire is destroyed.
560 BCE: Croesus of Lydia first manufactures coins of solid gold.
560 BCE - 546 BCE: Rule of King Croesus of Lydia who offered sacrifices to Ammon at Siwa.
560 BCE - 547 BCE: Reign of Croesus of Lydia.
550 BCE - 430 BCE: Construction of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesos, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
547 BCE - 546 BCE: Cyrus II of Persia conquers Lydia.
498 BCE: Ionians and Greek allies invade and burn Sardis (capital of Lydia).
334 BCE: Sardis surrenders to Alexander the Great.
280 BCE: Lydia becomes a part of the Seleucid Empire.
133 BCE: Lydia and its captial Sardis comes under Roman rule.
17 BCE: An earthquake destroys 12 cities in Lydia and affects Sardis.
124 CE: Roman emperor Hadrian visits Lydia.
215 CE: Roman emperor Caracalla visits Lydia.
616 CE: Sardis' civc life comes to an end. A Persian army penetrates the Roman defensive lines that had been deployed in eastern Anatolia. Soon after, part of that region falls to the Persians, including Sardis.