Egypt Timeline

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  • c. 9,000 BCE - c. 6,000 BCE
    Faiyum A Culture in Egypt.
  • c. 6,000 BCE - c. 640 CE
    Papyrus harvested and used for multiple purposes in Egypt.
  • c. 6,000 BCE - c. 3,150 BCE
    Anubis is developed as a god of the dead during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 6,000 BCE - c. 3,150 BCE
    Heka develops during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 6,000 BCE - c. 3,150 BCE
    Art develops in Egypt during the Pre-Dynastic Period.
  • c. 6,000 BCE
    Earliest Egyptian mastabas dug at Saqqara.
  • c. 6,000 BCE
    Nile River Valley first inhabited.
  • c. 6,000 BCE - c. 3,150 BCE
    The sacred bull which is later known as Apis worshiped during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 6,000 BCE - c. 30 BCE
    Neith is worshiped in ancient Egypt as one of the most enduring deities in the nation's history.
  • c. 6,000 BCE - c. 30 BCE
    The God Thoth is worshiped in Egypt.
  • c. 6,000 BCE - 3,150 BCE
    The Predynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 6,000 BCE
    Burial of the Dead in Egypt.
  • c. 6,000 BCE - c. 3,150 BCE
    Worship of Osiris begins in Pre-Dynastic Period of Egypt.
  • c. 6,000 BCE - c. 3,150 BCE
    Djed symbol in use during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 6,000 BCE - c. 3,150 BCE
    Nepthys is a popular goddess during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 6,000 BCE - c. 3,150 BCE
    Rulers of the Predynastic Period of Egypt known as "Followers of Horus".
  • c. 6,000 BCE - c. 3,150 BCE
    Uat-Ur mentioned in latter Predynastic Period in Egypt as name for Mediterranean Sea.
  • 5,500 BCE
    Oldest faience workshop in Egypt founded at Abydos.
  • 5,000 BCE
    Organised farming begins in Egypt.
  • c. 5,000 BCE - c. 4,000 BCE
    Merimba Culture in Egypt.
  • c. 4,500 BCE - c. 4,000 BCE
    Badarian Culture in Egypt.
  • c. 4,000 BCE - c. 3,000 BCE
    Trade contact between Byblos and Egypt.
  • c. 4,000 BCE - c. 3,500 BCE
    Amratian Culture (also known as Naqada I) in Egypt.
  • c. 4,000 BCE
    El Omari, Ma'adi, and Tasian Cultures in Egypt.
  • c. 4,000 BCE
    Depictions of gods and afterlife on walls of Egyptian tombs.
  • c. 3,500 BCE - c. 3,200 BCE
    Gerzean Culture (also known as Naqada II) in Egypt.
  • c. 3,414 BCE - c. 3,100 BCE
    Xois founded as a city during the 1st Dynasty.
  • c. 3,200 BCE
    Hieroglyphic script developed in Egypt.
  • c. 3,200 BCE
    Hieroglyphic writing develops in Egypt.
  • c. 3,200 BCE - c. 3,000 BCE
    Probable dates for creation of Narmer Palette.
  • c. 3,200 BCE - 3,150 BCE
    Naqada III Period Culture in Ancient Egypt.
  • c. 3,150 BCE
    Hieratic script develops following hieroglyphic script in Egypt.
  • c. 3,150 BCE - c. 2,613 BCE
    First Obelisks created in Egypt during the Early Dynastic Period.
  • c. 3,150 BCE - c. 30 BCE
    Worship of Seshat in ancient Egypt from the Early Dynastic Period through the Ptolemaic Dynasty.
  • c. 3,150 BCE - c. 495 CE
    Apis worshiped in Egypt from the Early Dynastic Period through most of the Roman Period.
  • c. 3,150 BCE
    Memphis Egypt known as Hut-Ka-Ptah ("Mansion of the Soul of Ptah").
  • c. 3,150 BCE - c. 2,890 BCE
    Apis worshiped by name in the First Dynasty of Egypt.
  • c. 3,150 BCE - c. 2,613 BCE
    Heka appears in inscriptions during the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 3,150 BCE
    King Menes unifies Egypt through conquest.
  • 3,150 BCE - 2,613 BCE
  • c. 3,150 BCE - c. 30 BCE
    Life of the City of Memphis, Egypt.
  • c. 3,150 BCE - c. 30 BCE
    Duration of the worship of Osiris in Egypt.
  • 3,150 BCE - 2,613 BCE
    The Early Dynastic Period in Egypt; beginning of historic dynasties.
  • 3,150 BCE - c. 2,890 BCE
    First Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.
  • c. 3,150 BCE - c. 3,100 BCE
    Reign of Menes, a.k.a. Narmer, first king who is thought to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.
  • c. 3,150 BCE - c. 2,613 BCE
    Set is worshiped as a hero-god during Early Dynastic Period of Egypt.
  • c. 3,150 BCE - c. 2,890 BCE
    Anubis appears on tomb walls during the First Dynasty of Egypt.
  • c. 3,150 BCE - c. 2,613 BCE
    Ankh symbol appears during the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 3,150 BCE - c. 2,613 BCE
    Neith is worshiped as a war goddess during the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 3,150 BCE - c. 2,890 BCE
    Serket associated with the god Nun and creation of the world during the First Dynasty of Egypt.
  • c. 3,150 BCE
    Serket associated with the Scorpion Kings of the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
  • 3,100 BCE - 2,181 BCE
    Xois inscribed on Palermo Stone as an ancient city during the 5th Dynasty.
  • c. 3,100 BCE
    Reign of King Hor-Aha in Egypt.
  • c. 3,050 BCE
    Reign of King Djer in Egypt.
  • c. 3,000 BCE
    Trade already established between Syria and Egypt.
  • c. 3,000 BCE
    Reign of King Djet in Egypt.
  • c. 2,990 BCE
    Reign of King Den, son of Merneith, in Egypt.
  • c. 2,990 BCE
    Reign of Merneith, early female ruler in Egypt.
  • c. 2,990 BCE
    Reign of Merneith, first female ruler of Egypt.
  • c. 2,920 BCE - c. 2,890 BCE
    Reign of Qa'a, last pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt.
  • c. 2,890 BCE - c. 2,670 BCE
    Bastet gains in popularity during the 2nd Dynasty of Egypt.
  • c. 2,890 BCE - c. 2,670 BCE
    Second Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.
  • c. 2,890 BCE - c. 2,670 BCE
    Seshat first mentioned as goddess of writing and measurement in the 2nd Dynasty of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt.
  • c. 2,670 BCE - c. 2,613 BCE
    Third Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.
  • c. 2,670 BCE - c. 2,650 BCE
    The Step Pyramid is built by Imhotep under reign of King Djoser.
  • c. 2,670 BCE - c. 2,613 BCE
    Concepts later included in Book of the Dead inscribed in tombs of Third Dynasty of Egypt.
  • c. 2,670 BCE
    Imhotep creates King Djoser's Step Pyramid and Pyramid Complex at Saqqara, Egypt.
  • c. 2,670 BCE
    Reign of King Djoser in Egypt, builder of the first pyramid.
  • c. 2,667 BCE - c. 2,600 BCE
    Attributed dates of Imhotep's medical and architectural achievements.
  • 2,667 BCE - 2,648 BCE
    Imhotep in Egypt writes medical texts describing diagnosis and treatment of 100 diseases and 48 injuries.
  • c. 2,650 BCE
    Reign of King Sekhemket in Egypt, builder of the Buried Pyramid.
  • c. 2,640 BCE
    Reign of the King Khaba in Egypt, builder of the Layer Pyramid.
  • c. 2,630 BCE - 2,613 BCE
    Reign of King Huni in Egypt, last ruler of the Third Dynasty, Early Dynastic Period.
  • c. 2,613 BCE - 2,181 BCE
    Art becomes standardized by the king during the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
  • c. 2,613 BCE - 2,181 BCE
    Heka associated with the heart and tongue and the gods Sia and Hu during the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
  • c. 2,613 BCE - c. 2,181 BCE
    Images of Bes first appear in the period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
  • c. 2,613 BCE - c. 2,181 BCE
    Anubis is the sole God of the Dead during the Old Kingdom period in Egypt.
  • c. 2,613 BCE - c. 2,181 BCE
    The goddess Ma'at first appears during the period of the Old Kingdom in Egypt.
  • c. 2,613 BCE - 2,498 BCE
    Trade already well established between Egypt and The Land of Punt.
  • c. 2,613 BCE - c. 2,181 BCE
    Serket is invoked in protective spells during the period of the Old Kingdom in Egypt.
  • 2,613 BCE - 2,589 BCE
    Reign of Sneferu, first king of 4th Dynasty of Egypt.
  • c. 2,613 BCE - 2,589 BCE
    King Sneferu experiments with pyramid building; creates first true pyramid in Egypt.
  • c. 2,613 BCE - c. 2,181 BCE
    The Period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
  • c. 2,613 BCE - c. 2,181 BCE
    Memphis is capital of Old Kingdom in Egypt.
  • c. 2,613 BCE - c. 2,181 BCE
    Seshat associated with the House of Life in temples or temple precincts of Egypt.
  • 2,589 BCE - 2,566 BCE
    Reign of King Khufu of Egypt during which the Great Pyramid of Giza is built.
  • 2,589 BCE - 2,566 BCE
    Reign of King Khufu (Cheops), builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza, in Egypt.
  • 2,566 BCE - 2,558 BCE
    Reign of King Djedefre in Egypt.
  • c. 2,560 BCE
    The Great Pyramid is constructed by Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops).
  • 2,558 BCE - 2,532 BCE
    Reign of King Khafre, builder of the second pyramid at Giza, in Egypt.
  • 2,558 BCE - 2,532 BCE
    Reign of King Khafre in Egypt; second pyramid complex at Giza completed.
  • 2,532 BCE - 2,503 BCE
    Reign of King Menkaure, builder of the third pyramid at Giza, in Egypt.
  • 2,532 BCE - 2,503 BCE
    Reign of King Menkaure in Egypt; third pyramid and complex begun. .
  • 2,503 BCE - 2,498 BCE
    Reign of the King Shepsekaf in Egypt.
  • c. 2,500 BCE
    The Great Sphinx is built at Giza.
  • 2,498 BCE - 2,491 BCE
    Reign of the King Userkaf in Egypt.
  • 2,498 BCE - 2,345 BCE
    Trade between Egypt and Punt prospers.
  • 2,490 BCE - 2,477 BCE
    Reign of King Sahure in Egypt.
  • 2,477 BCE - 2,467 BCE
    Reign of the King Neferiskare Kakai in Egypt.
  • 2,460 BCE - 2,458 BCE
    Reign of the King Neferefre in Egypt.
  • c. 2,458 BCE - c. 2,457 BCE
    Reign of King Shepseskare in Egypt.
  • c. 2,445 BCE - 2,422 BCE
    Reign of the King Nyussere Ini of Egypt.
  • 2,422 BCE - 2,414 BCE
    Reign of King Menkauhor in Egypt.
  • 2,414 BCE - 2,375 BCE
    Reign of King Djedkare Isesi in Egypt.
  • c. 2,400 BCE - c. 2,300 BCE
    The Pyramid Texts written, the oldest religious literature in Egypt.
  • c. 2,400 BCE - c. 2,300 BCE
    Bastet associated with the king of Egypt as nursemaid and protector.
  • 2,400 BCE - 2,300 BCE
    Qebhet (as Kebehwet) mentioned in the Pyramid Texts of Egypt as a Celestial Serpent deity.
  • 2,375 BCE - 2,345 BCE
    Reign of King Unas in Egypt.
  • 2,345 BCE - 2,333 BCE
    Reign of King Teti in Egypt.
  • 2,333 BCE - 2,332 BCE
    Reign of King Userkare in Egypt.
  • c. 2,181 BCE - c. 2,040 BCE
  • 2,064 BCE - 1,986 BCE
    Twin Dynasty Wars in Egypt.
  • c. 1,800 BCE
    The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus deals with women's health and contraception.
  • 1,800 BCE
    Bronze working introduced to Egypt.
  • 1,783 BCE
    Avaris is built and set as capital of Hyksos.
  • c. 1,782 BCE - c. 1,570 BCE
  • 1,700 BCE
    The Kingdom of Kush is formed to the south of Egypt.
  • 1,650 BCE - 1,550 BCE
    Xois serves as capital of the 14th Dynasty.
  • c. 1,600 BCE
    The Edwin Smith Papyrus, an Egyptian medical text, is written, supposedly as a copy of Imhotep's earlier work.
  • c. 1,570 BCE - c. 1,069 BCE
  • c. 1,550 BCE
    Composition of The Book of the Dead in Egypt.
  • 1,550 BCE
    Ahmose I defeats and expels the Hyksos from Egypt and destroy their capital Avaris.
  • 1,504 BCE - 1,492 BCE
    Egyptian empire reaches greatest extent under Tuthmosis I.
  • 1,500 BCE
    Egyptian empire extends to the Euphrates.
  • 1,479 BCE - 1,425 BCE
    Reign of Thutmose III in Egypt.
  • 1,479 BCE - 1,458 BCE
    Queen Hatshepsut rules Egypt.
  • c. 1,457 BCE
    Battle of Megiddo: Thutmose III of Egypt defeats a coalition of Canaan, Kadesh, Mitanni, and Megiddo led by Durusha, king of Kadesh.
  • c. 1,450 BCE
    Kadesh and Megiddo lead a Canaanite alliance against the Egyptian invasion by Thutmose III.
  • c. 1,386 BCE - c. 1,353 BCE
    Reign of Amenhotep III of Egypt.
  • 1,353 BCE - c. 1,336 BCE
    Reign of Akhenaten, Tutankhamun's father, `Heretic King' of Egypt.
  • 1,353 BCE - 1,336 BCE
    The Amarna Period in Egypt.
  • c. 1,336 BCE - c. 1,327 BCE
    Reign of Tutankhamun with Ankhsenamun as Queen.
  • c. 1,334 BCE
    Tutankhamun initiates religious reforms returning Egypt to traditional belief structure.
  • 1,327 BCE - 1,323 BCE
    Reign of Ay in Egypt.
  • c. 1,320 BCE - 1,292 BCE
    Reign of Horemheb in Egypt, Tutankhamun's name erased from record.
  • c. 1,320 BCE
    Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Horemheb, succeeds Ay as ruler of Egypt
  • c. 1,303 BCE
    Birth of Ramesses II of Egypt.
  • 1,295 BCE - 1,188 BCE
    The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
  • 1,295 BCE - 1,294 BCE
    The reign of Ramesses I in Egypt.
  • 1,294 BCE - 1,279 BCE
    The reign of Seti I in Egypt.
  • 1,279 BCE - 1,212 BCE
    Reign of Ramesses II (The Great) in Egypt.
  • 1,274 BCE
    Battle of Kadesh between Pharaoh Ramesses II of Egypt and King Muwatalli II of the Hittites.
  • c. 1,264 BCE - c. 1,244 BCE
    Probable dates for the construction of Abu Simbel.
  • 1,258 BCE
    The Treaty of Kadesh between Egyptians and Hittites. The world's first peace treaty.
  • c. 1,244 BCE - c. 1,224 BCE
    Other probable dates for the construction of Abu Simbel.
  • 1,184 BCE - 1,153 BCE
    Reign of Ramesses III, Pharaoh of Egypt.
  • 1,180 BCE - 1,178 BCE
    Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty fortifies Xois against the threat of the invading Sea Peoples.
  • 1,180 BCE
    The Sea Peoples begin increased incursions into Egypt.
  • 1,178 BCE
    Rameses III defends Egypt from the Sea Peoples on the shores at Xois, defeating them completely.
  • c. 1,069 BCE - 525 BCE
    Third Intermediate Period in Egypt.
  • 750 BCE
    Iron working is introduced to Egypt.
  • 712 BCE - 671 BCE
    Egypt is ruled by the Kushite dynasty.
  • 671 BCE
    Second Egyptian Campaign, Assyrian army successfully captures Memphis and conquers Egypt.
  • 671 BCE
    Egypt is conquered by Assyria.
  • 667 BCE - 665 BCE
    Ashurbanipal wages war in Egypt to put down rebellions.
  • 664 BCE
    Psamtik I becomes Pharoah in Egypt.
  • 653 BCE
    Egypt expels Assyrians.
  • 601 BCE
    Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon unsuccessfully attempts to invade Egypt.
  • c. 525 BCE
    Imhotep is deified in Egypt.
  • 525 BCE
    Cambyses II of Persia takes the city of Pelusium, conquers Egypt.
  • 525 BCE - 404 BCE
  • 520 BCE
    Darius of Persia links the Nile and the Red Sea by a canal.
  • c. 398 BCE - c. 380 BCE
    Plato travels in Egypt, Cyrene, Italy, Syracuse and Sicily.
  • 341 BCE
    The Persians complete conquest of Egypt.
  • 332 BCE
    Alexander the Great conquers Syria and turns toward Egypt.
  • 331 BCE
    Alexander the Great founds Alexandria at the port town of Rhakotis in Egypt.
  • 331 BCE
    Egypt is conquered by Alexander the Great without resistance.
  • 323 BCE - 31 BCE
    The Hellenistic Age.Greek thought and culture infuses with indigenous people.
  • 323 BCE
  • 323 BCE - 282 BCE
    Rule of Ptolemy I Soter.
  • 305 BCE - 285 BCE
    Reign of Ptolemy I in Egypt, initiated of the Great Library.
  • 300 BCE
    Ptolemy I founds the Museum of Alexandria.
  • 285 BCE - 246 BCE
    Reign of Ptolemy II in Egypt, developement of Library at Alexandria.
  • 277 BCE - 276 BCE
    4,000 Celts are employed in Egypt under Ptolemy II.
  • 259 BCE
    Celts in Egypt fail to overthrow Ptolemy II and are starved to death on an island.
  • 247 BCE
    The lighthouse at Alexandria (Pharos) is completed.
  • 217 BCE
    14,000 Celts serve under Ptolemy IV in his victory at Raphia over the Seleucid King Antiochos III.
  • c. 69 BCE - 12 Aug 30 BCE
    Life of Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
  • 47 BCE
    Cleopatra VII is sole ruler of Egypt; she presents herself as the goddess Isis.
  • 32 BCE - 31 BCE
    Battle of Actium: Octavian (the later Emperor Augustus) defeats Cleopatra of Egypt.
  • 30 BCE - 14 CE
    Reign of Augustus Caesar in Rome, restoration of Roman province of Alexandria.
  • 30 BCE
    Egypt becomes province of the Roman empire.
  • 30 BCE
    Death of Cleopatra VII, end of the Ptolemaic line in Egypt.
  • c. 1 CE
    First non-stop voyages from Egypt to India.
  • 30 CE - 476 CE
    Egypt remains a province of the Roman Empire.
  • c. 50 CE - c. 60 CE
    Establishment of various Christian communities in the Eastern Mediterranean, Greece, Egypt, and at least the city of Rome.
  • 232 CE
    Emperor Maximinus Thrax commands a legion in Egypt.
  • c. 527 CE - 646 CE
    The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.
  • 646 CE
    The Arab Muslims conquer Egypt under Caliph Umar.
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Legend:

9,000 BCE 8,500 BCE 8,000 BCE 7,500 BCE 7,000 BCE 6,500 BCE 6,000 BCE 5,500 BCE 5,000 BCE 4,500 BCE 4,000 BCE 3,500 BCE 3,000 BCE 2,500 BCE 2,000 BCE 1,500 BCE 1,000 BCE 500 BCE 0 CE 500 CE  
 
9,000 BCE - 6,000 BCE: Faiyum A Culture in Egypt.
 
 
6,000 BCE - 640 CE: Papyrus harvested and used for multiple purposes in Egypt.
 
6,000 BCE - 3,150 BCE: Anubis is developed as a god of the dead during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
 
6,000 BCE - 3,150 BCE: Heka develops during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
 
6,000 BCE - 3,150 BCE: Art develops in Egypt during the Pre-Dynastic Period.
 
6,000 BCE: Earliest Egyptian mastabas dug at Saqqara.
 
 
6,000 BCE: Nile River Valley first inhabited.
 
6,000 BCE - 3,150 BCE: The sacred bull which is later known as Apis worshiped during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
 
6,000 BCE - 30 BCE: Neith is worshiped in ancient Egypt as one of the most enduring deities in the nation's history.
 
 
6,000 BCE - 30 BCE: The God Thoth is worshiped in Egypt.
 
6,000 BCE - 3,150 BCE: The Predynastic Period in Egypt.
 
 
6,000 BCE: Burial of the Dead in Egypt.
 
6,000 BCE - 3,150 BCE: Worship of Osiris begins in Pre-Dynastic Period of Egypt.
 
6,000 BCE - 3,150 BCE: Djed symbol in use during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
 
6,000 BCE - 3,150 BCE: Nepthys is a popular goddess during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
 
 
6,000 BCE - 3,150 BCE: Rulers of the Predynastic Period of Egypt known as "Followers of Horus".
 
6,000 BCE - 3,150 BCE: Uat-Ur mentioned in latter Predynastic Period in Egypt as name for Mediterranean Sea.
 
 
5,500 BCE: Oldest faience workshop in Egypt founded at Abydos.
 
5,000 BCE: Organised farming begins in Egypt.
 
5,000 BCE - 4,000 BCE: Merimba Culture in Egypt.
 
4,500 BCE - 4,000 BCE: Badarian Culture in Egypt.
 
4,000 BCE - 3,000 BCE: Trade contact between Byblos and Egypt.
 
4,000 BCE - 3,500 BCE: Amratian Culture (also known as Naqada I) in Egypt.
 
4,000 BCE: El Omari, Ma'adi, and Tasian Cultures in Egypt.
 
 
4,000 BCE: Depictions of gods and afterlife on walls of Egyptian tombs.
 
3,500 BCE - 3,200 BCE: Gerzean Culture (also known as Naqada II) in Egypt.
 
3,414 BCE - 3,100 BCE: Xois founded as a city during the 1st Dynasty.
 
3,200 BCE: Hieroglyphic script developed in Egypt.
 
 
3,200 BCE: Hieroglyphic writing develops in Egypt.
 
 
3,200 BCE - 3,000 BCE: Probable dates for creation of Narmer Palette.
 
3,200 BCE - 3,150 BCE: Naqada III Period Culture in Ancient Egypt.
 
 
3,150 BCE: Hieratic script develops following hieroglyphic script in Egypt.
 
 
3,150 BCE - 2,613 BCE: First Obelisks created in Egypt during the Early Dynastic Period.
 
 
3,150 BCE - 30 BCE: Worship of Seshat in ancient Egypt from the Early Dynastic Period through the Ptolemaic Dynasty.
 
3,150 BCE - 495 CE: Apis worshiped in Egypt from the Early Dynastic Period through most of the Roman Period.
 
3,150 BCE: Memphis Egypt known as Hut-Ka-Ptah ("Mansion of the Soul of Ptah").
 
3,150 BCE - 2,890 BCE: Apis worshiped by name in the First Dynasty of Egypt.
 
3,150 BCE - 2,613 BCE: Heka appears in inscriptions during the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt.
 
 
3,150 BCE: King Menes unifies Egypt through conquest.
 
 
3,150 BCE - 2,613 BCE: Early Dynastic period in Egypt. First Kings.
 
3,150 BCE - 30 BCE: Life of the City of Memphis, Egypt.
 
3,150 BCE - 30 BCE: Duration of the worship of Osiris in Egypt.
 
3,150 BCE - 2,613 BCE: The Early Dynastic Period in Egypt; beginning of historic dynasties.
 
3,150 BCE - 2,890 BCE: First Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.
 
3,150 BCE - 3,100 BCE: Reign of Menes, a.k.a. Narmer, first king who is thought to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.
 
3,150 BCE - 2,613 BCE: Set is worshiped as a hero-god during Early Dynastic Period of Egypt.
 
3,150 BCE - 2,890 BCE: Anubis appears on tomb walls during the First Dynasty of Egypt.
 
3,150 BCE - 2,613 BCE: Ankh symbol appears during the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt.
 
 
3,150 BCE - 2,613 BCE: Neith is worshiped as a war goddess during the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt.
 
3,150 BCE - 2,890 BCE: Serket associated with the god Nun and creation of the world during the First Dynasty of Egypt.
 
 
3,150 BCE: Serket associated with the Scorpion Kings of the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
 
3,100 BCE - 2,181 BCE: Xois inscribed on Palermo Stone as an ancient city during the 5th Dynasty.
 
 
3,100 BCE: Reign of King Hor-Aha in Egypt.
 
 
3,050 BCE: Reign of King Djer in Egypt.
 
3,000 BCE: Trade already established between Syria and Egypt.
 
 
3,000 BCE: Reign of King Djet in Egypt.
 
 
2,990 BCE: Reign of King Den, son of Merneith, in Egypt.
 
 
2,990 BCE: Reign of Merneith, early female ruler in Egypt.
 
2,990 BCE: Reign of Merneith, first female ruler of Egypt.
 
2,920 BCE - 2,890 BCE: Reign of Qa'a, last pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt.
 
2,890 BCE - 2,670 BCE: Bastet gains in popularity during the 2nd Dynasty of Egypt.
 
2,890 BCE - 2,670 BCE: Second Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.
 
 
2,890 BCE - 2,670 BCE: Seshat first mentioned as goddess of writing and measurement in the 2nd Dynasty of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt.
 
2,670 BCE - 2,613 BCE: Third Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.
 
 
2,670 BCE - 2,650 BCE: The Step Pyramid is built by Imhotep under reign of King Djoser.
 
2,670 BCE - 2,613 BCE: Concepts later included in Book of the Dead inscribed in tombs of Third Dynasty of Egypt.
 
2,670 BCE: Imhotep creates King Djoser's Step Pyramid and Pyramid Complex at Saqqara, Egypt.
 
2,670 BCE: Reign of King Djoser in Egypt, builder of the first pyramid.
 
 
2,667 BCE - 2,600 BCE: Attributed dates of Imhotep's medical and architectural achievements.
 
2,667 BCE - 2,648 BCE: Imhotep in Egypt writes medical texts describing diagnosis and treatment of 100 diseases and 48 injuries.
 
 
2,650 BCE: Reign of King Sekhemket in Egypt, builder of the Buried Pyramid.
 
 
2,640 BCE: Reign of the King Khaba in Egypt, builder of the Layer Pyramid.
 
 
2,630 BCE - 2,613 BCE: Reign of King Huni in Egypt, last ruler of the Third Dynasty, Early Dynastic Period.
 
2,613 BCE - 2,181 BCE: Art becomes standardized by the king during the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
 
2,613 BCE - 2,181 BCE: Heka associated with the heart and tongue and the gods Sia and Hu during the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
 
 
2,613 BCE - 2,181 BCE: Images of Bes first appear in the period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
 
2,613 BCE - 2,181 BCE: Anubis is the sole God of the Dead during the Old Kingdom period in Egypt.
 
2,613 BCE - 2,181 BCE: The goddess Ma'at first appears during the period of the Old Kingdom in Egypt.
 
 
2,613 BCE - 2,498 BCE: Trade already well established between Egypt and The Land of Punt.
 
2,613 BCE - 2,181 BCE: Serket is invoked in protective spells during the period of the Old Kingdom in Egypt.
 
2,613 BCE - 2,589 BCE: Reign of Sneferu, first king of 4th Dynasty of Egypt.
 
2,613 BCE - 2,589 BCE: King Sneferu experiments with pyramid building; creates first true pyramid in Egypt.
 
2,613 BCE - 2,181 BCE: The Period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
 
2,613 BCE - 2,181 BCE: Memphis is capital of Old Kingdom in Egypt.
 
 
2,613 BCE - 2,181 BCE: Seshat associated with the House of Life in temples or temple precincts of Egypt.
 
2,589 BCE - 2,566 BCE: Reign of King Khufu of Egypt during which the Great Pyramid of Giza is built.
 
2,589 BCE - 2,566 BCE: Reign of King Khufu (Cheops), builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza, in Egypt.
 
2,566 BCE - 2,558 BCE: Reign of King Djedefre in Egypt.
 
 
2,560 BCE: The Great Pyramid is constructed by Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops).
 
2,558 BCE - 2,532 BCE: Reign of King Khafre, builder of the second pyramid at Giza, in Egypt.
 
2,558 BCE - 2,532 BCE: Reign of King Khafre in Egypt; second pyramid complex at Giza completed.
 
2,532 BCE - 2,503 BCE: Reign of King Menkaure, builder of the third pyramid at Giza, in Egypt.
 
2,532 BCE - 2,503 BCE: Reign of King Menkaure in Egypt; third pyramid and complex begun. .
 
2,503 BCE - 2,498 BCE: Reign of the King Shepsekaf in Egypt.
 
2,500 BCE: The Great Sphinx is built at Giza.
 
2,498 BCE - 2,491 BCE: Reign of the King Userkaf in Egypt.
 
 
2,498 BCE - 2,345 BCE: Trade between Egypt and Punt prospers.
 
2,490 BCE - 2,477 BCE: Reign of King Sahure in Egypt.
 
2,477 BCE - 2,467 BCE: Reign of the King Neferiskare Kakai in Egypt.
 
2,460 BCE - 2,458 BCE: Reign of the King Neferefre in Egypt.
 
2,458 BCE - 2,457 BCE: Reign of King Shepseskare in Egypt.
 
2,445 BCE - 2,422 BCE: Reign of the King Nyussere Ini of Egypt.
 
2,422 BCE - 2,414 BCE: Reign of King Menkauhor in Egypt.
 
2,414 BCE - 2,375 BCE: Reign of King Djedkare Isesi in Egypt.
 
2,400 BCE - 2,300 BCE: The Pyramid Texts written, the oldest religious literature in Egypt.
 
 
2,400 BCE - 2,300 BCE: Bastet associated with the king of Egypt as nursemaid and protector.
 
2,400 BCE - 2,300 BCE: Qebhet (as Kebehwet) mentioned in the Pyramid Texts of Egypt as a Celestial Serpent deity.
 
2,375 BCE - 2,345 BCE: Reign of King Unas in Egypt.
 
2,345 BCE - 2,333 BCE: Reign of King Teti in Egypt.
 
2,333 BCE - 2,332 BCE: Reign of King Userkare in Egypt.
 
 
2,181 BCE - 2,040 BCE: First Intermediate Period in Egypt.
 
2,064 BCE - 1,986 BCE: Twin Dynasty Wars in Egypt.
 
1,800 BCE: The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus deals with women's health and contraception.
 
1,800 BCE: Bronze working introduced to Egypt.
 
 
1,783 BCE: Avaris is built and set as capital of Hyksos.
 
1,782 BCE - 1,570 BCE: Second Intermediate Period in Egypt.
 
1,700 BCE: The Kingdom of Kush is formed to the south of Egypt.
 
 
1,650 BCE - 1,550 BCE: Xois serves as capital of the 14th Dynasty.
 
1,600 BCE: The Edwin Smith Papyrus, an Egyptian medical text, is written, supposedly as a copy of Imhotep's earlier work.
 
1,570 BCE - 1,069 BCE: The New Kingdom of Egypt.
 
 
1,550 BCE: Composition of The Book of the Dead in Egypt.
 
 
1,550 BCE: Ahmose I defeats and expels the Hyksos from Egypt and destroy their capital Avaris.
 
 
1,504 BCE - 1,492 BCE: Egyptian empire reaches greatest extent under Tuthmosis I.
 
1,500 BCE: Egyptian empire extends to the Euphrates.
 
 
1,479 BCE - 1,425 BCE: Reign of Thutmose III in Egypt.
 
1,479 BCE - 1,458 BCE: Queen Hatshepsut rules Egypt.
 
1,457 BCE: Battle of Megiddo: Thutmose III of Egypt defeats a coalition of Canaan, Kadesh, Mitanni, and Megiddo led by Durusha, king of Kadesh.
 
 
1,450 BCE: Kadesh and Megiddo lead a Canaanite alliance against the Egyptian invasion by Thutmose III.
 
1,386 BCE - 1,353 BCE: Reign of Amenhotep III of Egypt.
 
 
1,353 BCE - 1,336 BCE: Reign of Akhenaten, Tutankhamun's father, `Heretic King' of Egypt.
 
 
1,353 BCE - 1,336 BCE: The Amarna Period in Egypt.
 
1,336 BCE - 1,327 BCE: Reign of Tutankhamun with Ankhsenamun as Queen.
 
 
1,334 BCE: Tutankhamun initiates religious reforms returning Egypt to traditional belief structure.
 
1,327 BCE - 1,323 BCE: Reign of Ay in Egypt.
 
1,320 BCE - 1,292 BCE: Reign of Horemheb in Egypt, Tutankhamun's name erased from record.
 
1,320 BCE: Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Horemheb, succeeds Ay as ruler of Egypt
 
1,303 BCE: Birth of Ramesses II of Egypt.
 
 
1,295 BCE - 1,188 BCE: The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
 
 
1,295 BCE - 1,294 BCE: The reign of Ramesses I in Egypt.
 
 
1,294 BCE - 1,279 BCE: The reign of Seti I in Egypt.
 
 
1,279 BCE - 1,212 BCE: Reign of Ramesses II (The Great) in Egypt.
 
1,274 BCE: Battle of Kadesh between Pharaoh Ramesses II of Egypt and King Muwatalli II of the Hittites.
 
 
1,264 BCE - 1,244 BCE: Probable dates for the construction of Abu Simbel.
 
 
1,258 BCE: The Treaty of Kadesh between Egyptians and Hittites. The world's first peace treaty.
 
 
1,244 BCE - 1,224 BCE: Other probable dates for the construction of Abu Simbel.
 
1,184 BCE - 1,153 BCE: Reign of Ramesses III, Pharaoh of Egypt.
 
1,180 BCE - 1,178 BCE: Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty fortifies Xois against the threat of the invading Sea Peoples.
 
1,180 BCE: The Sea Peoples begin increased incursions into Egypt.
 
1,178 BCE: Rameses III defends Egypt from the Sea Peoples on the shores at Xois, defeating them completely.
 
1,069 BCE - 525 BCE: Third Intermediate Period in Egypt.
 
750 BCE: Iron working is introduced to Egypt.
 
712 BCE - 671 BCE: Egypt is ruled by the Kushite dynasty.
 
 
671 BCE: Second Egyptian Campaign, Assyrian army successfully captures Memphis and conquers Egypt.
 
 
671 BCE: Egypt is conquered by Assyria.
 
 
667 BCE - 665 BCE: Ashurbanipal wages war in Egypt to put down rebellions.
 
 
664 BCE: Psamtik I becomes Pharoah in Egypt.
 
 
653 BCE: Egypt expels Assyrians.
 
601 BCE: Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon unsuccessfully attempts to invade Egypt.
 
 
525 BCE: Imhotep is deified in Egypt.
 
 
525 BCE: Cambyses II of Persia takes the city of Pelusium, conquers Egypt.
 
 
525 BCE - 404 BCE: Persia conquers Egypt.
 
 
520 BCE: Darius of Persia links the Nile and the Red Sea by a canal.
 
 
398 BCE - 380 BCE: Plato travels in Egypt, Cyrene, Italy, Syracuse and Sicily.
 
341 BCE: The Persians complete conquest of Egypt.
 
 
332 BCE: Alexander the Great conquers Syria and turns toward Egypt.
 
 
331 BCE: Alexander the Great founds Alexandria at the port town of Rhakotis in Egypt.
 
331 BCE: Egypt is conquered by Alexander the Great without resistance.
 
 
323 BCE - 31 BCE: The Hellenistic Age.Greek thought and culture infuses with indigenous people.
 
 
323 BCE: Death of Alexander the Great.
 
323 BCE - 282 BCE: Rule of Ptolemy I Soter.
 
 
305 BCE - 285 BCE: Reign of Ptolemy I in Egypt, initiated of the Great Library.
 
300 BCE: Ptolemy I founds the Museum of Alexandria.
 
 
285 BCE - 246 BCE: Reign of Ptolemy II in Egypt, developement of Library at Alexandria.
 
277 BCE - 276 BCE: 4,000 Celts are employed in Egypt under Ptolemy II.
 
 
259 BCE: Celts in Egypt fail to overthrow Ptolemy II and are starved to death on an island.
 
247 BCE: The lighthouse at Alexandria (Pharos) is completed.
 
 
217 BCE: 14,000 Celts serve under Ptolemy IV in his victory at Raphia over the Seleucid King Antiochos III.
 
69 BCE - 30 BCE: Life of Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
 
47 BCE: Cleopatra VII is sole ruler of Egypt; she presents herself as the goddess Isis.
 
32 BCE - 31 BCE: Battle of Actium: Octavian (the later Emperor Augustus) defeats Cleopatra of Egypt.
 
 
30 BCE - 14 CE: Reign of Augustus Caesar in Rome, restoration of Roman province of Alexandria.
 
30 BCE: Egypt becomes province of the Roman empire.
 
 
30 BCE: Death of Cleopatra VII, end of the Ptolemaic line in Egypt.
 
 
1 CE: First non-stop voyages from Egypt to India.
 
 
30 CE - 476 CE: Egypt remains a province of the Roman Empire.
 
 
50 CE - 60 CE: Establishment of various Christian communities in the Eastern Mediterranean, Greece, Egypt, and at least the city of Rome.
 
 
232 CE: Emperor Maximinus Thrax commands a legion in Egypt.
 
 
527 CE - 646 CE: The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.
 
 
646 CE: The Arab Muslims conquer Egypt under Caliph Umar.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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