Egypt Timeline

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  • c. 9000 BCE - c. 6000 BCE
    Faiyum A Culture in Egypt.
  • c. 6000 BCE
    Nile River Valley first inhabited.
  • c. 6000 BCE - c. 30 BCE
    The God Thoth is worshiped in Egypt.
  • c. 6000 BCE - c. 3150 BCE
    Anubis is developed as a god of the dead during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 6000 BCE - c. 640 CE
    Papyrus harvested and used for multiple purposes in Egypt.
  • c. 6000 BCE
    Earliest Egyptian mastabas dug at Saqqara.
  • c. 6000 BCE - c. 3150 BCE
    Uat-Ur mentioned in latter Predynastic Period in Egypt as name for Mediterranean Sea.
  • c. 6000 BCE - c. 30 BCE
    Neith is worshiped in ancient Egypt as one of the most enduring deities in the nation's history.
  • c. 6000 BCE - c. 3150 BCE
    Rulers of the Predynastic Period of Egypt known as "Followers of Horus".
  • c. 6000 BCE
    Burial of the Dead in Egypt.
  • c. 6000 BCE - 3150 BCE
    The Predynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 6000 BCE - c. 3150 BCE
    Djed symbol in use during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 6000 BCE - c. 3150 BCE
    Nepthys is a popular goddess during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 6000 BCE - c. 3150 BCE
    Worship of Osiris begins in Pre-Dynastic Period of Egypt.
  • 5500 BCE
    Oldest faience workshop in Egypt founded at Abydos.
  • 5000 BCE
    Organised farming begins in Egypt.
  • c. 5000 BCE - c. 4000 BCE
    Merimba Culture in Egypt.
  • c. 4500 BCE - c. 4000 BCE
    Badarian Culture in Egypt.
  • c. 4000 BCE
    Depictions of gods and afterlife on walls of Egyptian tombs.
  • c. 4000 BCE - c. 3000 BCE
    Trade contact between Byblos and Egypt.
  • c. 4000 BCE - c. 3500 BCE
    Amratian Culture (also known as Naqada I) in Egypt.
  • c. 4000 BCE
    El Omari, Ma'adi, and Tasian Cultures in Egypt.
  • c. 3500 BCE - c. 3200 BCE
    Gerzean Culture (also known as Naqada II) in Egypt.
  • c. 3414 BCE - c. 3100 BCE
    Xois founded as a city during the 1st Dynasty.
  • c. 3200 BCE - c. 3000 BCE
    Probable dates for creation of Narmer Palette.
  • c. 3200 BCE
    Hieroglyphic script developed in Egypt.
  • c. 3200 BCE
    Hieroglyphic writing develops in Egypt.
  • c. 3200 BCE - 3150 BCE
    Naqada III Period Culture in Ancient Egypt.
  • c. 3150 BCE
    Memphis Egypt known as Hut-Ka-Ptah ("Mansion of the Soul of Ptah").
  • c. 3150 BCE - c. 30 BCE
    Life of the City of Memphis, Egypt.
  • c. 3150 BCE - c. 2613 BCE
    First Obelisks created in Egypt during the Early Dynastic Period.
  • c. 3150 BCE - c. 2613 BCE
    Ankh symbol appears during the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 3150 BCE - c. 30 BCE
    Worship of Seshat in ancient Egypt from the Early Dynastic Period through the Ptolemaic Dynasty.
  • c. 3150 BCE
    Hieratic script develops following hieroglyphic script in Egypt.
  • c. 3150 BCE - c. 30 BCE
    Duration of the worship of Osiris in Egypt.
  • c. 3150 BCE - c. 3100 BCE
    Reign of Menes, a.k.a. Narmer, first king who is thought to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.
  • 3150 BCE - 2613 BCE
    The Early Dynastic Period in Egypt; beginning of historic dynasties.
  • 3150 BCE - c. 2890 BCE
    First Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.
  • c. 3150 BCE - c. 2890 BCE
    Anubis appears on tomb walls during the First Dynasty of Egypt.
  • c. 3150 BCE
    King Menes unifies Egypt through conquest.
  • c. 3150 BCE - c. 2613 BCE
    Set is worshiped as a hero-god during Early Dynastic Period of Egypt.
  • c. 3150 BCE - c. 2613 BCE
    Neith is worshiped as a war goddess during the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt.
  • c. 3150 BCE - c. 2890 BCE
    Serket associated with the god Nun and creation of the world during the First Dynasty of Egypt.
  • c. 3150 BCE
    Serket associated with the Scorpion Kings of the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
  • 3150 BCE - 2613 BCE
  • c. 3100 BCE
    Reign of King Hor-Aha in Egypt.
  • 3100 BCE - 2181 BCE
    Xois inscribed on Palermo Stone as an ancient city during the 5th Dynasty.
  • c. 3050 BCE
    Reign of King Djer in Egypt.
  • c. 3000 BCE
    Trade already established between Syria and Egypt.
  • c. 3000 BCE
    Reign of King Djet in Egypt.
  • c. 2990 BCE
    Reign of Merneith, first female ruler of Egypt.
  • c. 2990 BCE
    Reign of Merneith, first female ruler in Egypt.
  • c. 2990 BCE
    Reign of King Den, son of Merneith, in Egypt.
  • c. 2920 BCE - c. 2890 BCE
    Reign of Qa'a, last pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt.
  • c. 2890 BCE - c. 2670 BCE
    Bastet gains in popularity during the 2nd Dynasty of Egypt.
  • c. 2890 BCE - c. 2670 BCE
    Second Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.
  • c. 2890 BCE - c. 2670 BCE
    Seshat first mentioned as goddess of writing and measurement in the 2nd Dynasty of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt.
  • c. 2670 BCE - c. 2650 BCE
    The Step Pyramid is built by Imhotep under reign of King Djoser.
  • c. 2670 BCE
    Reign of King Djoser in Egypt, builder of the first pyramid.
  • c. 2670 BCE - c. 2613 BCE
    Concepts later included in Book of the Dead inscribed in tombs of Third Dynasty of Egypt.
  • c. 2670 BCE - c. 2613 BCE
    Third Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.
  • 2667 BCE - 2648 BCE
    Imhotep in Egypt writes medical texts describing diagnosis and treatment of 100 diseases and 48 injuries.
  • c. 2667 BCE - c. 2600 BCE
    Attributed dates of Imhotep's medical and architectural achievements.
  • c. 2650 BCE
    Reign of King Sekhemket in Egypt, builder of the Buried Pyramid.
  • c. 2640 BCE
    Reign of the King Khaba in Egypt, builder of the Layer Pyramid.
  • c. 2630 BCE - 2613 BCE
    Reign of King Huni in Egypt, last ruler of the Third Dynasty, Early Dynastic Period.
  • 2613 BCE - 2589 BCE
    Reign of Sneferu, first king of 4th Dynasty of Egypt.
  • c. 2613 BCE - c. 2181 BCE
    Serket is invoked in protective spells during the period of the Old Kingdom in Egypt.
  • c. 2613 BCE - c. 2181 BCE
    Seshat associated with the House of Life in temples or temple precincts of Egypt.
  • c. 2613 BCE - c. 2181 BCE
    Anubis is the sole God of the Dead during the Old Kingdom period in Egypt.
  • c. 2613 BCE - 2498 BCE
    Trade already well established between Egypt and The Land of Punt.
  • c. 2613 BCE - c. 2181 BCE
    The goddess Ma'at first appears during the period of the Old Kingdom in Egypt.
  • c. 2613 BCE - c. 2181 BCE
    The Period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
  • c. 2613 BCE - c. 2181 BCE
    Memphis is capital of Old Kingdom in Egypt.
  • c. 2613 BCE - c. 2181 BCE
    Images of Bes first appear in the period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
  • 2589 BCE - 2566 BCE
    Reign of King Khufu (Cheops), builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza, in Egypt.
  • 2566 BCE - 2558 BCE
    Reign of King Djedefre in Egypt.
  • c. 2560 BCE
    The Great Pyramid is constructed by Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops).
  • 2558 BCE - 2532 BCE
    Reign of King Khafre, builder of the second pyramid at Giza, in Egypt.
  • 2532 BCE - 2503 BCE
    Reign of King Menkaure, builder of the third pyramid at Giza, in Egypt.
  • 2503 BCE - 2498 BCE
    Reign of the King Shepsekaf in Egypt.
  • c. 2500 BCE
    The Great Sphinx is built at Giza.
  • 2498 BCE - 2345 BCE
    Trade between Egypt and Punt prospers.
  • 2498 BCE - 2491 BCE
    Reign of the King Userkaf in Egypt.
  • 2490 BCE - 2477 BCE
    Reign of King Sahure in Egypt.
  • 2477 BCE - 2467 BCE
    Reign of the King Neferiskare Kakai in Egypt.
  • 2460 BCE - 2458 BCE
    Reign of the King Neferefre in Egypt.
  • c. 2458 BCE - c. 2457 BCE
    Reign of King Shepseskare in Egypt.
  • c. 2445 BCE - 2422 BCE
    Reign of the King Nyussere Ini of Egypt.
  • 2422 BCE - 2414 BCE
    Reign of King Menkauhor in Egypt.
  • 2414 BCE - 2375 BCE
    Reign of King Djedkare Isesi in Egypt.
  • c. 2400 BCE - c. 2300 BCE
    Bastet associated with the king of Egypt as nursemaid and protector.
  • 2400 BCE - 2300 BCE
    Qebhet (as Kebehwet) mentioned in the Pyramid Texts of Egypt as a Celestial Serpent deity.
  • c. 2400 BCE - c. 2300 BCE
    The Pyramid Texts written, the oldest religious literature in Egypt.
  • 2375 BCE - 2345 BCE
    Reign of King Unas in Egypt.
  • 2345 BCE - 2333 BCE
    Reign of King Teti in Egypt.
  • 2333 BCE - 2332 BCE
    Reign of King Userkare in Egypt.
  • 2332 BCE - 2283 BCE
    Reign of King Pepi I in Egypt.
  • 2283 BCE - 2278 BCE
    Reign of King Merenre Nemtyensaf I in Egypt.
  • 2278 BCE - 2184 BCE
    Reign of King Pepi II in Egypt.
  • c. 2250 BCE
    Beer brewed in Egypt.
  • 2184 BCE - 2181 BCE
    Reign of King Netjerkare, last ruler of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
  • c. 2184 BCE
    Reign of King Merenre Nemtyemsaf II in Egypt.
  • c. 2181 BCE - c. 2040 BCE
  • c. 2181 BCE - c. 2040 BCE
    Capital of Egypt moves from Memphis to Herakleopolis during the First Intermediate Period.
  • c. 2125 BCE
    Rise of Intef I (The Great) of Thebes in Egypt.
  • c. 2115 BCE
    Mentuhotep I of Thebes makes war on the kings of Herakleopolis, Egypt.
  • c. 2112 BCE - c. 2063 BCE
    Reign of Wahankh Intef II, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, from Thebes. Raises first monument at Karnak site.
  • 2064 BCE - 1986 BCE
    Twin Dynasty Wars in Egypt.
  • c. 2063 BCE
    Reign of Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III at Thebes, Egypt.
  • c. 1800 BCE
    The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus deals with women's health and contraception.
  • 1800 BCE
    Bronze working introduced to Egypt.
  • 1783 BCE
    Avaris is built and set as capital of Hyksos.
  • c. 1782 BCE - c. 1570 BCE
  • 1700 BCE
    The Kingdom of Kush is formed to the south of Egypt.
  • 1650 BCE - 1550 BCE
    Xois serves as capital of the 14th Dynasty.
  • c. 1600 BCE
    The Edwin Smith Papyrus, an Egyptian medical text, is written, supposedly as a copy of Imhotep's earlier work.
  • c. 1570 BCE - c. 1069 BCE
  • c. 1550 BCE
    Composition of The Book of the Dead in Egypt.
  • 1550 BCE
    Ahmoses I defeats and expels the Hyksos from Egypt and destroy their capital Avaris.
  • 1504 BCE - 1492 BCE
    Egyptian empire reaches greatest extent under Tuthmosis I.
  • 1500 BCE
    Egyptian empire extends to the Euphrates.
  • 1479 BCE - 1425 BCE
    Reign of Thutmose III in Egypt.
  • 1479 BCE - 1458 BCE
    Queen Hatshepsut rules Egypt.
  • c. 1457 BCE
    Battle of Megiddo: Thutmose III of Egypt defeats a coalition of Canaan, Kadesh, Mitanni, and Megiddo led by Durusha, king of Kadesh.
  • c. 1450 BCE
    Kadesh and Megiddo lead a Canaanite alliance against the Egyptian invasion by Thutmose III.
  • c. 1386 BCE - c. 1353 BCE
    Reign of Amenhotep III of Egypt.
  • 1353 BCE - c. 1336 BCE
    Reign of Akhenaten, Tutankhamun's father, `Heretic King' of Egypt.
  • 1353 BCE - 1336 BCE
    The Amarna Period in Egypt.
  • c. 1336 BCE - c. 1327 BCE
    Reign of Tutankhamun with Ankhsenamun as Queen.
  • c. 1334 BCE
    Tutankhamun initiates religious reforms returning Egypt to traditional belief structure.
  • 1327 BCE - 1323 BCE
    Reign of Ay in Egypt.
  • c. 1320 BCE - 1295 BCE
    Reign of Horemheb in Egypt, Tutankhamun's name erased from record.
  • c. 1320 BCE
    Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Horemheb, succeeds Ay as ruler of Egypt
  • c. 1303 BCE
    Birth of Ramesses II of Egypt.
  • 1295 BCE - 1188 BCE
    The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
  • 1295 BCE - 1294 BCE
    The reign of Ramesses I in Egypt.
  • 1294 BCE - 1279 BCE
    The reign of Seti I in Egypt.
  • 1279 BCE - 1212 BCE
    Reign of Ramesses II (The Great) in Egypt.
  • 1274 BCE
    Battle of Kadesh between Pharaoh Ramesses II of Egypt and King Muwatalli II of the Hittites.
  • c. 1264 BCE - c. 1244 BCE
    Probable dates for the construction of Abu Simbel.
  • 1258 BCE
    The Treaty of Kadesh between Egyptians and Hittites. The world's first peace treaty.
  • c. 1244 BCE - c. 1224 BCE
    Other probable dates for the construction of Abu Simbel.
  • 1184 BCE - 1153 BCE
    Reign of Ramesses III, Pharaoh of Egypt.
  • 1180 BCE - 1178 BCE
    Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty fortifies Xois against the threat of the invading Sea Peoples.
  • 1180 BCE
    The Sea Peoples begin increased incursions into Egypt.
  • 1178 BCE
    Rameses III defends Egypt from the Sea Peoples on the shores at Xois, defeating them completely.
  • c. 1069 BCE - 525 BCE
    Third Intermediate Period in Egypt.
  • 750 BCE
    Iron working is introduced to Egypt.
  • 712 BCE - 671 BCE
    Egypt is ruled by the Kushite dynasty.
  • 671 BCE
    Second Egyptian Campaign, Assyrian army successfully captures Memphis and conquers Egypt.
  • 671 BCE
    Egypt is conquered by Assyria.
  • 667 BCE - 665 BCE
    Ashurbanipal wages war in Egypt to put down rebellions.
  • 664 BCE
    Psamtik I becomes Pharoah in Egypt.
  • 653 BCE
    Egypt expels Assyrians.
  • 601 BCE
    Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon unsuccessfully attempts to invade Egypt.
  • c. 525 BCE
    Imhotep is deified in Egypt.
  • 525 BCE
    Cambyses II of Persia takes the city of Pelusium, conquers Egypt.
  • 525 BCE - 404 BCE
  • 520 BCE
    Darius of Persia links the Nile and the Red Sea by a canal.
  • c. 398 BCE - c. 380 BCE
    Plato travels in Egypt, Cyrene, Italy, Syracuse and Sicily.
  • 341 BCE
    The Persians complete conquest of Egypt.
  • 332 BCE
    Alexander the Great conquers Syria and turns toward Egypt.
  • 331 BCE
    Egypt is conquered by Alexander the Great without resistance.
  • 331 BCE
    Alexander the Great founds Alexandria at the port town of Rhakotis in Egypt.
  • 323 BCE - 31 BCE
    The Hellenistic Age.Greek thought and culture infuses with indigenous people.
  • 323 BCE - 282 BCE
    Rule of Ptolemy I Soter.
  • 323 BCE
  • 305 BCE - 285 BCE
    Reign of Ptolemy I in Egypt, initiated of the Great Library.
  • 300 BCE
    Ptolemy I founds the Museum of Alexandria.
  • 285 BCE - 246 BCE
    Reign of Ptolemy II in Egypt, developement of Library at Alexandria.
  • 277 BCE - 276 BCE
    4,000 Celts are employed in Egypt under Ptolemy II.
  • 259 BCE
    Celts in Egypt fail to overthrow Ptolemy II and are starved to death on an island.
  • 247 BCE
    The lighthouse at Alexandria (Pharos) is completed.
  • 217 BCE
    14,000 Celts serve under Ptolemy IV in his victory at Raphia over the Seleucid King Antiochos III.
  • c. 69 BCE - 12 Aug 30 BCE
    Life of Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
  • 47 BCE
    Cleopatra VII is sole ruler of Egypt; she presents herself as the goddess Isis.
  • 32 BCE - 31 BCE
    Battle of Actium: Octavian (the later Emperor Augustus) defeats Cleopatra of Egypt.
  • 30 BCE - 14 CE
    Reign of Augustus Caesar in Rome, restoration of Roman province of Alexandria.
  • 30 BCE
    Egypt becomes province of the Roman empire.
  • 30 BCE
    Death of Cleopatra VII, end of the Ptolemaic line in Egypt.
  • c. 1 CE
    First non-stop voyages from Egypt to India.
  • 30 CE - 476 CE
    Egypt remains a province of the Roman Empire.
  • c. 50 CE - c. 60 CE
    Establishment of various Christian communities in the Eastern Mediterranean, Greece, Egypt, and at least the city of Rome.
  • 232 CE
    Emperor Maximinus Thrax commands a legion in Egypt.
  • c. 527 CE - 646 CE
    The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.
  • 646 CE
    The Arab Muslims conquer Egypt under Caliph Umar.
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Legend:

9000 BCE 8500 BCE 8000 BCE 7500 BCE 7000 BCE 6500 BCE 6000 BCE 5500 BCE 5000 BCE 4500 BCE 4000 BCE 3500 BCE 3000 BCE 2500 BCE 2000 BCE 1500 BCE 1000 BCE 500 BCE 0 CE 500 CE  
 
9000 BCE - 6000 BCE: Faiyum A Culture in Egypt.
 
 
6000 BCE: Nile River Valley first inhabited.
 
 
6000 BCE - 30 BCE: The God Thoth is worshiped in Egypt.
 
6000 BCE - 3150 BCE: Anubis is developed as a god of the dead during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
 
 
6000 BCE - 640 CE: Papyrus harvested and used for multiple purposes in Egypt.
 
6000 BCE: Earliest Egyptian mastabas dug at Saqqara.
 
6000 BCE - 3150 BCE: Uat-Ur mentioned in latter Predynastic Period in Egypt as name for Mediterranean Sea.
 
6000 BCE - 30 BCE: Neith is worshiped in ancient Egypt as one of the most enduring deities in the nation's history.
 
 
6000 BCE - 3150 BCE: Rulers of the Predynastic Period of Egypt known as "Followers of Horus".
 
 
6000 BCE: Burial of the Dead in Egypt.
 
6000 BCE - 3150 BCE: The Predynastic Period in Egypt.
 
6000 BCE - 3150 BCE: Djed symbol in use during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
 
6000 BCE - 3150 BCE: Nepthys is a popular goddess during the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
 
6000 BCE - 3150 BCE: Worship of Osiris begins in Pre-Dynastic Period of Egypt.
 
 
5500 BCE: Oldest faience workshop in Egypt founded at Abydos.
 
5000 BCE: Organised farming begins in Egypt.
 
5000 BCE - 4000 BCE: Merimba Culture in Egypt.
 
4500 BCE - 4000 BCE: Badarian Culture in Egypt.
 
 
4000 BCE: Depictions of gods and afterlife on walls of Egyptian tombs.
 
4000 BCE - 3000 BCE: Trade contact between Byblos and Egypt.
 
4000 BCE - 3500 BCE: Amratian Culture (also known as Naqada I) in Egypt.
 
4000 BCE: El Omari, Ma'adi, and Tasian Cultures in Egypt.
 
3500 BCE - 3200 BCE: Gerzean Culture (also known as Naqada II) in Egypt.
 
3414 BCE - 3100 BCE: Xois founded as a city during the 1st Dynasty.
 
 
3200 BCE - 3000 BCE: Probable dates for creation of Narmer Palette.
 
3200 BCE: Hieroglyphic script developed in Egypt.
 
 
3200 BCE: Hieroglyphic writing develops in Egypt.
 
3200 BCE - 3150 BCE: Naqada III Period Culture in Ancient Egypt.
 
3150 BCE: Memphis Egypt known as Hut-Ka-Ptah ("Mansion of the Soul of Ptah").
 
3150 BCE - 30 BCE: Life of the City of Memphis, Egypt.
 
 
3150 BCE - 2613 BCE: First Obelisks created in Egypt during the Early Dynastic Period.
 
3150 BCE - 2613 BCE: Ankh symbol appears during the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt.
 
 
3150 BCE - 30 BCE: Worship of Seshat in ancient Egypt from the Early Dynastic Period through the Ptolemaic Dynasty.
 
 
3150 BCE: Hieratic script develops following hieroglyphic script in Egypt.
 
3150 BCE - 30 BCE: Duration of the worship of Osiris in Egypt.
 
3150 BCE - 3100 BCE: Reign of Menes, a.k.a. Narmer, first king who is thought to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.
 
3150 BCE - 2613 BCE: The Early Dynastic Period in Egypt; beginning of historic dynasties.
 
3150 BCE - 2890 BCE: First Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.
 
3150 BCE - 2890 BCE: Anubis appears on tomb walls during the First Dynasty of Egypt.
 
 
3150 BCE: King Menes unifies Egypt through conquest.
 
3150 BCE - 2613 BCE: Set is worshiped as a hero-god during Early Dynastic Period of Egypt.
 
 
3150 BCE - 2613 BCE: Neith is worshiped as a war goddess during the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt.
 
3150 BCE - 2890 BCE: Serket associated with the god Nun and creation of the world during the First Dynasty of Egypt.
 
 
3150 BCE: Serket associated with the Scorpion Kings of the Predynastic Period in Egypt.
 
 
3150 BCE - 2613 BCE: Early Dynastic period in Egypt. First Kings.
 
 
3100 BCE: Reign of King Hor-Aha in Egypt.
 
3100 BCE - 2181 BCE: Xois inscribed on Palermo Stone as an ancient city during the 5th Dynasty.
 
 
3050 BCE: Reign of King Djer in Egypt.
 
3000 BCE: Trade already established between Syria and Egypt.
 
 
3000 BCE: Reign of King Djet in Egypt.
 
2990 BCE: Reign of Merneith, first female ruler of Egypt.
 
 
2990 BCE: Reign of Merneith, first female ruler in Egypt.
 
 
2990 BCE: Reign of King Den, son of Merneith, in Egypt.
 
2920 BCE - 2890 BCE: Reign of Qa'a, last pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt.
 
2890 BCE - 2670 BCE: Bastet gains in popularity during the 2nd Dynasty of Egypt.
 
2890 BCE - 2670 BCE: Second Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.
 
 
2890 BCE - 2670 BCE: Seshat first mentioned as goddess of writing and measurement in the 2nd Dynasty of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt.
 
 
2670 BCE - 2650 BCE: The Step Pyramid is built by Imhotep under reign of King Djoser.
 
2670 BCE: Reign of King Djoser in Egypt, builder of the first pyramid.
 
2670 BCE - 2613 BCE: Concepts later included in Book of the Dead inscribed in tombs of Third Dynasty of Egypt.
 
2670 BCE - 2613 BCE: Third Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.
 
2667 BCE - 2648 BCE: Imhotep in Egypt writes medical texts describing diagnosis and treatment of 100 diseases and 48 injuries.
 
 
2667 BCE - 2600 BCE: Attributed dates of Imhotep's medical and architectural achievements.
 
 
2650 BCE: Reign of King Sekhemket in Egypt, builder of the Buried Pyramid.
 
 
2640 BCE: Reign of the King Khaba in Egypt, builder of the Layer Pyramid.
 
 
2630 BCE - 2613 BCE: Reign of King Huni in Egypt, last ruler of the Third Dynasty, Early Dynastic Period.
 
2613 BCE - 2589 BCE: Reign of Sneferu, first king of 4th Dynasty of Egypt.
 
2613 BCE - 2181 BCE: Serket is invoked in protective spells during the period of the Old Kingdom in Egypt.
 
 
2613 BCE - 2181 BCE: Seshat associated with the House of Life in temples or temple precincts of Egypt.
 
2613 BCE - 2181 BCE: Anubis is the sole God of the Dead during the Old Kingdom period in Egypt.
 
 
2613 BCE - 2498 BCE: Trade already well established between Egypt and The Land of Punt.
 
2613 BCE - 2181 BCE: The goddess Ma'at first appears during the period of the Old Kingdom in Egypt.
 
2613 BCE - 2181 BCE: The Period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
 
2613 BCE - 2181 BCE: Memphis is capital of Old Kingdom in Egypt.
 
 
2613 BCE - 2181 BCE: Images of Bes first appear in the period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
 
2589 BCE - 2566 BCE: Reign of King Khufu (Cheops), builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza, in Egypt.
 
2566 BCE - 2558 BCE: Reign of King Djedefre in Egypt.
 
 
2560 BCE: The Great Pyramid is constructed by Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops).
 
2558 BCE - 2532 BCE: Reign of King Khafre, builder of the second pyramid at Giza, in Egypt.
 
2532 BCE - 2503 BCE: Reign of King Menkaure, builder of the third pyramid at Giza, in Egypt.
 
2503 BCE - 2498 BCE: Reign of the King Shepsekaf in Egypt.
 
2500 BCE: The Great Sphinx is built at Giza.
 
 
2498 BCE - 2345 BCE: Trade between Egypt and Punt prospers.
 
2498 BCE - 2491 BCE: Reign of the King Userkaf in Egypt.
 
2490 BCE - 2477 BCE: Reign of King Sahure in Egypt.
 
2477 BCE - 2467 BCE: Reign of the King Neferiskare Kakai in Egypt.
 
2460 BCE - 2458 BCE: Reign of the King Neferefre in Egypt.
 
2458 BCE - 2457 BCE: Reign of King Shepseskare in Egypt.
 
2445 BCE - 2422 BCE: Reign of the King Nyussere Ini of Egypt.
 
2422 BCE - 2414 BCE: Reign of King Menkauhor in Egypt.
 
2414 BCE - 2375 BCE: Reign of King Djedkare Isesi in Egypt.
 
 
2400 BCE - 2300 BCE: Bastet associated with the king of Egypt as nursemaid and protector.
 
2400 BCE - 2300 BCE: Qebhet (as Kebehwet) mentioned in the Pyramid Texts of Egypt as a Celestial Serpent deity.
 
2400 BCE - 2300 BCE: The Pyramid Texts written, the oldest religious literature in Egypt.
 
2375 BCE - 2345 BCE: Reign of King Unas in Egypt.
 
2345 BCE - 2333 BCE: Reign of King Teti in Egypt.
 
2333 BCE - 2332 BCE: Reign of King Userkare in Egypt.
 
2332 BCE - 2283 BCE: Reign of King Pepi I in Egypt.
 
2283 BCE - 2278 BCE: Reign of King Merenre Nemtyensaf I in Egypt.
 
2278 BCE - 2184 BCE: Reign of King Pepi II in Egypt.
 
2250 BCE: Beer brewed in Egypt.
 
2184 BCE - 2181 BCE: Reign of King Netjerkare, last ruler of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
 
2184 BCE: Reign of King Merenre Nemtyemsaf II in Egypt.
 
 
2181 BCE - 2040 BCE: First Intermediate Period in Egypt.
 
2181 BCE - 2040 BCE: Capital of Egypt moves from Memphis to Herakleopolis during the First Intermediate Period.
 
2125 BCE: Rise of Intef I (The Great) of Thebes in Egypt.
 
 
2115 BCE: Mentuhotep I of Thebes makes war on the kings of Herakleopolis, Egypt.
 
 
2112 BCE - 2063 BCE: Reign of Wahankh Intef II, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, from Thebes. Raises first monument at Karnak site.
 
2064 BCE - 1986 BCE: Twin Dynasty Wars in Egypt.
 
 
2063 BCE: Reign of Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III at Thebes, Egypt.
 
1800 BCE: The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus deals with women's health and contraception.
 
1800 BCE: Bronze working introduced to Egypt.
 
 
1783 BCE: Avaris is built and set as capital of Hyksos.
 
1782 BCE - 1570 BCE: Second Intermediate Period in Egypt.
 
1700 BCE: The Kingdom of Kush is formed to the south of Egypt.
 
 
1650 BCE - 1550 BCE: Xois serves as capital of the 14th Dynasty.
 
1600 BCE: The Edwin Smith Papyrus, an Egyptian medical text, is written, supposedly as a copy of Imhotep's earlier work.
 
1570 BCE - 1069 BCE: The New Kingdom of Egypt.
 
 
1550 BCE: Composition of The Book of the Dead in Egypt.
 
 
1550 BCE: Ahmoses I defeats and expels the Hyksos from Egypt and destroy their capital Avaris.
 
 
1504 BCE - 1492 BCE: Egyptian empire reaches greatest extent under Tuthmosis I.
 
1500 BCE: Egyptian empire extends to the Euphrates.
 
 
1479 BCE - 1425 BCE: Reign of Thutmose III in Egypt.
 
1479 BCE - 1458 BCE: Queen Hatshepsut rules Egypt.
 
1457 BCE: Battle of Megiddo: Thutmose III of Egypt defeats a coalition of Canaan, Kadesh, Mitanni, and Megiddo led by Durusha, king of Kadesh.
 
 
1450 BCE: Kadesh and Megiddo lead a Canaanite alliance against the Egyptian invasion by Thutmose III.
 
1386 BCE - 1353 BCE: Reign of Amenhotep III of Egypt.
 
 
1353 BCE - 1336 BCE: Reign of Akhenaten, Tutankhamun's father, `Heretic King' of Egypt.
 
 
1353 BCE - 1336 BCE: The Amarna Period in Egypt.
 
1336 BCE - 1327 BCE: Reign of Tutankhamun with Ankhsenamun as Queen.
 
 
1334 BCE: Tutankhamun initiates religious reforms returning Egypt to traditional belief structure.
 
1327 BCE - 1323 BCE: Reign of Ay in Egypt.
 
1320 BCE - 1295 BCE: Reign of Horemheb in Egypt, Tutankhamun's name erased from record.
 
1320 BCE: Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Horemheb, succeeds Ay as ruler of Egypt
 
1303 BCE: Birth of Ramesses II of Egypt.
 
 
1295 BCE - 1188 BCE: The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
 
 
1295 BCE - 1294 BCE: The reign of Ramesses I in Egypt.
 
 
1294 BCE - 1279 BCE: The reign of Seti I in Egypt.
 
 
1279 BCE - 1212 BCE: Reign of Ramesses II (The Great) in Egypt.
 
1274 BCE: Battle of Kadesh between Pharaoh Ramesses II of Egypt and King Muwatalli II of the Hittites.
 
 
1264 BCE - 1244 BCE: Probable dates for the construction of Abu Simbel.
 
 
1258 BCE: The Treaty of Kadesh between Egyptians and Hittites. The world's first peace treaty.
 
 
1244 BCE - 1224 BCE: Other probable dates for the construction of Abu Simbel.
 
1184 BCE - 1153 BCE: Reign of Ramesses III, Pharaoh of Egypt.
 
1180 BCE - 1178 BCE: Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty fortifies Xois against the threat of the invading Sea Peoples.
 
1180 BCE: The Sea Peoples begin increased incursions into Egypt.
 
1178 BCE: Rameses III defends Egypt from the Sea Peoples on the shores at Xois, defeating them completely.
 
1069 BCE - 525 BCE: Third Intermediate Period in Egypt.
 
750 BCE: Iron working is introduced to Egypt.
 
712 BCE - 671 BCE: Egypt is ruled by the Kushite dynasty.
 
 
671 BCE: Second Egyptian Campaign, Assyrian army successfully captures Memphis and conquers Egypt.
 
 
671 BCE: Egypt is conquered by Assyria.
 
 
667 BCE - 665 BCE: Ashurbanipal wages war in Egypt to put down rebellions.
 
 
664 BCE: Psamtik I becomes Pharoah in Egypt.
 
 
653 BCE: Egypt expels Assyrians.
 
601 BCE: Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon unsuccessfully attempts to invade Egypt.
 
 
525 BCE: Imhotep is deified in Egypt.
 
 
525 BCE: Cambyses II of Persia takes the city of Pelusium, conquers Egypt.
 
 
525 BCE - 404 BCE: Persia conquers Egypt.
 
 
520 BCE: Darius of Persia links the Nile and the Red Sea by a canal.
 
 
398 BCE - 380 BCE: Plato travels in Egypt, Cyrene, Italy, Syracuse and Sicily.
 
341 BCE: The Persians complete conquest of Egypt.
 
 
332 BCE: Alexander the Great conquers Syria and turns toward Egypt.
 
331 BCE: Egypt is conquered by Alexander the Great without resistance.
 
 
331 BCE: Alexander the Great founds Alexandria at the port town of Rhakotis in Egypt.
 
 
323 BCE - 31 BCE: The Hellenistic Age.Greek thought and culture infuses with indigenous people.
 
323 BCE - 282 BCE: Rule of Ptolemy I Soter.
 
 
323 BCE: Death of Alexander the Great.
 
 
305 BCE - 285 BCE: Reign of Ptolemy I in Egypt, initiated of the Great Library.
 
300 BCE: Ptolemy I founds the Museum of Alexandria.
 
 
285 BCE - 246 BCE: Reign of Ptolemy II in Egypt, developement of Library at Alexandria.
 
277 BCE - 276 BCE: 4,000 Celts are employed in Egypt under Ptolemy II.
 
 
259 BCE: Celts in Egypt fail to overthrow Ptolemy II and are starved to death on an island.
 
247 BCE: The lighthouse at Alexandria (Pharos) is completed.
 
 
217 BCE: 14,000 Celts serve under Ptolemy IV in his victory at Raphia over the Seleucid King Antiochos III.
 
69 BCE - 30 BCE: Life of Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
 
47 BCE: Cleopatra VII is sole ruler of Egypt; she presents herself as the goddess Isis.
 
32 BCE - 31 BCE: Battle of Actium: Octavian (the later Emperor Augustus) defeats Cleopatra of Egypt.
 
 
30 BCE - 14 CE: Reign of Augustus Caesar in Rome, restoration of Roman province of Alexandria.
 
30 BCE: Egypt becomes province of the Roman empire.
 
 
30 BCE: Death of Cleopatra VII, end of the Ptolemaic line in Egypt.
 
 
1 CE: First non-stop voyages from Egypt to India.
 
 
30 CE - 476 CE: Egypt remains a province of the Roman Empire.
 
 
50 CE - 60 CE: Establishment of various Christian communities in the Eastern Mediterranean, Greece, Egypt, and at least the city of Rome.
 
 
232 CE: Emperor Maximinus Thrax commands a legion in Egypt.
 
 
527 CE - 646 CE: The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.
 
 
646 CE: The Arab Muslims conquer Egypt under Caliph Umar.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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