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753 BCE: The legendary founding date of Rome.
212 BCE: The Romans conquer Saguntum from the Carthaginians.
206 BCE - 205 BCE: The Romans conquer Gades. End of the Carthaginian presence on the Iberian Peninsula.
191 BCE: The Achaean League signs a treaty of alliance with Rome.
191 BCE: Delphi comes under Roman control.
188 BCE: Rome gives Samos its independence.
166 BCE: Rome gives dominion over the Cyclades to Athens.
150 BCE: Macedonia becomes a Roman province.
148 BCE: Thessalonica is made the captial of the Roman province of Macedon.
148 BCE: Corcyra is made part of the Roman province of Macedonia.
146 BCE: Utica is made the capital of the Roman province of Africa.
146 BCE: End of the Third Punic War. Carthage is destroyed and its lands become the Roman province Africa.
133 BCE: Lydia and its captial Sardis comes under Roman rule.
129 BCE: Samos becomes part of the Roman province of Asia.
96 BCE: Cyrenaica becomes a Roman province.
74 BCE: The city of Cyrene comes under Roman control.
64 BCE: Byblos conquered by the Roman general Pompey the Great.
64 BCE: Tyre becomes a Roman colony.
48 BCE: Butrint formally becomes a Roman colony.
44 BCE: Julius Caesar founds the Roman colony of Corinth.
41 BCE: Rome takes control over Naxos in the Cyclades.
37 BCE - 4 BCE: Reign of Herod the Great over Judea.
32 BCE - 31 BCE: Battle of Actium: Octavian (the later Emperor Augustus) defeats Cleopatra of Egypt.
31 BCE: Octavian uses Corcyra as a Roman naval base.
30 BCE: Egypt becomes province of the Roman empire.
27 BCE: Augustus makes Gortyn the capital of the Roman province of Crete & Cyrene.
27 BCE: Philippi gains the honorary title of Colonia Iulia Augusta Philippensis.
27 BCE - 19 BCE: Cantabrian Wars: Roman conquest of the Iberian Penninsula.
25 BCE: Galatia is peacefully absorbed into the Roman Empire.
14 BCE - 96 CE: Rome launches an extensive cultural patronage and construction programme in Iberia.
1 CE - 100 CE: Mithraism spreads in the Roman empire.
6 CE: Publius Quinctilius Varus is made governor of Germania.
9 CE: The Rhine River is established as the boundary between the Latin and German speaking worlds, following the defeat of the Roman army, under the command of Varus, at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.
30 CE - 476 CE: Egypt remains a province of the Roman Empire.
43 CE: Romans invade Britain under Aulus Plautius.
43 CE: Claudius commences the Roman conquest of Britain.
43 CE - 47 CE: Romans conquer South Britain and claim the territory as part of Roman Empire.
44 CE: Caesarea made capital of imperial province.
47 CE - 50 CE: Londinium (London) founded, roads constructed.
51 CE: Briton rebel leader Caratacus defeated, rebellion crushed.
67 CE: Side becomes part of the Roman Empire.
68 CE - 69 CE: Year of the Four Emperors: Civil war in Rome.
75 CE - 77 CE: Romans defeat the last of the Northern tribes; Roman conquest of Britain complete.
76 CE - 138 CE: Life of Emperor Hadrian.
85 CE - 86 CE: Dacians invade Moesia and defeat the Romans.
87 CE: The Roman general Cornelius Fuscus invades Dacia. He is ambushed and his army is annihilated.
88 CE: Resolved to avenge Fuscus' defeat, Domitian sends another army to Dacia under Tettius Iulianus. This general is victorious on the mountainous pass of Tapae, in the south-west of modern Romania.
101 CE - 106 CE: Trajan conquers Dacia.
115 CE - 117 CE: Rome occupies Mesopotamia.
116 CE: Invasion and annexation of the Fertile Crescent region by Rome under Trajan.
117 CE - 138 CE: Hadrian rules as Rome's 14th Emperor.
121 CE - 180 CE: Life of Marcus Aurelius.
121 CE - 125 CE: First trip of Hadrian around the Empire: Gaul, Germany, Noricum, Britain, Tarraconis, Cappadocia, Gallatia, Bythinia, Asia, Greece, Mesia, Dacia and Pannonia.
133 CE: Hadrian’s wall is built in northern England.
142 CE: The Antonine Wall built under Antoninus Pius, north of Hadrian's Wall.
165 CE - 167 CE: Plague epidemic in the Roman empire.
167 CE - 180 CE: Marcomannic Wars.
167 CE: Marcomanni sack Aquileia.
168 CE: Germanic tribes cross the Danube into the Roman Empire.
192 CE: Emperor Commodus is murdered, civil war ensues (until 197 CE).
195 CE: First Parthian war.
197 CE - 198 CE: Second Parthian war.
198 CE - 209 CE: Reign of Caracalla with his father Septimius Severus.
200 CE: Completion of the Roman road system.
204 CE - 270 CE: Life of Plotinus.
209 CE - 211 CE: Reign of Caracalla with his father Septimius Severus and his brother Geta (Feb - Dec 211 only with Geta).
212 CE: Rome withdraws from region of Scotland.
212 CE: Caracalla's edict grants Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the Roman Empire.
212 CE: Roman citizenship granted to all inhabitants of the empire.
232 CE: Emperor Maximinus Thrax commands a legion in Egypt.
234 CE: Emperor Maximinus Thrax is governor of Mesopotamia.
250 CE: Thessalonica is made a Roman colony.
260 CE: Shapur I captures the Roman emperor Valerian at Edessa.
261 CE: Thugga is made a Roman colonia.
262 CE - 266 CE: Odaenathus expels Persian garrisons and restores Syria and Armenia to the Roman Empire. Odaenathus invades Mesopotamia, and inflicts two defeats upon Shapur I, which ends with the sack of Ctesiphon.
270 CE - 275 CE: Reign of Roman Emperor Aurelian.
271 CE: Aurelian defends the Roman Empire against Juthungi, Alamanni, and Marcomanni incursions.
272 CE - 273 CE: Aurelian successfully campaigns against Palmyra.
285 CE: The Roman empire is split into the Western and Eastern Roman empires.
313 CE: Roman emperor Constantine I tolerates Christianity.
337 CE: Death of Emperor Constantine I.
337 CE: Ascension of Constantius II.
361 CE: Death of Constantius II.
367 CE: Picts, Scots, Saxons, and Franks attack the Roman Empire.
376 CE: The Visigoths are fleeing the Huns, entering the Eastern Roman Empire.
391 CE: Emperor Theodosius closes pagan temples.
410 CE: The Romans withdraw from Britain.
410 CE: Rome withdraws forces from Britain.
426 CE: Roman Emperor Theodosius II orders closure of Epidaurus sanctuary.
523 CE: Emperor Justinian seizes Caesarea.
565 CE: Death of Justinian I after 38 years ruling the Roman Empire.