Persia Timeline

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1000 BCE 900 BCE 800 BCE 700 BCE 600 BCE 500 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE 200 BCE 100 BCE 0 CE 100 CE 200 CE 300 CE 400 CE 500 CE 600 CE  
 
1000 BCE: Scythians migrate from Persia into the Asian steppes.
 
850 BCE: Medes migrate into Iran from Asia.
 
750 BCE: Persians migrate into Iran from Asia.
 
628 BCE - 551 BCE: Life of Zoroaster, according to Pahlavi sources.
 
553 BCE: Cyrus the Great successfully rebels against the Medes and establishes the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
 
 
547 BCE - 546 BCE: Cyrus II of Persia conquers Lydia.
 
 
547 BCE: Anatolia conquered by the Persians. Ephesos remains neutral.
 
547 BCE: Phrygia becomes a Satrapy of the Persian empire.
 
546 BCE: The Persians occupy Cyprus, being invited by Cypriot leaders.
 
 
539 BCE: Fall of Babylon, conquered by Cyrus of Persia. Return of the Jews.
 
539 BCE: Cyrus the Great conquers Babylon; the Fertile Crescent is controlled by the Achaemenid Empire (The First Persian Empire).
 
530 BCE - 522 BCE: Reign of Cambyses II of Persia.
 
 
530 BCE: Persia conquers the Indus Valley.
 
 
525 BCE: Cambyses II of Persia takes the city of Pelusium, conquers Egypt.
 
 
525 BCE - 404 BCE: Persia conquers Egypt.
 
521 BCE: Darius I (Darius the Great) succeeds to the throne of Persia after the death of Cambyses.
 
520 BCE: Darius I of Persia fights the Scythians (not very successfully).
 
 
520 BCE: Darius of Persia links the Nile and the Red Sea by a canal.
 
 
515 BCE: Darius I moves the capital of Persia from Pasargadae to Persepolis.
 
513 BCE - 512 BCE: Darius I of Persia Campaigns against Scythians into European Scythia, past the Danube River, Scythians refuse to fight and Darius is forced to abandon the campaign due to lack of provisions.
 
 
499 BCE: Naxos is attacked by Darius' Persian forces.
 
499 BCE - 494 BCE: Ionian cities rebel against Persian rule.
 
 
498 BCE: Ionians and Greek allies invade and burn Sardis (capital of Lydia).
 
492 BCE: Darius I of Persia invades Greece.
 
 
490 BCE: Rhodes comes under Persian rule.
 
 
490 BCE: Athens builds a treasury at Delphi following their victory at Marathon against Persia.
 
 
490 BCE: Naxos is attacked for a second time by Persian forces.
 
490 BCE: A combined force of Greek hoplites defeat the Persians at Marathon.
 
486 BCE: Xerxes succeeds to the throne of Persia after the death of Darius I.
 
 
485 BCE: Babylon is destroyed by Xerxes, King of Persia.
 
485 BCE - 465 BCE: Reign of Xerxes I (the Great) of Persia.
 
480 BCE: Battle of Salamis where the Greek naval fleet defeats the invading armada of Xerxes I of Persia.
 
 
480 BCE: Persian forces attack the sanctuary of Delphi.
 
480 BCE: Thebes sides with Persia during Xerxes invasion of Greece.
 
 
480 BCE: Sack of Athens by the Persians under Xerxes. The Agora is destroyed.
 
480 BCE: The indecisive battle of Artemision between the Greek and Persian fleets of Xerxes I. The Greeks withdraw to Salamis.
 
 
480 BCE: Xerxes I makes extensive preparations to invade mainland Greece by building depots, canals and a boat bridge across the Hellespont.
 
480 BCE: Battle of Thermopylae. 300 Spartans under King Leonidas and other Greek allies hold back the Persians led by Xerxes I for three days but are defeated.
 
 
480 BCE: Persians destroy the sanctuary at Sounion.
 
 
479 BCE: Xerxes' Persian forces are defeated by Greek forces at Plataea effectively ending Persia's imperial ambitions in Greece.
 
478 BCE: Sparta withdraws from alliance against Persia.
 
 
478 BCE: Xerxes I builds the Gate of All Nations, the Hall of 100 Columns and the grand Palace of Xerxes.
 
449 BCE - 448 BCE: Peace between Greece and Persia.
 
448 BCE: Ionian cities become independent from Persia.
 
448 BCE: The Peace of Callias with Persia.
 
412 BCE: Sparta allies with Persia.
 
401 BCE: Retreat from Persia of Xenophon and the ten thousand mercenaries.
 
380 BCE - 330 BCE: Life of Darius III of Persia.
 
341 BCE: The Persians complete conquest of Egypt.
 
 
336 BCE: Artaxerxes III builds the Hall of 32 Columns, the Palace of Artaxerxes and the Unfinished Gate.
 
334 BCE: Alexander invades the Persian empire.
 
333 BCE: Battle of Issus. Alexander is victorious against Darius III of Persia.
 
331 BCE: Egypt is conquered by Alexander the Great without resistance.
 
331 BCE: Battle of Gaugamela. Alexander calls himself "King of Asia."
 
330 BCE: Persepolis is burned and looted by Alexander the Great.
 
330 BCE: Death of Darius III and end of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
 
 
329 BCE: Alexander conquers Bactria and Sogdiana.
 
247 BCE - 224 CE: Empire of the Parthians.
 
 
64 BCE: The Roman general Pompey defeats the Seleucid Antiochus XIII and incorporates Syria as a province of the Roman empire.
 
 
224 CE: Sasanians overthrow the Parthians.
 
224 CE - 240 CE: Reign of Ardashir I, who reformed the Persia by centralizing power, making Zoroastrianism state religion, and rivalling Rome.
 
224 CE: Zoroastrianism becomes Persian state religion under the Sasanian dynasty.
 
 
240 CE - 270 CE: Reign of Shapur I, who brought the Sasanian empire to its peak.
 
 
260 CE: Shapur I captures the Roman emperor Valerian at Edessa.
 
607 CE - 627 CE: East Rome defeats Sasanian Persia.
 
 
634 CE - 644 CE: 'Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate. 'Umar continues Islamic expansion throughout Persia and northern Africa.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1000 BCE 800 BCE 600 BCE 400 BCE 200 BCE 0 CE 200 CE 400 CE

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