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1000 BCE: Scythians migrate from Persia into the Asian steppes.
850 BCE: Medes migrate into Iran from Asia.
750 BCE: Persians migrate into Iran from Asia.
628 BCE - 551 BCE: Life of Zoroaster, according to Pahlavi sources.
553 BCE: Cyrus the Great successfully rebels against the Medes and establishes the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
547 BCE - 546 BCE: Cyrus II of Persia conquers Lydia.
547 BCE: Anatolia conquered by the Persians. Ephesos remains neutral.
547 BCE: Phrygia becomes a Satrapy of the Persian empire.
546 BCE: The Persians occupy Cyprus, being invited by Cypriot leaders.
539 BCE: Fall of Babylon, conquered by Cyrus of Persia. Return of the Jews.
539 BCE: Cyrus the Great conquers Babylon; the Fertile Crescent is controlled by the Achaemenid Empire (The First Persian Empire).
530 BCE - 522 BCE: Reign of Cambyses II of Persia.
530 BCE: Persia conquers the Indus Valley.
525 BCE: Cambyses II of Persia takes the city of Pelusium, conquers Egypt.
525 BCE - 404 BCE: Persia conquers Egypt.
521 BCE: Darius I (Darius the Great) succeeds to the throne of Persia after the death of Cambyses.
520 BCE: Darius I of Persia fights the Scythians (not very successfully).
520 BCE: Darius of Persia links the Nile and the Red Sea by a canal.
515 BCE: Darius I moves the capital of Persia from Pasargadae to Persepolis.
513 BCE - 512 BCE: Darius I of Persia Campaigns against Scythians into European Scythia, past the Danube River, Scythians refuse to fight and Darius is forced to abandon the campaign due to lack of provisions.
499 BCE: Naxos is attacked by Darius' Persian forces.
499 BCE - 494 BCE: Ionian cities rebel against Persian rule.
498 BCE: Ionians and Greek allies invade and burn Sardis (capital of Lydia).
492 BCE: Darius I of Persia invades Greece.
490 BCE: Rhodes comes under Persian rule.
490 BCE: Athens builds a treasury at Delphi following their victory at Marathon against Persia.
490 BCE: Naxos is attacked for a second time by Persian forces.
490 BCE: A combined force of Greek hoplites defeat the Persians at Marathon.
486 BCE: Xerxes succeeds to the throne of Persia after the death of Darius I.
485 BCE: Babylon is destroyed by Xerxes, King of Persia.
485 BCE - 465 BCE: Reign of Xerxes I (the Great) of Persia.
480 BCE: Battle of Salamis where the Greek naval fleet defeats the invading armada of Xerxes I of Persia.
480 BCE: Persian forces attack the sanctuary of Delphi.
480 BCE: Thebes sides with Persia during Xerxes invasion of Greece.
480 BCE: Sack of Athens by the Persians under Xerxes. The Agora is destroyed.
480 BCE: The indecisive battle of Artemision between the Greek and Persian fleets of Xerxes I. The Greeks withdraw to Salamis.
480 BCE: Xerxes I makes extensive preparations to invade mainland Greece by building depots, canals and a boat bridge across the Hellespont.
480 BCE: Battle of Thermopylae. 300 Spartans under King Leonidas and other Greek allies hold back the Persians led by Xerxes I for three days but are defeated.
480 BCE: Persians destroy the sanctuary at Sounion.
479 BCE: Xerxes' Persian forces are defeated by Greek forces at Plataea effectively ending Persia's imperial ambitions in Greece.
478 BCE: Sparta withdraws from alliance against Persia.
478 BCE: Xerxes I builds the Gate of All Nations, the Hall of 100 Columns and the grand Palace of Xerxes.
449 BCE - 448 BCE: Peace between Greece and Persia.
448 BCE: Ionian cities become independent from Persia.
448 BCE: The Peace of Callias with Persia.
412 BCE: Sparta allies with Persia.
401 BCE: Retreat from Persia of Xenophon and the ten thousand mercenaries.
380 BCE - 330 BCE: Life of Darius III of Persia.
341 BCE: The Persians complete conquest of Egypt.
336 BCE: Artaxerxes III builds the Hall of 32 Columns, the Palace of Artaxerxes and the Unfinished Gate.
334 BCE: Alexander invades the Persian empire.
333 BCE: Battle of Issus. Alexander is victorious against Darius III of Persia.
331 BCE: Egypt is conquered by Alexander the Great without resistance.
331 BCE: Battle of Gaugamela. Alexander calls himself "King of Asia."
330 BCE: Persepolis is burned and looted by Alexander the Great.
330 BCE: Death of Darius III and end of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
329 BCE: Alexander conquers Bactria and Sogdiana.
247 BCE - 224 CE: Empire of the Parthians.
64 BCE: The Roman general Pompey defeats the Seleucid Antiochus XIII and incorporates Syria as a province of the Roman empire.
224 CE: Sasanians overthrow the Parthians.
224 CE - 240 CE: Reign of Ardashir I, who reformed the Persia by centralizing power, making Zoroastrianism state religion, and rivalling Rome.
224 CE: Zoroastrianism becomes Persian state religion under the Sasanian dynasty.
240 CE - 270 CE: Reign of Shapur I, who brought the Sasanian empire to its peak.
260 CE: Shapur I captures the Roman emperor Valerian at Edessa.
607 CE - 627 CE: East Rome defeats Sasanian Persia.
634 CE - 644 CE: 'Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate. 'Umar continues Islamic expansion throughout Persia and northern Africa.