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1000 BCE: Scythians migrate from Persia into the Asian steppes.
553 BCE: Cyrus the Great successfully rebels against the Medes and establishes the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
547 BCE - 546 BCE: Cyrus II of Persia conquers Lydia.
539 BCE: Fall of Babylon, conquered by Cyrus of Persia. Return of the Jews.
530 BCE: Persia conquers the Indus Valley.
530 BCE - 522 BCE: Reign of Cambyses II of Persia.
525 BCE - 522 BCE: Cambyses II of Persia rules Egypt and leads campaign to Nubia.
525 BCE: Cambyses II of Persia invades Egypt and uses Bastet's image to force Egyptian surrender at the Battle of Pelusium.
525 BCE: Cambyses II of Persia takes the city of Pelusium, conquers Egypt.
525 BCE - 404 BCE: Persia conquers Egypt.
521 BCE: Darius I (Darius the Great) succeeds to the throne of Persia after the death of Cambyses.
520 BCE: Darius of Persia links the Nile and the Red Sea by a canal.
520 BCE: Darius I of Persia fights the Scythians (not very successfully).
515 BCE: Darius I moves the capital of Persia from Pasargadae to Persepolis.
513 BCE: Darius I of Persia invades Asia Minor, Miltiades becomes Persian vassal.
513 BCE - 512 BCE: Darius I of Persia Campaigns against Scythians into European Scythia, past the Danube River, Scythians refuse to fight and Darius is forced to abandon the campaign due to lack of provisions.
499 BCE: Ionian Greek colonies of Asia Minor revolt against Persia; Miltiades supports them.
492 BCE: Darius I of Persia invades Greece.
490 BCE: Athens builds a treasury at Delphi following their victory at Marathon against Persia.
486 BCE: Xerxes succeeds to the throne of Persia after the death of Darius I.
485 BCE - 465 BCE: Reign of Xerxes I (the Great) of Persia.
485 BCE: Babylon is destroyed by Xerxes, King of Persia.
480 BCE: Battle of Salamis where the Greek naval fleet led by Themistocles defeats the invading armada of Xerxes I of Persia.
480 BCE: Thebes sides with Persia during Xerxes invasion of Greece.
479 BCE: Xerxes' Persian forces are defeated by Greek forces at Plataea effectively ending Persia's imperial ambitions in Greece.
478 BCE: Sparta withdraws from alliance against Persia.
449 BCE - 448 BCE: Peace between Greece and Persia.
448 BCE: The Peace of Callias with Persia.
448 BCE: Ionian cities become independent from Persia.
412 BCE: Sparta allies with Persia.
401 BCE: Retreat from Persia of Xenophon and the ten thousand mercenaries.
380 BCE - 330 BCE: Life of Darius III of Persia.
333 BCE: Battle of Issus. Alexander is victorious against Darius III of Persia.
330 BCE: Death of Darius III and end of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
317 BCE: Demetrius I commands his father’s cavalry units at the battles of Paraetacene and Gabiene in Persia.
224 CE - 240 CE: Reign of Ardashir I, who reformed the Persia by centralizing power, making Zoroastrianism state religion, and rivalling Rome.
607 CE - 627 CE: East Rome defeats Sasanian Persia.