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10000 BCE: Beginnings of agriculture in the Middle East.
9600 BCE: End of the last Ice Age.
9000 BCE: Cultivation of wild cereals in the Fertile Crescent.
8000 BCE: Ovens in use in the Near East are applied to pottery production.
6000 BCE: Nineveh is first settled.
5400 BCE: The City of Eridu is founded.
5000 BCE: Sumer inhabited by Ubaid people.
5000 BCE - 1750 BCE: Sumerian civilization in the Tigris-Euphrates valley.
5000 BCE - 4100 BCE: The Ubaid Period in Sumer.
5000 BCE: Irrigation and agriculture begin in earnest in Mesopotamia.
5000 BCE: Godin Tepe settled
4500 BCE: The City of Uruk founded.
4500 BCE: First walled cities. Uruk in Mesopotamia first city.
4500 BCE: The Sumerians built their first temple.
4100 BCE - 2900 BCE: Uruk Period in Mesopotamia. First cities.
4100 BCE - 2900 BCE: Uruk Period in Sumer.
4000 BCE: First settlement of Ur.
3600 BCE: Invention of writing in Sumer at Uruk.
3400 BCE: Priests become the rulers of Mesopotamian cities.
3000 BCE: Sumer civilization in Mesopotamia use gold in jewellery manufacture.
2900 BCE - 2334 BCE: The Early Dynastic Period in Sumer.
2500 BCE: First Dynasty of Lagash under King Eannutum is first empire in Mesopotamia.
2400 BCE: Earliest Sumerian sources to mention migrating Amorites in Mesopotamia.
2400 BCE: First use of war chariots in Mesopotamia.
2350 BCE: First code of laws by Urukagina, king of Lagash.
2334 BCE - 2279 BCE: Sargon of Akkad (the Great) reigns over Mesopotamia and thus creates the world's first empire.
2334 BCE - 2218 BCE: The Akkadian Empire rules Sumer.
2330 BCE: Sargon of Akkad sacks Ur.
2218 BCE - 2047 BCE: The Gutian Period in Sumer.
2150 BCE - 1400 BCE: The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh written on clay tablets.
2100 BCE: First ziggurats in Ur, Eridu, Uruk, and Nippur.
2100 BCE: The Reign of Utu-Hegal at Uruk in Sumer and creation of Sumerian King List.
2083 BCE - 2050 BCE: The Dark Age of Mesopotamia.
2055 BCE - 2047 BCE: Utu Hegel's reign over Sumerian and Akkadian cities.
2050 BCE: The Code of Ur-Nammu (the earliest known code of laws) is written.
2047 BCE - 2030 BCE: Ur-Nammu's reign over Sumer.
2047 BCE - 1750 BCE: Third dynasty of Ur.
2047 BCE - 1750 BCE: The Ur III Period in Sumer, known as the Sumerian Renaissance.
2038 BCE: King Shulgi of Ur builds his great wall in Sumer.
2000 BCE: Domesticated horses introduced in Mesopotamia.
2000 BCE - 1600 BCE: Amorite period in Mesopotamia.
1984 BCE: Amorite dynasty established in Babylon.
1900 BCE: Ashur, capial of Assyria, is founded.
1900 BCE - 1400 BCE: Trade flourishes between Mesopotamia and other regions.
1900 BCE: The first aqueducts were constructed in Mesopotamia and on Minoan Crete
1800 BCE - 1750 BCE: Probable period of composition for The Queen of the Night in southern Mesopotamia.
1795 BCE - 1750 BCE: Reign of Hammurabi, king of Babylon.
1792 BCE: King Hammurabi builds walls of Babylon.
1787 BCE: Hammurabi of Babylon conquers Uruk and Isin.
1772 BCE: The Code of Hammurabi: One of the earliest codes of law in the world.
1761 BCE: Hammurabi of Babylon destroys the city of Mari.
1755 BCE: Hammurabi rules the whole of Mesopotamia from Babylon.
1750 BCE: Elamite invasion and Amorite migration ends the Sumerian civilization.
1750 BCE: Elam conquers Ur.
1745 BCE - 1740 BCE: Amorites migrate from Mesopotamia to Canaan.
1680 BCE: Hurrians occupy Assyria.
1595 BCE: King Mursilis of the Hittites sacks Babylon. Begin of Babylonian "dark ages."
1595 BCE: Hittites under Mursilli I sack Babylon, ending Amorite rule.
1550 BCE: Kingdom of Mittani is founded.
1500 BCE: Rise of the kingdom of Mitanni.
1500 BCE: Egyptian empire extends to the Euphrates.
1472 BCE: Mittani annexes Assyria.
1400 BCE: Assyria regains its independence.
1350 BCE - 1250 BCE: The Hittite empire is at its peak.
1350 BCE: Peak of Mitanni power, it is considered a great nation.
1344 BCE - 1322 BCE: King Suppiluliumas I of the Hittites sacks the Mitanni capital Washukanni and installs Artatama II as vassal king.
1321 BCE: Western Mittani is conquered by the Hittites.
1285 BCE: Peak of Hittite power.
1244 BCE - 1208 BCE: Reign of Tukulti-Ninurta I, King of Assyria.
1220 BCE: Babylon is under Assyrian control.
1080 BCE: Aramaeans invade Mesopotamia.
1000 BCE: Chaldeans occupy Ur.
853 BCE: Babylonian kings depend on Assyrian military support.
734 BCE: Babylon is captured by Chaldeans.
729 BCE: Babylon is occupied by Assyrians.
722 BCE - 705 BCE: Peak of the Assyrian empire under the reign of Sargon II.
612 BCE: Downfall of the Assyrian empire.
605 BCE - 562 BCE: Nebuchadnezzar II is king of Babylon.
539 BCE: Fall of Babylon, conquered by Cyrus of Persia. Return of the Jews.
500 BCE - 330 BCE: The Achaemenid Empire rules in Mesopotamia, Persian Royal Road in use.
485 BCE: Babylon is destroyed by Xerxes, King of Persia.
323 BCE - 31 BCE: The Hellenistic Age.Greek thought and culture infuses with indigenous people.
312 BCE: Seleucos conquers Babylon and founds the Seleucid dynasty.
304 BCE - 64 BCE: Rule of the Seleucids in Mesopotamia.
129 BCE: Parthians conquer Mesopotamia. The Silk Road to China is now controlled by the Parthians.
100 BCE: Ctesiphon becomes Parthian capital.
115 CE - 116 CE: The Roman Empire conquers Mesopotamia.
115 CE - 117 CE: Rome occupies Mesopotamia.
224 CE: Sasanians overthrow the Parthians.
234 CE: Emperor Maximinus Thrax is governor of Mesopotamia.
262 CE - 266 CE: Odaenathus expels Persian garrisons and restores Syria and Armenia to the Roman Empire. Odaenathus invades Mesopotamia, and inflicts two defeats upon Shapur I, which ends with the sack of Ctesiphon.
637 CE: Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.