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6000 BCE: Settlement of Tell Brak founded in Syria.
4000 BCE: City of Mari founded in Syria.
3000 BCE: Trade already established between Syria and Egypt.
3000 BCE: City of Ebla founded in Syria.
2500 BCE: Mari and Ebla already important trade centers.
2334 BCE - 2279 BCE: Reign of Sargon the Great of Akkad who conquers Syria.
2240 BCE: Naram-Sin of Akkad campaigns against the Amorites in northern Syria.
1344 BCE - 1322 BCE: Reign of the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I. Hittites conquer Syria.
1274 BCE: Battle of Kadesh between Pharaoh Ramesses II of Egypt and King Muwatalli II of the Hittites.
1245 BCE: Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I defeats Hittites at Nihriya. Assyrians rule Syria.
1200 BCE: Region of Syria invaded by Sea Peoples.
912 BCE - 612 BCE: Syria is part of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
605 BCE - 549 BCE: Babyon rules over Syria.
549 BCE - 300 BCE: The Persian Achaemenid Empire rules Syria.
332 BCE: Alexander the Great conquers Syria and turns toward Egypt.
312 BCE - 83 BCE: Syria under the rule of Seleucid Empire.
274 BCE - 271 BCE: The first Syrian war, marking the beginning of the contest between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids for Phoenicia and Coele-Syria.
83 BCE: Tigranes the Great of Armenia liberates Syria and rules the region.
64 BCE: Pompey the Great claims Syria for Rome.
66 CE - 73 CE: Syrian troops participate in the First Jewish-Roman War.
115 CE - 116 CE: Roman Empire annexes Syria.
125 CE - 180 CE: Life of the Rhetorician and Satirist Lucian of Samosata, an Hellenized Syrian writing in Attic Greek during the Second Sophistic.
132 CE - 136 CE: Syrian troops under Rome suppress the Bar Kokhba Revolt.
476 CE: Fall of the Western Roman Empire. Syria continues under Eastern (Byzantine)Empire.
637 CE: Muslim forces defeat the Byzantine army. Syria becomes part of Rashidun Caliphate.