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12000 BCE: Paleolithic seasonal camp at Howburn Farm in Biggar, Scotland, visited regularly.
10500 BCE - 7000 BCE: Mesolithic settlements established (many seasonal) in Scotland.
6000 BCE: Bones and antlers used as tools, ring and cup marks on stones begin appearing in Scotland.
3700 BCE - 2800 BCE: Neolithic farmstead the Knap of Howar inhabited on Papa Westray, Orkney.
3500 BCE: The vast stone complex known as the Ness of Brodgar in use in Orkney.
3300 BCE - 2600 BCE: Neolithic site of Barnhouse Settlement occupied.
3300 BCE - 2600 BCE: The Barnhouse Settlement constructed and inhabited.
3100 BCE: Neolithic village of Skara Brae inhabited.
3100 BCE - 2500 BCE: Megalithic Period in which majority of standing stone sites were constructed.
3100 BCE: Neolithic Village of Skara Brae inhabited, stone walls built.
3000 BCE: The Standing Stones of Stenness erected south of Ness of Brodgar.
3000 BCE - 2800 BCE: The Neolithic chambered cairn known as Maeshowe constructed and in use.
3000 BCE: Tomb of the Eagles created in Scotland.
3000 BCE - 2800 BCE: Maeshowe Passage Grave completed in Scotland.
2600 BCE: Structure Eight (so called) erected at Barnhouse Settlement after village abandoned.
2600 BCE: Barnhouse Settlement abandoned and partially destroyed by inhabitants.
2600 BCE: The building now known as Structure Eight raised in Barnhouse Settlement after village is abandoned.
2500 BCE - 2000 BCE: Ring of Brodgar constructed on Orkney, north of Ness of Brodgar.
2500 BCE: Migration of the so-called Beaker People to Scotland.
2500 BCE: Village of Skara Brae is abandoned for unknown reasons.
2500 BCE - 2000 BCE: The Balnuaran of Clava (Clava Cairns) is built.
2000 BCE - 1400 BCE: Early Bronze Age in Scotland.
1400 BCE - 900 BCE: Middle Bronze Age in Scotland.
900 BCE - 400 BCE: Late Bronze Age in Scotland.
900 BCE: Celtic Migration begins in Europe with many Celts landing in Scotland.
700 BCE: Iron Age begins in Scotland.
500 BCE: Homes and forts in Scotland reflect Celtic influence.
76 CE - 138 CE: Life of Roman emperor Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus).
79 CE: Julius Agricola, Governor of Roman Britain, invades Scotland.
83 CE: The Battle of Mons Graupius in which Agricola defeats Calgacus of the Picts.
83 CE: Battle of Mons Graupius in Scotland.
208 CE: Roman Emperor Severus invades Scotland.
212 CE: Rome withdraws from region of Scotland.
300 CE: Founding of the Kingdom of Dal Riada in Scotland.
367 CE: Picts, Scots, Saxons, and Franks attack the Roman Empire.
397 CE: Saint Ninian brings Christianity to Scotland, rise of literacy and written history.
500 CE: Kingdom of Dal Riada conquers the region of Scotland.
574 CE - 608 CE: Reign of King Aedan mac Gabrain of Dal Riada, height of kingdom's prosperity.
770 CE: Last recorded use of Clava Cairns site in antiquity.
843 CE - 858 CE: Kenneth MacAlpin unites the Picts with the Scots to become the first king of Scotland.
1828 CE: First excavations begun at Clava Cairns.
1828 CE - 1990 CE: Ongoing excavations at Clava Cairns.
1850 CE: Storm uncovers the buried Neolithic village of Skara Brae
1850 CE - 1913 CE: Excavations are on-going at the Skara Brae site.
1850 CE: Buried Neolithic Age village of Skara Brae uncovered by storm.
1913 CE: Skara Brae site is plundered by unknown parties.
1924 CE: Skara Brae is placed under guardianship of H.M. Commissioners of Works.
1924 CE: A storm damages the exposed village of Skara Brae and destroys one house.
1927 CE: Professional excavation and preservation efforts begin at Skara Brae under V. G. Childe and J.W. Paterson.
1999 CE: Skara Brae declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.