687 BCE - 652 BCE: King Gyges rules Lydia and expands its borders. Sardis becomes Lydian capital.
609 BCE - 560 BCE: Reign of Alyattes of Lydia. Minting of first coins made from electrum.
560 BCE - 547 BCE: Reign of Croesus of Lydia.
547 BCE - 546 BCE: Cyrus II of Persia conquers Lydia.
499 BCE - 494 BCE: Ionian cities rebel against Persian rule.
498 BCE: Ionians and Greek allies invade and burn Sardis (capital of Lydia).
334 BCE: Alexander invades the Persian empire.
334 BCE: Sardis surrenders to Alexander the Great.
133 BCE: Sardis comes under Roman rule.
17 BCE: An earthquake affects Sardis.
616 CE: Sardis' civc life comes to an end. A Persian army penetrates the Roman defensive lines that had been deployed in eastern Anatolia. Soon after, part of that region falls to the Persians, including Sardis.