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1500 BCE - 1100 BCE: The Rig Veda written, mentioning the god Rudra (Shiva) for the first time.
700 BCE: Indian scholars codify and reinterpret Aryan beliefs to create the Upanishads texts forming the basis of Hinduism.
700 BCE: Development of the Charvaka school of philosophy in India.
610 BCE - 546 BCE: Life time of Anaximander.
599 BCE - 527 BCE: Traditional dating of the life of Vardhamana, according to Jain tradition.
585 BCE: Time in which Thales of Miletus lived.
585 BCE - 528 BCE: Time in which Anaximenes of Miletus lived.
570 BCE - 478 BCE: Life of Xenophanes.
500 BCE - 475 BCE: Approximate time of Heraclitus' life.
500 BCE: Life of the Chinese Sophist/Philosopher Teng Shih (probable date of death 522 or 502 BCE).
500 BCE: Probable life of the Chinese philosopher Lao-Tzu, founder of Taoism and author of the Tao-Te-Ching.
500 BCE: Probable life of Sun-Tzu, Military Strategist, author of The Art of War.
492 BCE - 432 BCE: Life of the philosopher Empidocles of Agrigento.
490 BCE - 410 BCE: The life of Siddhartha Gautama according to modern scholar consensus.
485 BCE - 415 BCE: Life time of Protagoras of Abdera.
470 BCE - 391 BCE: Life of the Chinese pacifist philosopher Mo Ti, founder of Mohism.
469 BCE - 399 BCE: Life of Socrates.
460 BCE - 370 BCE: Life of Democritus.
450 BCE - 370 BCE: Life of Antisthenes, found of the Cynic school of philosophy.
440 BCE - 360 BCE: Life of Chinese Hedonist Philosopher Yang Zhu.
430 BCE - 354 BCE: Life of Xenophon of Athens.
427 BCE - 347 BCE: Life of Plato.
427 BCE: Plato is born at Athens, Greece.
407 BCE: Plato meets Socrates, abandons aspiration to be playwright.
404 BCE - 323 BCE: Life of Greek philosopher Diogenes of Sinope.
403 BCE: Plato turns away from politics toward philosophy.
399 BCE: Trial and death of the philosopher Socrates, who taught in the court of the Agora.
384 BCE - 322 BCE: Life of Aristotle.
380 BCE: Plato founds his Academy outside of Athens.
372 BCE - 289 BCE: Life of the Confucian philosopher Mencius (Mang-Tze).
367 BCE: Plato's second trip to Syracuse.
343 BCE: King Philip II of Macedon summons Aristotle to tutor his young son Alexander (later 'The Great').
336 BCE - 265 BCE: Life of the philosopher Zeno of Citium.
314 BCE: Zeno of Citium is shipwrecked and stranded in Athens.
213 BCE: The Burning of the Books and the Burying of Philosophers Period in China.
1 CE - 100 CE: The Mahayana movement begins in India with its belief in bodhisattva - saintly souls who helped the living.
89 CE: Banished from Rome by Domitian with the other philosophers, Epictetus travels to Nicopolis and sets up a school there.
108 CE: The historian Arrian studies with Epictetus, records his teachings.
121 CE - 180 CE: Life of Marcus Aurelius.
380 CE - 418 CE: Life time of Paulus Orosius.
500 CE - 600 CE: In India the Tantric expands the number of deities to include helpful demons, contactable through ritual.
524 CE - 525 CE: Boethius writes The Consolation of Philosophy while imprisoned by Theodoric in Pavia.