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6500 BCE: First evidence of the surgical procedure of trephination found in France.
5000 BCE: Evidence of the surgical procedure of trephination found in China.
2667 BCE - 2648 BCE: Imhotep in Egypt writes medical texts describing diagnosis and treatment of 200 diseases.
1800 BCE: The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus deals with women's health and contraception.
1500 BCE: Saffron used as medicine on the Aegaean island of Thera.
1050 BCE: Babylonian "Diagnostic Handbook" is written by the physician Esagil-kin-apli of Borsippa.
950 BCE - 1400 BCE: Evidence of the surgical procedure of trephination found in Mesoamerica.
800 BCE - 700 BCE: Homer's Iliad is composed with mention of medical treatment in Greek warfare.
700 BCE: First Greek medical school opens in Cnidus.
600 BCE: Charaka and Sushruta found two schools of Ayurveda.
460 BCE - 377 BCE: Traditional dates for the life of Hippocrates in Greece, the "father of medicine" and inventor of the Hippocratic Oath for physicians.
431 BCE: The temple to Apollo Medicus is built in Rome.
325 BCE - 280 BCE: Life of Herophilus of Chalcedon, who studied the brain and the nervous system, attributing intelligence to the brain.
292 BCE: The Romans adopt the Greek god of medicine Asclepius by stealing his sacred snake from Epidaurus and setting up a temple on the Tiber Island.
219 BCE: The physician Archagathus of Sparta arrives in Rome.
1 CE - 50 CE: Life of Roman physician Scribonius Largus.
43 CE: The physician Scribonius Largus travels to Britain with the entourage of Claudius.
60 CE - 130 CE: Life of the physician Soranus of Ephesos.
129 CE - 216 CE: Life of the physician Galen of Pergamon.
830 CE - 870 CE: Hunayn ibn Ishaq translates Galen's works into Arabic.
1030 CE: Avicenna writes the Book of Healing and the Canon of Medicine, based on earlier works.