2143 BCE - 2124 BCE: Gudea, ruler of Lagash mentions "Mada" as a land where grain is grown.
836 BCE: First Assyrian records of the Medes: Shalmaneser III receives tribute from the "Amadi".
728 BCE - 675 BCE: Deioces is ruler of the Medes.
675 BCE - 653 BCE: Phraortes is ruler of the Medes.
653 BCE - 625 BCE: Madius the Scythian is ruler of the Medes.
625 BCE - 585 BCE: Cyaxares is ruler of the Medes.
585 BCE - 549 BCE: Astyages is ruler of the Medes.
560 BCE: The oracles of Delphi and Thebes both tell King Croesus of Lydia that if he attacks the Medes, he will destroy a great empire. Seeing this as a good omen, he goes to war, loses, and the Lydian Empire is destroyed.
553 BCE: Cyrus the Great successfully rebels against the Medes and establishes the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.