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800 BCE: Beginning of the Etruscan civilization in Italy.
753 BCE: The legendary founding date of Rome.
750 BCE - 510 BCE: The (semi-mythological) seven kings of Rome: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tulus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, Tarquinius Superbus.
740 BCE - 433 BCE: Greek poleis or city-states establish colonies in Magna Graecia.
509 BCE: Foundation of the Roman Republic.
498 BCE - 493 BCE: Rome defeats the Latins.
400 BCE: Celts enter Italy and settle in the Po Valley. Etruscan power declines.
398 BCE - 380 BCE: Plato travels in Egypt, Cyrene, Italy, Syracuse and Sicily.
396 BCE: Roman expansion begins with the capture of Veii from the Etruscans.
391 BCE: Senones besiege Clusium, an Etruscan city.
343 BCE - 341 BCE: First Samnite War (Rome vs. Samnites).
340 BCE - 338 BCE: Latin War, victory for Rome.
326 BCE - 304 BCE: Second Samnite War.
285 BCE - 282 BCE: Rome defeats the Celts in Italy. Rome's dominance in central Italy is secured.
282 BCE - 272 BCE: Roman war against Tarentum. Rome conquers Tarentum. Rome’s dominance in lower Italy is secured.
223 BCE: Romans successfully campaign against Celtic tribes of Cisalpine Gaul.
177 BCE: The Roman colony of Luna founded in northern Italy, as a millitary stronghold.
89 BCE: All poleis or city-states in Magna Graecia come under Roman control.
167 CE: Marcomanni sack Aquileia.
488 CE - 493 CE: Theodoric the Great of the Ostrogoths conquers Italy.
535 CE: Belisarius' first campaign against the Ostrogoths in Italy.
535 CE - 554 CE: The Gothic War launched by Emperor Justinian I, aimed at reconquering Italy from the Goths.
536 CE - 562 CE: The Byzantine Empire conquers Italy.
568 CE - 582 CE: Lombards invade northern Italy.