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753 BCE: The legendary founding date of Rome.
750 BCE - 510 BCE: The (semi-mythological) seven kings of Rome: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tulus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, Tarquinius Superbus.
620 BCE: Posible founding date for Ostia, the port of Rome.
599 BCE - 500 BCE: The traditional date when the Circus Maximus of Rome is first laid out.
509 BCE: Foundation of the Roman Republic.
484 BCE: The first temple of Castor & Pollux is dedicated in Rome by Aulus Postumius following his victory over the Latins at the Battle of Lake Regillus.
400 BCE: Roman tale of mythical twins Romulus and Remus first recorded.
390 BCE: Gauls sack Rome.
387 BCE: "Gallic Catastrophe:" Duke Brennus of the Celts defeats the Romans at Allia, and subsequently sacks Rome. Celts move off after ransom is paid.
380 BCE: Rebuilding of Rome. Strong walls around the seven hills.
343 BCE - 341 BCE: First Samnite War (Rome vs. Samnites).
340 BCE - 338 BCE: Latin War, victory for Rome.
326 BCE - 304 BCE: Second Samnite War.
321 BCE: The Via Appia, a famous Roman road, is constructed.
292 BCE: The Romans adopt the Greek god of medicine Asclepius by stealing his sacred snake from Epidaurus and setting up a temple on the Tiber Island.
218 BCE - 201 BCE: Second Punic War. Hannibal leads 50,000 foot soldiers, 9000 cavalry, and 37 war elephants over the Pyrennees and the Alps.
213 BCE - 211 BCE: Roman commander Marcus Claudius Marcellus lays seige to and ultimately sacks Syracuse.
196 BCE: The earliest known Triumphal Arches are built in Rome by L.Sertinius.
168 BCE: Rome defeats Macedon at Battle of Pydna.
166 BCE: Rome puts Delos under the jurisdiction of Athens and makes the island a free port.
146 BCE: First Roman all-marble building is constructed, the temple of Jupiter Stater in Rome.
121 BCE: Gallia Narbonensis becomes a Roman province.
107 BCE - 100 BCE: Gaius Marius reforms the Roman army.
100 BCE - 44 BCE: Life of Gaius Julius Caesar, founder of the Roman Empire.
89 BCE: All poleis or city-states in Magna Graecia come under Roman control.
80 BCE: Sulla moves the Olympic Games to Rome for a single Olympiad.
70 BCE: Pompey and Crassus are made consuls.
59 BCE - 17 CE: Life of Livy.
58 BCE - 51 BCE: Julius Caesar’s conquest of Gaul.
55 BCE - 54 BCE: Julius Caesar's expeditions in Britain.
55 BCE: Pompey the Great builds the first permanent stone theatre in Rome.
54 BCE - 29 BCE: Forum of Caesar constructed in Rome by Julius Caesar as another area to conduct judicial business. It is the best surviving of his monuments.
44 BCE: Julius Caesar is murdered.
43 BCE - 36 BCE: Second Roman Triumvirate: Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus (official approvement by Senate). Mass proscriptions including Cicero.
43 BCE - 17 CE: Life of Ovid.
36 BCE: Agrippa defeats the naval fleet of Sextus Pompey in the battle of Naulochos.
31 BCE: Greece absorbed into Roman Empire.
27 BCE: The first Pantheon is built in Rome and dedicated by Marcus Agrippa.
20 BCE: The Campus Martius baths in Rome are constructed and donated to the people by Agrippa.
20 BCE: Military engineer and architect Vitruvius publishes his "De Architectura".
19 BCE: Arch of Augustus built in Rome to commemorate victory over the Parthians.
13 BCE: Official inauguration of the Theatre of Marcellus in Rome.
2 BCE: The Temple of Mars Ultor in Rome is inaugurated by Augustus.
1 CE - 100 CE: Mithraism spreads in the Roman empire.
42 CE - 62 CE: St. Paul goes on missionary journeys across Asia Minor, Greece, and Rome.
50 CE - 60 CE: Establishment of various Christian communities in the Eastern Mediterranean, Greece, Egypt, and at least the city of Rome.
60 CE - 61 CE: Boudicca's Revolt in Britain.
64 CE: Unofficial persecution of Christians in Rome.
64 CE: The great fire in Rome.
64 CE: The Roman port of Ostia reaches its maximum size becoming a major urban centre.
64 CE: Fire destroys the Circus Maximus in Rome.
65 CE: The Baths of Nero are built in Rome.
65 CE: The Circus Maximus in Rome is rebuilt and its capacity increased to 250,000.
66 CE - 73 CE: The Jewish Revolt against Rome.
68 CE - 69 CE: Year of the Four Emperors: Civil war in Rome.
70 CE: The city of Jerusalem captured by Rome; the Second Temple destroyed.
71 CE: Titus returns to Rome from Jewish War.
72 CE: Vespasian begins construction of the Colosseum in Rome.
76 CE - 138 CE: Life of Roman emperor Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus).
79 CE: Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in southern Italy burying the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum in volcanic ash.
80 CE: The Colosseum in Rome is officially opened by Titus with a 100 day gladiator spectacular.
80 CE: The first Pantheon in Rome is destroyed by fire.
81 CE - 96 CE: Construction is finally completed on the Colosseum of Rome in the reign of Domitian.
83 CE: Battle of Mons Graupius in Scotland.
96 CE: Death of Roman Emperor Domitian.
110 CE: First documented martydom in the Colosseum of Rome, that of St. Ignatius of Antioch.
110 CE: The second Pantheon building in Rome is hit by lightning and destroyed by fire.
113 CE: Trajan’s column is constructed in Rome which commemorates the emperor's campaigns in Dacia.
125 CE: The Pantheon is completed in Rome.
138 CE - 161 CE: Reign of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.
180 CE: The Column of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina is erected in Rome. It depicts in relief sculpture the emperors' campaigns across the Danube.
192 CE: Emperor Commodus is murdered, civil war ensues (until 197 CE).
202 CE: The Pantheon in Rome is repaired by Septimius Severus and Caracalla.
227 CE: The Baths of Nero in Rome are extensively renovated and expanded by Alexander Severus and renamed Thermae Alexandrinae.
235 CE: The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are completed.
249 CE - 251 CE: Reign of Roman Emperor Decius.
272 CE: Possible year of Emperor Constantine's birth.
286 CE: Naval commander Carausius (Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Valerius Carausius) declares himself emperor in Britain and Northern Gaul.
293 CE: Emperor Carausius assassinated by Allectus.
308 CE: Constantine I named "caesar" of the west.
312 CE: Constantine defeats Maxentius at Milvian Bridge.
337 CE: Death of Emperor Constantine I.
402 CE: Ravenna becomes the capital of the Western Roman empire.
408 CE: Alaric I the Visigoth besieges Rome. As ransom, Rome pays 5,000 pounds of gold, 30,000 pounds of silver, 4,000 silken tunics, 3,000 hides dyed scarlet, and 3,000 pounds of pepper.
410 CE: Alaric of the Visigoths sacks Rome.
410 CE: Alaric sacks Rome.
422 CE: The Colosseum of Rome is damaged by earthquake.
455 CE: Vandals sack Rome.
536 CE: Rome falls to Belisarius.
549 CE: The last official chariot race is held in Rome's Circus Maximus.
608 CE: The Pantheon in Rome is converted into a Christian church.
730 CE: First reference to the Flavian Amphitheatre as the Colosseum by the Venerable Bede.