Visual Timeline: Ptolemy XIII
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50 BCE: Cleopatra accepts her brother Ptolemy XIII as co-ruler.
49 BCE: Sole rule of Ptolemy XIII, recognized by both Gaius Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, and his opponent, Pompey the Great.
48 BCE: Caesar defeats Pompey (battle of Pharsalus); Pompey flees to Egypt and is killed by courtiers of Ptolemy XIII.
48 BCE: Caesar arrives in Egypt and orders Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII to disband their armies, but instead, war breaks out.
47 BCE: Ptolemy XIII is killed in action.