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10000 BCE: Beginnings of agriculture in the Middle East.
9600 BCE: End of the last Ice Age.
9000 BCE: Cultivation of wild cereals in the Fertile Crescent.
8000 BCE: Ovens in use in the Near East are applied to pottery production.
6000 BCE: Nineveh is first settled.
5400 BCE: The City of Eridu is founded.
5000 BCE: Irrigation and agriculture begin in earnest in Mesopotamia.
5000 BCE: Godin Tepe settled
5000 BCE - 1750 BCE: Sumerian civilization in the Tigris-Euphrates valley.
5000 BCE: Sumer inhabited by Ubaid people.
5000 BCE - 4100 BCE: The Ubaid Period in Sumer.
4500 BCE: The Sumerians built their first temple.
4500 BCE: The City of Uruk founded.
4100 BCE - 2900 BCE: Uruk Period in Mesopotamia. First cities.
4100 BCE - 2900 BCE: Uruk Period in Sumer.
4000 BCE: First settlement of Ur.
3600 BCE: Invention of writing in Sumer at Uruk.
3400 BCE: Priests become the rulers of Mesopotamian cities.
2900 BCE - 2334 BCE: The Early Dynastic Period in Sumer.
2500 BCE: First Dynasty of Lagash under King Eannutum is first empire in Mesopotamia.
2400 BCE: Earliest Sumerian sources to mention migrating Amorites in Mesopotamia.
2350 BCE: First code of laws by Urukagina, king of Lagash.
2334 BCE - 2279 BCE: Sargon of Akkad (the Great) reigns over Mesopotamia and thus creates the world's first empire.
2334 BCE - 2218 BCE: The Akkadian Empire rules Sumer.
2330 BCE: Sargon of Akkad sacks Ur.
2218 BCE - 2047 BCE: The Gutian Period in Sumer.
2150 BCE - 1400 BCE: The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh written on clay tablets.
2100 BCE: First ziggurats in Ur, Eridu, Uruk, and Nippur.
2100 BCE: The Reign of Utu-Hegal at Uruk in Sumer and creation of Sumerian King List.
2083 BCE - 2050 BCE: The Dark Age of Mesopotamia.
2055 BCE - 2047 BCE: Utu Hegel's reign over Sumerian and Akkadian cities.
2050 BCE: The Code of Ur-Nammu (the earliest known code of laws) is written.
2047 BCE - 1750 BCE: Third dynasty of Ur.
2047 BCE - 2030 BCE: Ur-Nammu's reign over Sumer.
2047 BCE - 1750 BCE: The Ur III Period in Sumer, known as the Sumerian Renaissance.
2038 BCE: King Shulgi of Ur builds his great wall in Sumer.
2000 BCE: Domesticated horses introduced in Mesopotamia.
2000 BCE - 1600 BCE: Amorite period in Mesopotamia.
1984 BCE: Amorite dynasty established in Babylon.
1900 BCE: Ashur, capial of Assyria, is founded.
1900 BCE - 1400 BCE: Trade flourishes between Mesopotamia and other regions.
1795 BCE - 1750 BCE: Reign of Hammurabi, king of Babylon.
1792 BCE: King Hammurabi builds walls of Babylon.
1787 BCE: Hammurabi of Babylon conquers Uruk and Isin.
1772 BCE: The Code of Hammurabi: One of the earliest codes of law in the world.
1761 BCE: Hammurabi of Babylon destroys the city of Mari.
1755 BCE: Hammurabi rules the whole of Mesopotamia from Babylon.
1750 BCE: Elam conquers Ur.
1750 BCE: Elamite invasion and Amorite migration ends the Sumerian civilization.
1680 BCE: Hurrians occupy Assyria.
1595 BCE: King Mursilis of the Hittites sacks Babylon. Begin of Babylonian "dark ages."
1595 BCE: Hittites under Mursilli I sack Babylon, ending Amorite rule.
1550 BCE: Kingdom of Mittani is founded.
1500 BCE: Egyptian empire extends to the Euphrates.
1500 BCE: Rise of the kingdom of Mitanni.
1472 BCE: Mittani annexes Assyria.
1400 BCE: Assyria regains its independence.
1350 BCE - 1250 BCE: The Hittite empire is at its peak.
1350 BCE: Peak of Mitanni power, it is considered a great nation.
1344 BCE - 1322 BCE: King Suppiluliumas I of the Hittites sacks the Mitanni capital Washukanni and installs Artatama II as vassal king.
1321 BCE: Western Mittani is conquered by the Hittites.
1285 BCE: Peak of Hittite power.
1244 BCE - 1208 BCE: Reign of Tukulti-Ninurta I, King of Assyria.
1220 BCE: Babylon is under Assyrian control.
1080 BCE: Aramaeans invade Mesopotamia.
1000 BCE: Chaldeans occupy Ur.
853 BCE: Babylonian kings depend on Assyrian military support.
734 BCE: Babylon is captured by Chaldeans.
729 BCE: Babylon is occupied by Assyrians.
722 BCE - 705 BCE: Peak of the Assyrian empire under the reign of Sargon II.
612 BCE: Downfall of the Assyrian empire.
605 BCE - 562 BCE: Nebuchadnezzar II is king of Babylon.
539 BCE: Fall of Babylon, conquered by Cyrus of Persia. Return of the Jews.
500 BCE - 330 BCE: The Achaemenid Empire rules in Mesopotamia, Persian Royal Road in use.
485 BCE: Babylon is destroyed by Xerxes, King of Persia.
323 BCE - 31 BCE: The Hellenistic Age.Greek thought and culture infuses with indigenous people.
312 BCE: Seleucos conquers Babylon and founds the Seleucid dynasty.
304 BCE - 64 BCE: Rule of the Seleucids in Mesopotamia.
129 BCE: Parthians conquer Mesopotamia. The Silk Road to China is now controlled by the Parthians.
100 BCE: Ctesiphon becomes Parthian capital.
115 CE - 117 CE: Rome occupies Mesopotamia.
224 CE: Sasanians overthrow the Parthians.
234 CE: Emperor Maximinus Thrax is governor of Mesopotamia.
637 CE: Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.