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330 BCE - 64 BCE: Hellenistic Period in Byblos.
323 BCE: Death of Alexander the Great, beginning of The Hellenistic Period / The Hellenistic World.
312 BCE: Seleucos conquers Babylon and founds the Seleucid dynasty.
310 BCE: Assassination of Roxanne and Alexander IV, wife and son of Alexander the Great.
306 BCE: Epicurus buys a garden in Athens in which he begins to teach Epicureanism.
304 BCE - 64 BCE: Rule of the Seleucids in Mesopotamia.
301 BCE - 320 BCE: Doric temple to Athena and fortifications of Lysimachos built at Troy.
287 BCE - 212 BCE: Life of Archimedes, physician, mathematician and engineer.
285 BCE - 282 BCE: Rome defeats the Celts in Italy. Rome's dominance in central Italy is secured.
279 BCE: Celts invade Thrace and Anatolia.
272 BCE: Death of Pyrrhus of Epeiros in a street battle in Argos.
270 BCE: Aristarchus of Samos proposes a heliocentric world view.
262 BCE: Eumenes rebels and wins against the Seleucid Antiochos I. Beginning of the Pergamon Empire.
250 BCE: Former satrap Diodotos rebels against Seleucid king Antiochos I, creating the Greco-Bactrian kingdom.
218 BCE - 201 BCE: Second Punic War. Hannibal leads 50,000 foot soldiers, 9000 cavalry, and 37 war elephants over the Pyrennees and the Alps.
190 BCE: First appearance of multiple Euthydemid kings at the same time. Beginning of the Indo-Greek kingdoms.
189 BCE: The treaty of Apameea Kibotos. Peace and alliance is established between the Seleucid Kingdom and Rome joined by her allies, such as Pergamon and Rhodes. The Seleucids have to evacuate all the land and the cities from Asia Minor and to pay a huge war indemnity.
172 BCE - 168 BCE: Third Macedonian War: Perseus of Macedon challenges Rome and is defeated.
147 BCE - 139 BCE: The Lusitanian commander Viriatus bleeds Roman armies.
146 BCE: End of the Third Punic War. Carthage is destroyed and its lands become the Roman province Africa.
133 BCE: Attalus III, the last king of Pergamon, bequeathes the whole of Pergamon to Rome.
129 BCE: Parthians conquer Mesopotamia. The Silk Road to China is now controlled by the Parthians.
88 BCE - 63 BCE: Mithridatic Wars between Mithridates VI and Roman Republic .
83 BCE: Tigranes II invades and destroys the Seleucid Empire.
58 BCE - 51 BCE: Julius Caesar’s conquest of Gaul.
37 BCE - 4 BCE: Herod the Great is installed as King of Judaea. Rebuilding of the Temple of Jerusalem.
32 BCE - 31 BCE: Battle of Actium: Octavian (the later Emperor Augustus) defeats Cleopatra of Egypt.
30 BCE - 18 BCE: Roman poet Virgil writes his Aeneid.