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507 BCE: Cleisthenes establishes new form of government, Democracy, in Athens.
490 BCE: A combined force of Greek hoplites defeat the Persians at Marathon.
482 BCE: Themistocles persuades the Athenians to build a fleet, which saves them at Salamis and becomes their source of power.
480 BCE: Battle of Thermopylae. 300 Spartans under King Leonidas and other Greek allies hold back the Persians led by Xerxes I for three days but are defeated.
480 BCE: The indecisive battle of Artemision between the Greek and Persian fleets of Xerxes I. The Greeks withdraw to Salamis.
480 BCE: Battle of Salamis where the Greek naval fleet defeats the invading armada of Xerxes I of Persia.
479 BCE: Xerxes' Persian forces are defeated by Greek forces at Plataea effectively ending Persia's imperial ambitions in Greece.
469 BCE - 399 BCE: Life of Socrates.
458 BCE: The Playwright Aeschylus publishes his Oresteia.
450 BCE: Zeno of Elea at work on his Paradoxes.
448 BCE: The Peace of Callias with Persia.
447 BCE - 432 BCE: The construction of the Parthenon in Athens by the architects Iktinos and Kallikrates under the direction of Pheidias.
445 BCE: Leucippus of Abdera, the philosopher, conceives of the atomic universe. His pupil is Democritus.
440 BCE: The sophist Protagoras of Abdera, claiming 'man is the measure of all things', visits Athens.
431 BCE: The playwright Euripedes publishes his Medea.
431 BCE - 404 BCE: The 2nd Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta (the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League) which involved all of Greece.
430 BCE: The plague decimates Athens.
429 BCE: The death of Pericles from the plague.
427 BCE: Plato is born at Athens, Greece.
404 BCE: End of the Peloponnesian war, Athens defeated By Sparta at Aigospotamoi, Rule of the Thirty Tyrants in Athens.
403 BCE: Restoration of the democracy in Athens, death of the tyrant Critias.
401 BCE: Retreat from Persia of Xenophon and the ten thousand mercenaries.
399 BCE: Trial and death of the philosopher Socrates, who taught in the court of the Agora.
384 BCE: Birth of the philosopher Aristotle, tutor to Alexander the Great, in Stagira (Greece).
380 BCE: Plato founds his Academy outside of Athens.
356 BCE - 323 BCE: Life of Alexander the Great.
338 BCE: The Battle of Charonea gives Athens to the Macedonian victors. Agora takes on Macedonian characteristics.
336 BCE - 323 BCE: Reign of Alexander the Great.
334 BCE - 323 BCE: Campaigns of Alexander the Great.
330 BCE - 64 BCE: Hellenistic Period in Byblos.
323 BCE: Death of Alexander the Great, beginning of The Hellenistic Period / The Hellenistic World.
305 BCE - 30 BCE: Rule of the Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt.