Visual Timeline: Cleopatra VII

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70 BCE 60 BCE 50 BCE 40 BCE 30 BCE  
69 BCE - 30 BCE: Life of Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
51 BCE - 30 BCE: 300 Celts serve as elite bodyguards for Cleopatra VII during her reign.
51 BCE: Death of Cleopatra's father, Ptolemy XII Auletes.
50 BCE: Cleopatra accepts her brother Ptolemy XIII as co-ruler.
49 BCE: Sole rule of Ptolemy XIII, recognized by both Gaius Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, and his opponent, Pompey the Great.
48 BCE: Cleopatra tries to return, but her army is defeated near Pelusium.
48 BCE: Caesar defeats Pompey (battle of Pharsalus); Pompey flees to Egypt and is killed by courtiers of Ptolemy XIII.
48 BCE: Caesar arrives in Egypt and orders Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII to disband their armies, but instead, war breaks out.
47 BCE: Cleopatra VII is sole ruler of Egypt; she presents herself as the goddess Isis.
47 BCE: Ptolemy XIII is killed in action.
47 BCE: Birth of Cleopatra's son, named Caesarion; Caesar is said to be the father.
46 BCE: Ptolemy XIV is recognized as Cleopatra's co-ruler again; the two are in Rome.
44 BCE: Julius Caesar is killed; Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV return to Egypt, where Ptolemy is soon killed and Caesarion recognized as king; first of a series of bad harvests.
43 BCE: Cleopatra gains control of Cyprus; she supports the faction of Caesar, led by the Second Triumvirate (Marc Antony, Octavian, Lepidus), in its war against the assassins, led by Brutus and Cassius.
41 BCE: Cleopatra meets Marc Antony in Tarsus. The Roman needs the Egyptian queen in his war against the Parthian Empire, and returns the rule of old Ptolemaic territories to her.
38 BCE: Parts of Cilicia and Chalcis are given to Cleopatra; later, she is allowed to govern, as vassal, parts of Phoenicia, Judaea (cordial relations with king Herod), Cyrenaica, and Crete.
32 BCE - 31 BCE: Battle of Actium: Octavian (the later Emperor Augustus) defeats Cleopatra of Egypt.
31 BCE: Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra at the sea battle of Actium (Greece). Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide.
31 BCE: Marc Antony and Cleopatra move to Greece, where they are isolated by Octavian's admiral Agrippa; although they are able to win a tactical victory and break out of their isolated position at Actium, the campaign is a distaster and Octavian is able to achieve control of the east.
31 BCE: Cleopatra flees to Alexandria and opens negotiations with Octavian; her purpose is to save her children and keep the Ptolemaic kingdom intact.
31 BCE: The Battle of Actium in which Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra.
30 BCE: 12 August 30: After Octavian has declined to negotiate, Cleopatra reportedly commits suicide; Marc Antony does the same. Their children survive, but Caesarion is killed.
70 BCE 60 BCE 50 BCE 40 BCE