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285 CE: The Roman empire is split into the Western and Eastern Roman empires.
313 CE: Roman emperor Constantine I tolerates Christianity.
330 CE: Constantinople is founded on the site of old Byzantium as “the new Rome.”
361 CE: Roman emperor Julian attempts to revive Paganism.
376 CE: The Visigoths are fleeing the Huns, entering the Eastern Roman Empire.
378 CE: The Goths defeat Emperor Valens is near Adrianople.
391 CE: Emperor Theodosius closes pagan temples.
395 CE - 637 CE: Byblos is a colony of the Byzantine Empire (formerly known as the Eastern Roman Empire).
469 CE: The Byzantine Empire builds the Anastasian Wall.
525 CE: Justinian I marries Theodora, a woman from a poor background and possibly a courtesan.
527 CE - 565 CE: Reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I.
527 CE - 646 CE: The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.
531 CE - 534 CE: Byzantine forces engaged in a series of military campaigns against the Slavs and other groups.
533 CE: Belisarius defeats the Persians to the east of the Byzantine Empire and the Vandals of Africa.
533 CE - 534 CE: The Vandal War launched by Emperor Justinian I, aimed a reconquering Africa from the Vandals.
534 CE: Justinian of the Byzantine Empire conquers the Vandal kingdom in Africa.
535 CE: Belisarius' first campaign against the Ostrogoths in Italy.
536 CE - 562 CE: The Byzantine Empire conquers Italy.
536 CE: Rome falls to Belisarius.
545 CE: Belisarius' second campaign against the Ostrogoths in Italy.
550 CE: The Slavs advance towards Thessalonica, entering the region of the Hebrus River and the Thracian coast. Thessalonica is saved by the Roman army.
554 CE: Byzantine Empire conquers southern Iberia.
556 CE - 572 CE: Samaritan revolt beginning in Caesarea Maritima, perhaps with Jewish support. A number of churches are destroyed and there is a significant loss of life.
580 CE: The Slavs and the Avars overwhelm Greece, Thrace and Thessaly.
585 CE: The Slavs march on to Constantinople, they are driven off by the Roman defence. .
607 CE - 627 CE: East Rome defeats Sasanian Persia.
610 CE - 622 CE: Heraclius restructures the Eastern Roman empire into the Byzantine empire.
626 CE: A colaition of Slavs, Avars and Bulgars lay siege to Constantinople, the Romans manage to repel the attack. .
628 CE: Byzantine Empire re-takes Alexandria, Egypt, from the Persians.
637 CE: Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.