To navigate the timeline, click and drag it with your mouse, or click on the timeline overview on the bottom.
553 BCE: Cyrus the Great successfully rebels against the Medes and establishes the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
547 BCE - 546 BCE: Cyrus II of Persia conquers Lydia.
547 BCE: Phrygia becomes a Satrapy of the Persian empire.
539 BCE: Fall of Babylon, conquered by Cyrus of Persia. Return of the Jews.
539 BCE: Cyrus the Great conquers Babylon; the Fertile Crescent is controlled by the Achaemenid Empire (The First Persian Empire).
530 BCE - 522 BCE: Reign of Cambyses II of Persia.
525 BCE - 404 BCE: Persia conquers Egypt.
521 BCE: Darius I (Darius the Great) succeeds to the throne of Persia after the death of Cambyses.
520 BCE: Darius I of Persia fights the Scythians (not very successfully).
515 BCE: Darius I moves the capital of Persia from Pasargadae to Persepolis.
513 BCE - 512 BCE: Darius I of Persia Campaigns against Scythians into European Scythia, past the Danube River, Scythians refuse to fight and Darius is forced to abandon the campaign due to lack of provisions.
499 BCE - 494 BCE: Ionian cities rebel against Persian rule.
498 BCE: Ionians and Greek allies invade and burn Sardis (capital of Lydia).
492 BCE: Darius I of Persia invades Greece.
490 BCE: A combined force of Greek hoplites defeat the Persians at Marathon.
486 BCE: Xerxes succeeds to the throne of Persia after the death of Darius I.
485 BCE: Babylon is destroyed by Xerxes, King of Persia.
485 BCE - 465 BCE: Reign of Xerxes I (the Great) of Persia.
480 BCE: Battle of Thermopylae. 300 Spartans under King Leonidas and other Greek allies hold back the Persians led by Xerxes I for three days but are defeated.
480 BCE: Battle of Salamis where the Greek naval fleet defeats the invading armada of Xerxes I of Persia.
478 BCE: Sparta withdraws from alliance against Persia.
478 BCE: Xerxes I builds the Gate of All Nations, the Hall of 100 Columns and the grand Palace of Xerxes.
448 BCE: Ionian cities become independent from Persia.
412 BCE: Sparta allies with Persia.
380 BCE - 330 BCE: Life of Darius III of Persia.
334 BCE: Alexander invades the Persian empire.
333 BCE: Battle of Issus. Alexander is victorious against Darius III of Persia.
331 BCE: Battle of Gaugamela. Alexander calls himself "King of Asia."
330 BCE: Death of Darius III and end of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
330 BCE: Persepolis is burned and looted by Alexander the Great.